END NOTES

[1] Tab A lists acronyms, abbreviations, and a glossary.

[2] Lead Report #15162, Interview of nurse, Fleet Hospital 15, February 24, 1998, p. 1.

[3] Lead Report #15182, Interview of assistant chief, Casualty Receiving Area, Fleet Hospital 15, February 25, 1998, p. 1; and Lead Report #15151, Interview of nurse, Fleet Hospital 15, February 23, 1998, p. 1.

[4] 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, 2d Marine Division, United States Marine Corps, "Command Chronology for the Period 1 Jan 1991 to 28 Feb 1991," March 24, 1991, p. 3, 9.

[5] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 1; Lead Report #18883, Interview of commanding officer, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 14, 2000, p. 3; and Lead Report #21186, Interview of platoon commander, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, September 5, 2000, p. 2.

[6] Mroczkowski, Dennis P., US Marines in the Persian Gulf, 1990-1991: With the 2d Marine Division in Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Washington, DC: US Marine Corps, History and Museums Division, 1993, p. 31.

[7] 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, 2d Marine Division, United States Marine Corps, "Command Chronology for the Period 1 Jan 1991 to 28 Feb 1991," March 24, 1991, p. 11.

[8] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 1; Lead Report #21152, Interview of corporal, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 3, 1998, p. 1; Lead Report #27818, Interview of corporal, Team 2, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, September 20, 2000, p. 1; Lead Report #27817, Interview of team leader, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, September 20, 2000, p. 1; Lead Report #27629, Interview of corporal, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, September 5, 2000, p. 1; and Lead Report #21156, Interview of corporal, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 20, 1998, p. 4.

[9] Manley, Capt Thomas F., Marine Corps Research Center Paper 92-0009, "Marine Corps NBC Defense in Southwest Asia," July 1991, p. 46.

[10] Lead Report #18883, Interview of commanding officer, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 14, 2000, p. 3.

[11] Lead Report #21156, Interview of corporal, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 20, 1998, p. 4.

[12] 2d Reconnaissance Battalion Watch Log entry at 0915 on 14 Feb 1991.

[13] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 1.

[14] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 1; and Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000, p. 5.

[15] 2d Reconnaissance Battalion Watch Log entry at 0915 on 14 Feb 1991.

[16] 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, 2d Marine Division, United States Marine Corps, "Command Chronology for the Period 1 Jan 1991 to 28 Feb 1991," March 24, 1991, p. 7.

[17] 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, 2d Marine Division, United States Marine Corps, "Command Chronology for the Period 1 Jan 1991 to 28 Feb 1991," March 24, 1991, p. 8.

[18] Lead Report #27313, Interview of team leader, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, July 19, 2000, p. 3.

[19] Fleet Hospital 15 Admission log, February 10-March 21, 1991, p. 13, 18.

[20] Lead Report #21152, Interview of corporal, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 3, 1998, p. 1; and Lead Report #21186, Interview of platoon commander, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, May 20, 1998, p. 1.

[21] Lead Report #21156, Interview of corporal, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 30, 2000, p. 5.

[22] Walters, Kenneth R., Sr., Major Kathleen M. Traxler, Michael T. Gilford, Capt Richard D. Arnold, TSgt Richard C. Bonam, and TSgt Kenneth R. Gibson, Gulf War Weather, Scott Air Force Base, IL: USAF Environmental Technical Applications Center, March 1992, p. 3-55-3-64.

[23] Lead Report #26982, Interview of surgeon, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 2, 2000, p. 1.

[24] Lead Report #27083, Interview of senior chief, 1/8 Battalion Aid Station, June 13, 2000, p. 1.

[25] Lead Report #26948, Interview of medical officer, 8th Marine Regiment, May 30, 2000, p. 1; and Lead Report #26914, Interview of station chief, 8th Marine Regimental Aid Station, May 23, 2000, p. 1.

[26] Lead Report #14211, Interview of executive officer, 2d Medical Battalion, 2d Force Service Support Group, January 20, 1998, p. 1; Lead Report #22691, Interview of commanding officer, Company G, 2d Medical Battalion, 2d Force Service Support Group, April 22, 1999, p. 1; Lead Report #22292, Interview of medical officer, Company G, 2d Medical Battalion, 2d Force Service Support Group, March 24, 1999, p. 1; Lead Report #6475, Interview of nurse, 2d Medical Battalion, 2d Force Service Support Group, October 20, 1997, p. 1; and Lead Report #23476, Interview of commanding officer, Company F, 2d Medical Battalion, 2d Force Service Support Group, April 15, 1999, p. 2.

[27] Lead Report #21124, Interview of surgeon, 2d Marine Division, January 19, 1999, p. 1; and Lead Report #21386, Interview of command master chief, 2d Marine Division Surgeon's Office, February 2, 1999, p. 1.

[28] Lead Report #27066, Interview of doctor, Fleet Hospital 15, June 12, 2000, p. 1.

[29] Manley, Capt Thomas F., Marine Corps Research Center Paper 92-0009, "Marine Corps NBC Defense in Southwest Asia," July 1991, p. 11.

[30] Interview with 2d Reconnaissance Battalion NBC officer, March 23, 1991; Interview with 2d Reconnaissance Battalion NBC NCO, March 23, 1991; Interview with 8th Marines NBC officer, March 21, 1991; and Interview with 8th Marines NBC Staff NCO, March 18, 1991.

[31] Lead Report #7174, Interview of NBC officer, 2d Marine Division, October 27, 1997, p. 3.

[32] Lead Report #7350, Interview of NBC Staff NCO, 2d Marine Division, December 16, 1997, p. 2.

[33] Lead Report #7311, Interview of NBC officer, 2d Marine Division, March 18, 1998, p. 2.

[34] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 1.

[35] Lead Report #21186, Interview of platoon commander, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, May 20, 1998, p. 1.

[36] Lead Report #18883, Interview of commanding officer, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 14, 2000,
p. 3.

[37] Lead Report #21185, Interview of commanding officer, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, May 19, 1998, p. 1.

[38] US Army Field Manual 3-100, "NBC Defense, Chemical Warfare, Smoke, and Flame Operations," September 17, 1985, p. B-2.

[39] Lead Report #21911, Interview of assistant chief of staff, G-1, 2d Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic, February 24, 1999, p. 1.

[40] Lead Report #15501, Interview of assistant chief of staff, G-3, 2d Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic, March 18, 1998, p. 1.

[41] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, p. 14, 30, 47.

[42] Sidell, Frederick R., John S. Urbanetti, William S. Smith, and Charles G. Hurst, "Vesicants," "Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare," ed. Frederick R. Sidell, COL Ernest T. Takafuji, and COL David R. Franz, "Part I, Warfare, Weapons, and the Casualty," Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, eds. BG Russ Zajtchuk and COL Ronald F. Bellamy, Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 213.

[43] Lead Report #21152, Interview of corporal, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 3, 1998, p. 1; and Lead Report #21156, Interview of corporal, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 20, 1998, p. 4.

[44] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, p. 30, 38, 45.

[45] Lead Report #15182, Interview of assistant chief, Casualty Receiving Area, Fleet Hospital 15, February 25, 1998, p. 1; and Lead Report #15151, Interview of nurse, Fleet Hospital 15, February 23, 1998, p. 1.

[46] Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000.

[47] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 4-5, web site www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/fm8_285/PART_I/index.htm (as of October 24, 2001).

[48] Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000.

[49] Lead Report #27817, Interview of team leader, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, September 20, 2000, p. 2.

[50] Sidell, Frederick R., John S. Urbanetti, William S. Smith, and Charles G. Hurst, "Vesicants," "Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare," ed. Frederick R. Sidell, COL Ernest T. Takafuji, and COL David R. Franz, "Part I, Warfare, Weapons, and the Casualty," Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, eds. BG Russ Zajtchuk and COL Ronald F. Bellamy, Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 212.

[51] Lead Report #21152, Interview of corporal, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 3, 1998, p. 1.

[52] Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000.

[53] Sidell, Frederick R., John S. Urbanetti, William S. Smith, and Charles G. Hurst, "Vesicants," "Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare," ed. Frederick R. Sidell, COL Ernest T. Takafuji, and COL David R. Franz, "Part I, Warfare, Weapons, and the Casualty," Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, eds. BG Russ Zajtchuk and COL Ronald F. Bellamy, Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 205, 208.

[54] Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000.

[55] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 1.

[56] Lead Report #27015, Interview with chemical warfare expert, June 19, 2000, p. 3.

[57] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 4-5, web site www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/fm8_285/PART_I/index.htm (as of October 24, 2001).

[58] Lead Report #21152, Interview of corporal, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 16, 2000, p. 2.

[59] Sidell, Frederick R., John S. Urbanetti, William S. Smith, and Charles G. Hurst, "Vesicants," "Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare," ed. Frederick R. Sidell, COL Ernest T. Takafuji, and COL David R. Franz, "Part I, Warfare, Weapons, and the Casualty," Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, eds. BG Russ Zajtchuk and COL Ronald F. Bellamy, Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 207, 214.

[60] Lead Report #21151, Interview of platoon commander, 3d Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, August 19, 1998, p. 2.

[61] US Army Training Circular 3-4-1, "Chemical Agent Monitor Employment," December 17, 1991, p. 9-12.

[62] Lead Report #21156, Interview of corporal, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 30, 2000, p. 4.

[63] The Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Bureau of Intelligence and Research (Department of State), National Security Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, military services' intelligence staffs and centers, and several other organizations in the Defense, Treasury, Justice, and Energy Departments constitute the intelligence community. Military intelligence includes strategic, operational, and tactical information. Central Intelligence Agency, "Factbook on Intelligence," 1997, web site www.odci.gov/cia/publications/facttell/intcomm.htm (as of October 24, 2001).

[64] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, Central Intelligence Agency, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 1.

[65] Although mustard-filled mortar rounds were reported, UNSCOM found none in its post-war investigations. United Nations, United Nations Blue Book Series, Volume IX, "The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict, 1990-1996," Document 141, "Fourth Report of the Executive Chairman of UNSCOM," New York, NY: United Nations, Department of Public Information, 1996, p. 502.

[66] Lead Report #21156, Interview of corporal, Team 1, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, June 30, 2000, p. 5.

[67] Watts, Barry D. and Dr. Thomas A. Kearny, Gulf War Air Power Survey, Volume II, "Operations and Effects and Effectiveness," Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1993, p. 109.

[68] See NBC reports in Tab A.

[69] An NBC-4 report documents actual chemical warfare agent contamination. US Army Field Manual 3-3, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-17, "Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance," Change 1, September 29, 1994, Chapter 2, p. 2-3. The Glossary describes other NBC reports.

[70] Fleet Hospital 15 Admission log, February 10-March 21, 1991, p. 13, 18.

[71] See glossary for definitions of these skin conditions.

[72] Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000; and Lead Report #27187, Interview of team leader, Team 3, 1st Platoon, Company B, 2d Reconnaissance Battalion, September 20, 2000, p. 2.

[73] Lead Report #28089, Physician's Statement of Review, Subject: "Medical Review of Possible Chemical Agent Exposure in Desert Storm - Marines of the 2d Reconnaissance Battalion," August 15, 2000.

[74] Secretary of the Navy Instruction 5212.5D, "Navy and Marine Corps Records Disposition Manual," April 22, 1998, p. III-6-3.

[75] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 4-5, web site www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/fm8_285/PART_I/index.htm (as of October 24, 2001).

[76] US Army Material Safety Data Sheet on HQ Mustard, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, June 30, 1995.

[77] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 6, web site www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/fm8_285/PART_I/index.htm (as of October 25, 2001).

[78] American Academy of Dermatology, "Guidelines of Care for Dermatomyositis," web site http://www.aad.org/Guidelines/dermatomyositis.html  (as of January 23, 2001).

[79] US Army Test and Evaluation Command, Test Operations Procedure number 8-2-555, "Chemical Agent Detector Kits," Dugway, UT: Dugway Proving Ground, April 28, 1989, p. 37.

[80] Michelle Soign´┐Że, Inc., "Grover's Disease," web site www.skinsite.com/info_grover's_disease.htm (as of October 25, 2001).

[81] New Zealand Dermatological Society, "Folliculitis," web site www.dermnet.org.nz/dna.folliculitis/info.html (as of October 25, 2001).

[82] Centers for Disease Control, "Fact Sheet: Leishmania Infection," web site www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/leishmania/factsht_leishmania.htm   (as of October 25, 2001).

[83] US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, US Marine Corps Reference Publication 5-2A, "Operational Terms and Graphics," September 30, 1997, p. 1-97, web site www-cgsc.army.mil/cdd/F545/f545-m.htm (as of October 25, 2001).

[84] US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, US Marine Corps Reference Publication 5-2A, "Operational Terms and Graphics," September 30, 1997, p. 1-97, web site www-cgsc.army.mil/cdd/F545/f545-m.htm (as of October 25, 2001).

[85] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, Appendix B, p. 30.

[86] US Army Field Manual 3-3, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-17, "Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance," Change 1, September 29, 1994, Chapter 2, p. 2-1-2-4.

[87] American Academy of Dermatology, "The Sun and Your Skin," web site www.aad.org/pamphlets/SunSkin.html (as of October 25, 2001).

[88] American Academy of Dermatology, "Urticaria - Hives," web site www.aad.org/pamphlets/Urticaria.html (as of October 25, 2001).

[89] "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction," April 29, 1997. This chemical weapons convention opened for signature in Paris, France, on January 13, 1993. As of June 26, 2001, 174 states have signed, ratified, or acceded to it. The United States signed on January 13, 1993, and ratified the Convention on April 25, 1997. Part XI of the convention, "Investigations in Cases of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons," details some of the procedures. We found other protocols and guidelines in Methodology and Instrumentation for Sampling and Analysis in the Verification of Chemical Disarmament, The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Helsinki, Finland, 1985; Verification Methods, Handling, and Assessment of Unusual Events in Relation to Allegations of the Use of Novel Chemical Warfare Agents, Consultant University of Saskatchewan in conjunction with the Verification Research Unit of External Affairs and International Trade Canada, March 1990; and Handbook for the Investigation of Allegations of the Use of Chemical or Biological Weapons, Departments of External Affairs, National Defence, Health and Welfare, and Agriculture, Canada, November 1985. US Army Field Manual 3-4, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-9, "NBC Protection," May 1992; US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 4-5, web site www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/fm8_285/PART_I/index.htm (as of October 24, 2001); and other DoD investigational procedures contributed ideas in developing this methodology.

[90] Defense Technical Information Center, CB Technical Data Source Book, Volume XIII, "Detection, Identification, and Warning," July 1991, p. 42.

[91] US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, "Improved Chemical Agent Monitor (ICAM)," web site www.sbccom.apgea.army.mil/products/icam.htm (as of October 25, 2001).

[92] US Army Chemical School, "Chemical Detection and Reporting," Army Institute for Professional Development, Army Correspondence Course Program, Subcourse CM 1301, Edition E, November 1995, p. 2-11.

[93] US Army Training Circular 3-4-1, "Chemical Agent Monitor Employment," December 17, 1991, p. 3.

[94] US Army Training Circular 3-4-1, "Chemical Agent Monitor Employment," December 17, 1991, p. 9-12.

[95] Defense Technical Information Center, CB Technical Data Source Book, Volume XIII, "Detection, Identification, and Warning," July 1991, p. 43-44.




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