FM 101-5-1
Operational Terms and Graphics

Chapter 1


magnetic azimuth - An angle of direction measured clockwise from magnetic north. (See also azimuth, grid azimuth, and true azimuth.) See FM 21-26.

magnetic declination (JP 1-02, NATO) - The angle between the magnetic and geographical meridians at any place, expressed in degrees east or west to indicate the direction of magnetic north from true north. In nautical and aeronautical navigation, the term magnetic variation is used instead of magnetic declination and the angle is termed variation of the compass or magnetic variation. Magnetic declination is not otherwise synonymous with magnetic variation which refers to regular or irregular change with time of the magnetic declination, dip, or intensity. See FM 21-26.

magnetic variation (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. In navigation, at a given place and time, the horizontal angle between the true north and magnetic north measured east or west according to whether magnetic north lies east or west of true north. (See also magnetic declination.) 2. In cartography, the annual change in direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field. See FM 21-26.

main attack (JP 1-02, NATO) - The principal attack or effort into which the commander throws the full weight of the offensive power at his disposal. An attack directed against the chief objective of the campaign or battle. (Army) - The primary mission in support of the higher commander's main effort. It is weighted with combat, combat support, and combat service support. The higher commander will normally support the main attack with a supporting attack(s) and other operations such as deep attacks, electronic warfare (EW) operations, deception operations, and economy of force operations. (See also main effort, supporting attack, deception operation, and attack.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

main battle area (MBA) (JP 1-02) - That portion of the battlefield in which the decisive battle is fought to defeat the enemy. For any particular command, the main battle area extends rearward from the forward edge of the battle area to the rear boundary of the command's subordinate units. (See also defensive operations, forward edge of the battle area (FEBA), and handover line.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

main body - 1. The principal part of a tactical command or formation. It does not include detached elements of the command such as advance guards, flank guards, and covering forces. 2. In a motor column, all vehicles exclusive of the column head, trail, and control vehicles which consist primarily of the vehicles carrying the bulk of the cargo or troops within the column. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

main command post - A cell that includes those staff activities involved in controlling and sustaining current operations and in planning future operations. The main command post (CP) normally operates under control of the chief of staff. In addition to the chief of staff, the main CP consists of G1, G2, G3, and G4 elements; fire support and chemical elements, tactical air control party element, and an Army airspace command and control element consisting of air defense artillery and Army aviation staff elements. The main CP exercises command and control of the current operation in cases where a tactical CP is not employed. (See also command post (CP), rear command post; tactical command post (TAC CP).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

main effort (Army) - The unit, battle position, sector, zone, axis, avenue of approach, area of operations, theater of operations, and so forth, the senior commander has determined has the most important task and purpose at that time, whose success will make the most difference in the accomplishment of the higher commander's overall mission or objective. The main effort is weighted or reinforced with combat, combat support, and combat service support forces and assets, as required. There is only one main effort at any time in the operation, although the main effort may change as the situation changes to take advantage of opportunities or to avert failure. In the offense, the commander will conduct the main attack where the main effort has been designated. The unit(s) conducting the main attack normally will shift throughout the operation. The main attack may be a deep attacking unit, the point unit of the ground attack, or the reserve, when committed. In the defense, the main effort is that area along the enemy avenue of approach that the defense depends on for success. The higher commander will influence the main effort with supporting effort(s). For example, during World War II the European Theater was the national main effort and the Pacific theater was a supporting effort. (See also main attack and supporting effort.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

main line of resistance (JP 1-02) - A line at the forward edge of the battle position, designated for the purpose of coordinating the fire of all units and supporting weapons, including air and naval gunfire. It defines the forward limits of a series of mutually supporting defensive areas, but it does not include the areas occupied or used by covering or screening forces.

main operations base (MOB) (JP 1-02) - In special operations, a base established by a joint force special operations component commander or a subordinate special operations component commander in friendly territory to provide sustained command and control, administration, and logistical support to special operations activities in designated areas. (See also advanced operations base (AOB) and forward operations base (FOB).) See FM 100-25.

main supply route (MSR) (JP 1-02, NATO) - The route or routes designated within an area of operations upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations.

maintenance (materiel) (JP 1-02) - 1. All action taken to retain materiel in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. It includes inspection, testing, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation. 2. All supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission. 3. The routine recurring work required to keep a facility (plant, building, structure, ground facility, utility system, or other real property) in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose.

maintenance collection point (MCP) - A point established to collect equipment awaiting repair, controlled exchange, cannibalization, or evacuation. It may be operated by the user or by direct support maintenance units. (See also unit maintenance collection point (UMCP).)

maintenance status (JP 1-02) - 1. A nonoperating condition, deliberately imposed, with adequate personnel to maintain and preserve installations, materiel, and facilities in such a condition that they may be readily restored to operable condition in a minimum time by the assignment of additional personnel and without extensive repair or overhaul. 2. That condition of materiel which is in fact, or is administratively classified as, unserviceable, pending completion of required servicing or repairs. (Army) - A condition of materiel readiness that reports the level of operational readiness for a piece of equipment. See FM 63-2.

maintenance support team (MST) - A tailored direct support team that colocates with a unit maintenance element for a designated period. See FM 63-2.

major disaster - See domestic emergencies.

major operation (Army) - The coordinated actions of large forces in a single phase of a campaign. A major operation could contain a number of battles or could be a single critical battle.

mandate - A resolution approved by the United Nations Security Council or United States government that delineates the objective, the resources, role, and tasks of the force assigned to carry out the resolution. It also includes the terms of reference which should include the rules of engagement, rules of interaction, force protection, geographical limitations, limits on the duration of the operation, relationships with belligerent parties, relationships with humanitarian assistance organizations, personnel resources, and financing. (See also counterdrug (CD), counterinsurgency, humanitarian assistance (HA), peace operations, and stability and support operations (SASO). See FMs 100-20 and 100-23.

maneuver (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A movement to place ships or aircraft in a position of advantage over the enemy. 2. A tactical exercise carried out at sea, in the air, on the ground, or on a map in imitation of war. 3. The operation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, to cause it to perform desired movements. 4. Employment of forces on the battlefield through movement in combination with fire, or fire potential, to achieve a position of advantage in respect to the enemy in order to accomplish the mission. (Army) - Employment of forces on the battlefield through movement of combat forces in relation to the enemy, supported by fire or fire potential from all sources, to gain potential advantage from which to destroy or threaten destruction of the enemy to accomplish the mission. See FMs 100-5 and 100-40.

manifest (JP 1-02) - A document specifying in detail the passengers or items carried for a specific destination.

manipulative electromagnetic deception (MED) (JP 1-02) - Actions to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces. (See also electronic warfare (EW), electromagnetic deception, imitative electromagnetic deception (IED), and simulative electromagnetic deception.) See FM 34-40.

map (JP 1-02, NATO) - A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface, and at an established scale, of natural and artificial features on the surface of a part or whole of the Earth or other planetary body. These features are positioned relative to a coordinate reference system. See FM 21-26. (Army) - a. large-scale map. A map having a scale of 1:75,000 or larger used for tactical planning. b. medium-scale map. A map having a scale between 1:1,000,000 and 1:75,000 used for operational planning. c. small-scale map. A map having a scale smaller than 1:1,000,000 used for general planning and strategic studies.

march column - A group of two to five serials using the same route for a single movement, organized under a single commander for planning, regulating, and controlling. (See also march serial, march unit, and movement order.) See FMs 55-30 and 101-5.

march serial - A subdivision of a march column consisting of a group of two to five march units using the same route for a single movement, organized under a single commander for planning, regulating, and controlling. (See also march column, march unit, and movement order.) See FMs 55-30 and 101-5.

march unit - The smallest subdivision of a march column; a group of normally no more than 25 vehicles using the same route for a single movement, organized under a single commander for planning, regulating, and controlling. (See also march column, march serial, and movement order.) See FMs 55-30 and 101-5.

Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) (JP 1-02) - A task organization of Marine forces (division, aircraft wing, and service support groups) under a single command and structured to accomplish a specific mission. The MAGTF components will normally include command, aviation combat, ground combat, and combat service support elements (including Navy Support Elements). Three types of MAGTFs that can be task organized are the Marine expeditionary unit, Marine expeditionary brigade, and Marine expeditionary force. The four elements of a Marine air-ground task force are command element (CE), aviation combat element (ACE), ground combat element (GCE), and combat service support element (CSSE). (See also aviation combat element (ACE), combat service support element (CSSE), command element (CE), ground combat element (GCE), Marine expeditionary force (MEF), Marine expeditionary force (forward) (MEF (FWD)), Marine expeditionary unit (MEU), and task force.)

Marine expeditionary force (MEF ) (JP 1-02) - The Marine expeditionary force, the largest of the Marine air-ground task forces, is normally built around a division/wing team, but can include several divisions and aircraft wings, together with an appropriate combat service support organization. The Marine expeditionary force is capable of conducting a wide range of amphibious assault operations and sustained operations ashore. It can be tailored for a wide variety of combat missions in any geographic environment. (See also Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF), Marine expeditionary force (forward) (MEF(FWD)), and Marine expeditionary unit (MEU).) See JP 3-02.1.

Marine expeditionary force (forward) (MEF(FWD)) - A task organization which is normally built around a regimental landing team, a provisional Marine aircraft group, and a logistics support group; a brigade-sized unit which has been designated as the forward echelon of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF). It can deploy as an air contingency force, a maritime or geographic prepositioning force, or the landing force of an amphibious operation. It normally can sustain operations for 30 days while the follow-on forces of the MEF are being deployed. (See also Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF), Marine expeditionary force (MEF), and Marine expeditionary unit (MEU).) See JP 3-02.1.

Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) (JP 1-02) - A task organization which is normally built around a battalion landing team, reinforced helicopter squadron, and logistic support unit. It fulfills routine forward afloat deployment requirements, provides an immediate reaction capability for crisis situations, and is capable of relatively limited combat operations. (See also Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF), Marine expeditionary force (MEF), and Marine expeditionary force (forward) (MEF (FWD)). See JP 3-02.1.

marking smoke - Smoke employed to relay prearranged communications on the battlefield. It is frequently used to identify targets, evacuation points, friendly perimeters, and so forth. See FM 3-50.

marshalling (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The process by which units participating in an amphibious or airborne operation group together or assemble when feasible or move to temporary camps in the vicinity of embarkation points, complete preparations for combat, or prepare for loading. 2. The process of assembling, holding, and organizing supplies and/or equipment, especially vehicles of transportation, for onward movement. (See also staging area.) See FMs 71-100-3 and 90-26.

marshalling area - 1. The general area in which unit preparation areas and departure airfields may be located and from which movement is initiated. 2. An area located adjacent to strategic air and sea ports of embarkation and debarkation, controlled by the Army service component commander, in which units configure forces, sustainment, and material for onward movement to staging areas or tactical assembly areas. 3. In amphibious operations, the designated area in which, as part of the mounting process, units are reorganized for embarkation; vehicles and equipment are prepared to move directly to embarkation areas; and housekeeping facilities are provided for troops by other units. See FM 100-17.

marshalling plan - An airborne operational plan by which units of the force complete final preparation for combat, move to departure airfields, and load for take-off. It begins when elements of the force are literally "sealed" in marshalling areas and terminates at loading. (See also ground tactical plan and landing plan.) See FMs 100-17 and 101-5.

mask only - 1. A protective measure that provides some relief from mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) gear for personnel who must work in a vapor- or aerosol-contaminated environment. Personnel must be within protective shelters (certain types of vans, tanks, or buildings) where the danger of transfer hazards is minimal. This posture is only used when the only threat is vapor. Mask only cannot be used when blister agents are present. 2. A protective measure preparation used when the commander anticipates that his only chemical threat is from riot control agents. (See also mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP).) See FM 3-4.

mass (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The concentration of combat power. 2. The military formation in which units are spaced at less than the normal distances and intervals. (Army) - To concentrate or bring together fires, as to mass fires of multiple weapons or units. (See also principles of war.) See FM 100-5.

mass casualty (JP 1-02) - Any large number of casualties produced in a relatively short period of time, usually as the result of a single incident such as a military aircraft accident, hurricane, flood, earthquake, or armed attack thatexceeds local logistical support capabilities. (See also casualty.)

massed fire (JP 1-02) - 1. The fire of the batteries of two or more ships directed against a single target. 2. Fire from a number of weapons directed at a single point or small area. (See also concentrated fire.)

materiel release confirmation (JP 1-02) - A notification from a shipping/storage activity advising the originator of a materiel release order of the positive action taken on the order. It will also be used with appropriate shipment status document identifier codes as a reply to a follow-up initiated by the inventory control point.

materiel release order (JP 1-02) - An order issued by an accountable supply system manager (usually an inventory control point or accountable depot/stock point) directing a nonaccountable activity (usually a storage site or materiel drop point) within the same supply distribution complex to release and ship materiel.

maximum effective range (JP 1-02, NATO) - The maximum distance at which a weapon may be expected to be accurate and achieve the desired result. (Army) - The distance from a weapon system at which a 50 percent probability of target hit is expected, or the tracer burnout range. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

maximum range (JP 1-02, NATO) - The greatest distance a weapon can fire without consideration of dispersion. (Army) - The maximum distance a projectile or rocket can go at the optimum elevation of the weapon. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

maximum rate of fire - The largest quantity of rounds physically or mechanically possible to fire through a weapon or weapon system in a specified period of time regardless of the damage that could be done to the system if this number of rounds was fired for a prolonged period of time. (See also sustained rate of fire.) See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

M-day (JP 1-02) - The term used to designate the unnamed day on which full mobilization commences or is due to commence.

meaconing (JP 1-02, NATO) - A system of receiving radio beacon signals and rebroadcasting them on the same frequency to confuse navigation. The meaconing stations cause inaccurate bearings to be obtained by aircraft or ground stations.

meaconing, interference, jamming, and intrusion (MIJI) report - A report to record and report interference experienced with communications which was not determined to be caused by locally generated spurious signals or technical difficulties. This report is prepared based on an interference report forwarded from the unit or element that initially experienced the interference. The unit-level interference report is transmitted by the fastest and most secure means available. See FM 34-40.

medical care echelon - Describes the five levels of treatment within the military system. Each echelon has the same capabilities as the echelon before it, but adds a new treatment capability that distinguishes it from the previous echelon. The five echelons are: Echelon I - unit level or immediate lifesaving measures; Echelon II - a medical unit that adds dental, laboratory, x-ray, and patient holding capability; Echelon III - mobile army surgical hospitals and combat support hospitals that add the capability to perform surgery; Echelon IV - general hospitals and field hospitals that add staffing and equipment for general and specialized medical and surgical treatment; Echelon V - continental United States-based hospitals that can provide the most specialized and long-term care possible. See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-4, 8-10-14, 8-10-24, 8-51, and 8-55.

medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) - The timely and efficient movement of patients while providing en route medical care to and between medical treatment facilities. See FMs 8-10 and 8-10-6.

medical evacuees (JP 1-02) - Personnel who are wounded, injured, or ill and must be moved to or between medical facilities. See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-4, 8-10-14, 8-10-24.

medical threat (Army) - The composite of all ongoing or potential enemy actions and environmental conditions that reduce the performance effectiveness of the soldier. The soldier's reduced effectiveness results from sustained wounds, injuries, or diseases. See FMs 8-10, 8-10-8, 8-55.

medical treatment facility (MTF) (JP 1-02) - A facility established for the purpose of furnishing medical and/or dental care to eligible individuals. See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-4, 8-10-14, 8-10-24.

medical waste - any waste that is generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of hmans or animals.

medium-scale map - See map.

meeting engagement (JP 1-02, NATO) - A combat action that occurs when a moving force, incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time and place. (Army) - The enemy force may be either stationary or moving. (See also movement to contact.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

military art (Amy) - The judgmental application of military science to the conditions at hand. Such judgment depends on knowledge in great depth which goes beyond a knowledge of mechanical factors and force ratios. It depends on inspired and skillful application of sound scientific approaches and demands the application of sound judgment in the weighting of the intangibles.

military chemical compound - Chemical substance that has become generally accepted by the public for use in conventional war. Included are riot control agents, flame and smoke materials, and military herbicides. Excluded are chemical agents. See FM 3-9.

military crest - An area on the forward or reverse slope of a hill or ridge just below the topographical crest from which maximum observation and direct fire covering the slope down to the base of the hill or ridge can be obtained. (See also topographical crest.) See FM 21-26.

military grid reference system (JP 1-02, NATO) - A system which uses a standard-scaled grid square, based on a point of origin on a map projection of the surface of the Earth in an accurate and consistent manner to permit either position referencing or the computation of direction and distance between grid positions. See FM 21-26.

military information environment (MIE) - Those individuals, organizations, and systems within the global information environment (GIE), both friendly and hostile, military and nonmilitary, that support, enable, or significantly influence a specific military operation. See FM 100-6.

military load classification (MLC) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A standard system in which a route, bridge, or raft is assigned class number(s) representing the load it can carry. Vehicles are also assigned number(s) indicating the minimum class of route, bridge, or raft they are authorized to use. (See also route classification.) See FMs 5-36 and 17-95.

military operations in a built-up area (MOBA) (Amy) - All military actions planned and conducted on a topographical complex and its adjacent natural terrain where man-made construction is the dominant feature. It includes combat in cities, which is that portion of military operations on urbanized terrain involving house-to-house and street-by-street fighting in towns and cities. See FMs 90-10 and 90-10-1.

military operations on urbanized terrain (MOUT) - All military actions planned and conducted on a topographical complex and its adjacent natural terrain where man-made construction is the dominant feature. It includes combat-in-cities, which is that portion of MOUT involving house-to-house and street-by-street fighting in towns and cities. See FMs 90-10 and 90-10-1.

military operations other than war (MOOTW) (JP 1-02) - (Joint term only) Operations that encompass the use of military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war. These military actions can be applied to complement any combination of the other instruments of national power and occur before, during, and after war. (See also counterdrug (CD), counterinsurgency, domestic emergencies, humanitarian assistance (HA), and peace operations.) See FM 100-20 and JP 3-07.

military police response forces (Army) - Those forces the commander assigns the mission of responding to and conducting operations to close with and destroy or delay attacking enemy forces beyond the capabilities of base defenses (Level II). See FM 19-1.

military science (Army) - A systemized knowledge of the principles of war; the systematic development, examination, and dissemination of appropriate methods; and the systematic development, examination, and understanding of capabilities.

military strategy (JP 1-02) - The art and science of employing the armed forces of a nation to secure the objectives of national policy by the application of force or the threat of force. See FM 100-5.

minefield (JP 1-02, NATO) - In land warfare, an area of ground containing mines laid with or without a pattern.

minefield breaching (JP 1-02, NATO) - In land mine warfare, the process of clearing a lane through a minefield under tactical conditions. (See also breach, in-stride breach, deliberate breach, covert breach, and lane.) See FMs 5-71-100, 5-101, and 90-13-1.

minimum range (JP 1-02) - 1.Least range setting of a gun at which the projectile will clear an obstacle or friendly troops between the gun and the target. 2. Shortest distance to which a gun can fire from a given position. (Army) - The range at which a projectile or fuse will be armed. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

minimum-risk route (MRR) (JP 1-02) - A temporary corridor of defined dimensions recommended for use by high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft that presents the minimum known hazards to low-flying aircraft transiting the combat zone. (Army) - The MRR must be approved by the airspace control authority and avoids artillery, air defense weapons, landing zones, pick-up zones, forward arming and refueling points, and Army airfields. See FM 100-103.

minimum safe distance (MSD) - The minimum distance in meters from desired ground zero at which a specific degree of personnel risk and vulnerability will not be exceeded with a 99 percent assurance. The MSD is the sum of the radius of safety and the buffer distance. (See also desired ground zero (DGZ), least separation distance (LSD), and troop safety (nuclear).) See FM 100-30 and JP 3-12.2.

misfire (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. Failure to fire or explode properly. 2. Failure of a primer or the propelling charge of a round or projectile to function wholly or in part. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

missing (JP 1-02) - A casualty status for which the United States Code provides statutory guidance concerning missing members of the Military Services. Excluded are personnel who are in an absent without leave, deserter, or dropped-from-rolls status. A person declared missing is categorized as follows: a. beleaguered - The casualty is a member of an organized element that has been surrounded by a hostile force to prevent escape of its members. b. besieged - The casualty is a member of an organized element that has been surrounded by a hostile force for compelling it to surrender. c. captured - The casualty has been seized as the result of action of an unfriendly military or paramilitary force in a foreign country. d. detained - The casualty is prevented from proceeding or is restrained in custody for alleged violation of international law or other reason claimed by the government or group under which the person is being held. e. interned - The casualty is definitely known to have been taken into custody of a nonbelligerent foreign power as the result of and for reasons arising out of any armed conflict in which the Armed Forces of the United States are engaged.f. missing - The casualty is not present at his or her duty location due to apparent involuntary reasons and whose location is unknown. g.missing in action (MIA) - The casualty is a hostile casualty, other than the victim of a terrorist activity, who is not present at his or her duty location due to apparent involuntary reasons and whose location is unknown. (See also casualty.) See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-4, 8-10-14, and 8-10-24.

missing in action (MIA) - See missing.

mission (JP 1-02) - 1. The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefor. 2. In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task. 3. The dispatching of one or more aircraft to accomplish one particular task. (Army) - The primary task assigned to an individual, unit, or force. (See also commander's intent, operation order (OPORD), and operation plan (OPLAN).) See FMs 100-90 and 101-5.

mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) - The phrase or acronym used to describe the factors that must be considered during the planning or execution of a tactical operation. See FM 101-5. Example considerations are:

  mission - The who, what, when, where, and why that must be accomplished.

enemy - Current information concerning the enemy's strength, location, disposition, activity, equipment, and capability and a determination as to the enemy's probable course of action.
  terrain (includes weather) - Analysis of vegetation, soil type, hydrology, climatic conditions, and light data to determine the impact the environment can have on current and future operations for both enemy and friendly operations.
  troops - The quantity, level of training, and psychological state of friendly forces, to include the availability of weapon systems and critical equipment.
  time available - The time available to plan, prepare, and execute operations for both enemy and friendly forces.

mission essential task - A collective task in which an organization must be proficient to accomplish an appropriate portion of its wartime mission(s). See FMs 25-100 and 25-101.

mission essential task list (METL) - A compilation of collective mission essential tasks which must be successfully performed if an organization is to accomplish its wartime mission(s). See FMs 25-100 and 25-101.

mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) - A flexible system for protection against a chemical or biological attack devised to maximize the unit's ability to accomplish its mission in a toxic environment. This posture permits maximum protection from chemical or biological attack without unacceptable reduction in efficiency. The seven levels of MOPP are shown in the following table.

Mask Carried Worn Carried Carried Carried Worn 1 Worn
Overgarment Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Worn1 Worn 1 Worn 1 Worn
Vinyl Overboot Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Available 4 Worn Worn Worn
Gloves Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Available 4 Available 4 Available 4 Worn
Protective Cover
Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Available 4 Worn Worn Worn
Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Worn1 Worn1 Worn1 Worn1
  1. In hot weather, coat or hood can be left open for ventilation.
  2. The CPU is worn under the BDU (primarily applies to SOF) or CVC coveralls.
  3. Must be available to the soldier within two hours. Second set available in six hours.
  4. Within arms reach of soldier.

NOTE: Items can be ready or available at the commander's discretion.

mission statement - A short paragraph or sentence describing the form of operation, task, and purpose that clearly indicate the action to be taken and the reason therefore. It usually contains the elements of who, what, when, and where, and the reason therefore, but seldom specifies how. (See also commander's intent, operation order (OPORD), and operation plan (OPLAN).) See FMs 100-90 and 101-5.

mission type order (JP 1-02) - 1. Order issued to a lower unit that includes the accomplishment of the total mission assigned to the higher headquarters. 2. Order to a unit to perform a mission without specifying how it is to be accomplished. (See also commander's intent, operation order (OPORD), and operation plan (OPLAN).) See FM 101-5.

mobile defense (JP 1-02) - Defense of an area or position in which maneuver is used with organization of fire and utilization of terrain to seize the initiative from the enemy. (Army) - A defense that orients on the destruction or defeat of the enemy through a decisive attack by the striking force. The minimum force is committed to a fixing force to shape the penetration while the maximum combat power available to the commander is dedicated to the striking force (with a mobility greater than the enemy's) which catches the enemy as he is attempting to overcome that part of the force dedicated to defense. (See also counterattack and defensive operations.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

mobile training team (MTT) (JP 1-02) - A team consisting of one or more US military or civilian personnel sent on temporary duty, often to a foreign nation, to give instruction. The mission of the team is to train indigenous personnel to operate, maintain, and employ weapons and support systems, or to develop a self-training capability in a particular skill. The National Command Authorities may direct a team to train either military or civilian indigenous personnel, depending upon host nation requests.

mobility (JP 1-02, NATO) - A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission. (Army) - Those activities that enable a force to move personnel and equipment on the battlefield without delays due to terrain or obstacles.

mobility corridors - Areas where a force will be canalized due to terrain constructions. The mobility corridor is relatively free of obstacles and allows military forces to capitalize on the principles of mass and speed. See FMs 21-26, 34-130, and 101-5.

mobility operations - Obstacle reduction by maneuvering and engineer units to reduce or negate the effects of existing or reinforcing obstacles. The objectives are to maintain freedom of movement for maneuver units, weapon systems, and critical supplies. (See also breach, countermobility operations, survivability operations, and terrain reinforcement.) See FM 5-101.

mobility and survivability - A battlefield operating system that preserves the freedom of maneuver of friendly forces (includes breaching enemy obstacles, increasing battlefield circulation, and improving existing routes) and protects them from the effects of enemy weapon systems and from natural occurrences (includes hardening of facilities and fortification of battle positions). See FMs 5-101 and 5-102.

mobilization (JP 1-02) - 1. The act of assembling and organizing national resources to support national objectives in time of war or other emergencies. 2. The process by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency. This includes activating all or part of the Reserve components as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel. Mobilization of the Armed Forces includes, but is not limited to, the following categories: a. selective mobilization-- Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and/or the President to mobilize Reserve component units, individual ready reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a domestic emergency that is not the result of an enemy attack. b. partial mobilization-- Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress (up to full mobilization) or by the President (not more than 1,000,000) to mobilize Ready Reserve component units, individual reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. c. full mobilization-- Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to mobilize all Reserve component units in the existing approved force structure, all individual reservists, retired military personnel, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.d. total mobilization-- Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to organize and/or generate additional units or personnel, beyond the existing force structure, and the resources needed for their support, to meet the total requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.

moderate risk (nuclear) (JP 1-02) - A degree of risk where anticipated effects are tolerable, or at worst a minor nuisance. (Army) - Moderate risk should not be exceeded if troops are expected to operate at full efficiency after a friendly burst. Risk is expressed in terms of risk to unwarned, exposed personnel; warned, exposed personnel; warned, protected personnel. (See also degree of risk, emergency risk (nuclear), negligible risk (nuclear), troop safety (nuclear).) See FMs 100-30 and JPs 3-12.1, 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.

mode of transport (JP 1-02) - The various modes used for a movement. For each mode, there are several means of transport. They include inland surface transportation (rail, road, and inland waterway); sea transport (coastal and ocean); air transportation; and pipelines. See FM 55-30.

modularity - a concept to provide force elements that are interchangeable, expandable, and tailorable to meet changing missions and needs. Modular units will combine the assets required to provide a support function or group of related functions. A module can be sent to support a deploying force without adversely affecting the ability of the parent unit to function at a reduced level.

mortuary affairs - Broadly based military program to provide care and disposition of deceased personnel. It consists of three subprograms: the current death program, the graves registration program, and the concurrent return program. (See also graves registration.) See FMs 10-63 and 100-10.

mosaic (JP 1-02, NATO) - An assembly of overlapping photographs that have been matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the surface of the Earth. See FMs 21-26 and 34-1.

mounted forces - Forces that project, deliver, and sustain combat power in a rapid, highly lethal, and survivable manner with sufficient combat power to occupy and control terrain to dominate adversaries within hostile environments during war and stability and support operations. They are capable of reconnaissance, either mounted or dismounted, and security operations, and have the ability to close with and defeat an enemy. See FMs 17-95 and 71-100.

mounted operations (Army) - The application of combat power from a mobile weapon systems platform which relies upon mechanization and technology to maximize speed, firepower, protection, and survivability in the execution of operations. See FMs 17-95 and 71-100.

mounting (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. All preparations made in areas designated for the purpose, in anticipation of an operation. It includes the assembly in the mounting area, preparation and maintenance within the mounting area, movement to loading points, and subsequent embarkation into ships, craft, or aircraft if applicable. 2. A carriage or stand upon which a weapon is placed.

mounting phase - The period after receipt of the warning order or planning directive until aircraft take off or ships depart on the mission. During this period, joint tactical and support planning is accomplished; troops, equipment, and supplies are assembled and readied; and briefings are conducted. Marshalling takes place during the last part of the mounting phase and includes movement of participating personnel, supplies, and all equipment to departure areas, and their loading into aircraft or ships. (See also air movement, assault phase, and subsequent operations phase.)

movement bid - A request for clearance to move on main supply routes to other controlled routes for which a clearance is required prior to initiating the movement.

movement to contact (Army) - (NATO: advance to contact) - A form of the offense designed to develop the situation and to establish or regain contact. (See also meeting engagement, offensive operations, and reconnaissance in force.) See FMs 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.

movement control (JP 1-02) - The planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines of communications; also an organization responsible for these functions. (Army) - Organizations responsible for these functions are movement control teams, movement control centers, and movement control activities. See FM 55-10.

movement credit (JP 1-02, NATO) - The allocation granted to one or more vehicles in order to move over a controlled route in a fixed time according to movement instructions.

movement formation - 1. An ordered arrangement of troops and/or vehicles for a specific purpose. 2. An ordered arrangement of two or more units, aircraft, or ships proceeding together under a commander. Types of formations include: box, column, diamond, line, vee, wedge, echelon (right or left). (See also box formation, column formation, diamond formation, line formation, vee formation, wedge formation, echelon formation, and movement techniques.) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, and 71-123.

movement order (JP 1-02) - An order issued by a commander covering the details for a move of the command. See FM 101-5.

movement requirement (JP 1-02) - A stated movement mode and time-phased need for the transport of units, personnel, and/or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination.

movement schedule (JP 1-02) - A schedule developed to monitor or track a separate entity whether it is a force requirement, cargo or personnel increment, or lift asset. The schedule reflects the assignment of specific lift resources (such as an aircraft or ship) that will be used to move the personnel and cargo included in a specific movement increment. Arrival and departure times at ports of embarkation, etc., are detailed to show a flow and workload at each location. Movement schedules are detailed enough to support plan implementation. See FMs 55-10, 71-123, and 101-5.

movement table (JP 1-02, NATO) - A table giving detailed instructions or data for a move. When necessary it will be qualified by the words road, rail, sea, air, etc. to signify the type of movement. It is normally issued as an annex to a movement order or instruction. (See also movement order.) See FMs 55-10, 71-123, and 101-5.

movement technique - Manner of traversing terrain used by a unit (such as traveling, traveling overwatch, and bounding overwatch) which is determined by the likelihood of enemy contact.

multiagency - Pertaining to activities or operations conducted by or through coordination with nongovernmental, international, or foreign government agencies.

multinational - Pertaining to activities or operations conducted by or through coordination with the military forces of two or more nations.

multinational operations (JP 1-02) - A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations, typically organized within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See JP 0-2.

multinational warfare - See combined warfare.

multiparty - Pertaining to activities or operations conducted by or through coordination with two or more groups, at least one of which is not a nationally or an internationally recognized group or representative.

multi-spectral imagery (JP 1-02, NATO) - The image of an object obtained simultaneously in a number of discrete spectral bands. (Army) - For example; thermal or infrared, visual, or light intensification. See FMs 34-2 and 34-3.

multispectral smoke - A specifically formulated type smoke which does not allow an observer to see through it. It is effective at blocking all observation from the unaided eye, thermal imagery, radar telemetry, and so forth.

mutual support (JP 1-02, NATO) - That support which units render each other against an enemy because of their assigned tasks, their position relative to each other and to the enemy, and their inherent capabilities. (Army) - 1. It normally is associated with support rendered through fire and movement. 2. A condition which exists when positions are able to support each other by direct fire, thus preventing the enemy from attacking one position without being subjected to direct fire from one or more adjacent positions. (See also support.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

Updated 27 July 1997.

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