TAB B - Acronym Listing/Glossary

This TAB provides a listing of acronyms found in this report. Additionally, the Glossary section provides definitions for selected technical terms which are not found in common usage.

AO................................................................................................................. Area of Operations

ATO..................................................................................................................Air Tasking Order

AWACS.............................................................................Airborne Warning and Control System

BM3................................................................................................Boatswain’s Mate Third Class

BUC..........................................................................................................................Chief Builder

CAM.......................................................................................................Chemical Agent Monitor

CBR............................................................................................Chemical Biological Radiological

CENTCOM......................................................................................................Central Command

CDO.........................................................................................................Command Duty Officer

CFF.......................................................……….....................……………..Critical Facility Force

DAO......................................................................................................... Defense Attach´┐Ż Office

DOD...............................................................................................Department of Defense (U.S.)

EER.............................................................................................Environmental Evaluation Report

EOD.................................................................................................Explosive Ordnance Disposal

EPMU-2...............................................Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit Number Two

EQCM......................................................................................Master Chief Equipment Operator

ESG.................................................................................................Environmental Support Group

HDC....................................................................................................Harbor Defense Command

HMCS.........................................................................................Hospital Corpsman Senior Chief

HQ or Hq.................................................................................................................Headquarters

IAD......................................................................................Investigation and Analysis Directorate

IMEF..........................................................................................First Marine Expeditionary Force

JNAF.......................................................................................................Jubayl Naval Air Facility

JCMEC.......................................................................Joint Captured Material Exploitation Center

KAANB........................................................................................... King Abdul Aziz Naval Base

KM...............................................................................................................................Kilometers

KTO...............................................................................................Kuwaiti Theater of Operations

MAG.................................................................................................................Marine Air Group

MAW.................................................................................................................Marine Air Wing

MEPA..........................................................Meteorological and Environmental Protection Agency

MT...................................................................................................................Measurement Tons

MOAW......................................................................................Ministry of Agriculture and Water

MIUW......................................................................................Mobile Inshore Undersea Warfare

MOPP.................................................................................Mission Orientated Protective Posture

NMCB..................................................................................Naval Mobile Construction Battalion

NAF..................................................................................................................Naval Air Facility

NBC..........................................................................................Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical

NCR.................................................................................................Naval Construction Regiment

ODS/DS..............................................................................Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm

OIC....................................................................................................................Officer In Charge

OSAGWI.......................................................Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses

OSD...............................................................................Office of the Secretary of Defense (U.S.)

PPM....................................................................................................................Parts Per Million

PSHD........................................................................................Port Security and Harbor Defense

PSU...................................................................................................................Port Security Unit

PS2...............................................................................................Port Securityman Second Class

RAOC..............................................................................................Rear Area Operations Center

RCEG........................................................................Royal Commission Environmental Guidelines

Security Classification Symbols: (U) ............................................................................Unclassified

(S)..................................................................................................................................SECRET

(TS)........................................................................................................................TOP SECRET

SEM...............................................................................................Scanning Electron Microscope

TACC..................................................................................................Tactical Air Control Center

UIC...........................................................................................................Unit Identification Code

UK.......................................................................................................................United Kingdom

UN.........................................................................................................................United Nations

U.S...........................................................................................................................United States

USCG..................................................................................................United States Coast Guard

USPACECOM..............................................................................United States Space Command

 

Glossary

 

Detection Paper

Detection paper relies on certain dyes being soluble in chemical warfare agents. Normally, two dyes and one pH indicator are mixed with cellulose fibers in a paper without special coloring (unbleached). When a drop of chemical warfare agent is absorbed by the paper, it dissolves one of the pigments. Mustard agent dissolves a red dye and nerve agent a yellow. In addition, VX (a form of liquid nerve agent) causes the indicator to turn to blue which, together with the yellow, will become green/green-black.

Detection paper can thus be used to distinguish between three different types of chemical warfare agents. A disadvantage with the papers is that many other substances can also dissolve the pigments. Consequently, they should not be located in places where drops of substances such as solvent, fat, oil, or fuel can fall on them. Drops of water produce no reaction.

Depending on the spot diameter and density on the detection paper, it is possible to gauge the original size of the droplets and the degree of contamination.

Reference: Detection of Chemical Weapons: An overview of methods for the detection of chemical warfare agents; homepage:

http://www.opcw.nl/chemhaz/detect.htm.

Lesishmaniasis

Lesishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sandflies.

Reference: The Merck Manual, Sixteenth Edition, 1992, page 232.

M256A1 Chemical Agent Detection Kit

The M256A1 kit is a portable, expendable item capable of detecting and identifying hazardous concentrations of chemical agent. The M256 kit is used after a chemical attack to determine if it is safe to unmask. The M256A1 kit has replaced the M256 kit. The only difference between the two kits is that the M256A1 kit will detect lower levels of nerve agent. This improvement was accomplished by using an eel enzyme for the nerve test in the M256A1 kit in place of the horse enzyme used in the M256 kit.

Reference: Worldwide Chemical Detection Equipment Handbook, p. 430.

 

M8A1 Chemical Alarm

The M8A1 is an automatic chemical agent detection and warning system designed to detect the presence of nerve agent vapors or inhalable aerosols. The M8A1 will automatically signal the presence of the nerve agent in the air by providing troops with both an audible and visible warning. The M8A1 was fielded to replace the wet chemical M8 detector with a dry system -- which eliminated the M229 refill kit, the logistic burden and associated costs. The M8A1 operates in a fixed, portable, or vehicle mounted configuration.

Reference: Worldwide Chemical Detection Equipment Handbook, p. 412.

Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)

The wearing of MOPP gear provides soldiers protection against all known chemical agents, live biological agents, and toxins. MOPP gear consists of the following items:

Overgarmet (chemical suit)

Overboots

Mask (gas mask) with hood

Gloves

 

When a person is wearing MOPP gear, they can not work for very long nor can they work very fast. They may also suffer mental distress as a result of feeling closed in and will also suffer from heat stress and heat exhaustion when working in warm temperatures and at high work rates. The MOPP concept arose from the need to balance individual protection with the threat, temperature, and urgency of the mission.

Commanders can raise or lower the amount of protection through five levels of MOPP. In addition, commanders can exercise a mask-only option.

MOPP Zero: Individuals must carry their protective mask with them at all times. Their remaining MOPP Gear must be readily available (i.e., within the work area, fighting position, living space, etc.).

MOPP Level One: Individuals wear their overgarmet. They must carry the rest of their MOPP gear.

MOPP Level Two: Individuals wear their overgarmet and overboots and carry the mask with hood and gloves.

 

 

MOPP Level Three: Individuals wear their overgarmet, overboots, and mask with hood. They carry the gloves.

MOPP Level Four: Individuals wear all their MOPP gear.

Source: U.S. Army Field Manual 3-4, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 21 October 1985

Mustard

Mustard "gas" refers to several manufactured chemicals including sulfur mustard. They do not occur naturally in the environment. The term gas is in quotes because mustard "gas" does not behave as a gas under ordinary conditions. Mustard "gas" is really a liquid and is not likely to change into a gas immediately if it is released at ordinary temperatures. As a pure liquid, it is colorless and odorless, but when mixed with other chemicals, it looks brown and has a garlic-like smell. Mustard was made in large amounts during World Wars I and II and used in World War I. It was reportedly used in the Iran-Iraq war in 1984-1988. It is not presently used in the United States, except for research purposes.

The only way that mustard can enter the environment (other than through use as a weapon) is through an accidental release. Some evaporates from water and soil into air. It does not easily go into water, and the amount that does breaks down quickly. It is more stable in soil than in water but still breaks down within days, depending on the outside temperature (cold weather makes it more stable). It does not go from soil to groundwater. Mustard "gas" does not build up in the tissues of animals because it breaks down so quickly. Mustard "gas" makes your eyes burn, your eyelids swell, and causes you to blink a lot. If you breathe mustard "gas," it can cause coughing, bronchitis, and long-term respiratory disease.

References: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1992. Toxicological profile for mustard "gas." Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

 

 


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