TAB F -- Saudi Environmental Monitoring
The Royal Commission developed an extensive monitoring system to detect pollutants in the air, ground water, sea water, and waste water. It has been reported that the monitoring staff was well qualified and used state-of-the-art equipment to monitor, compile, and analyze data on a regular basis.
Air Quality Monitoring
Eight remote sensor stations monitored the air quality within the vicinity of Al Jubayl. Seven stations were built at various locations within Al Jubayl, and the eighth monitoring station was located at KAANB. A mobile monitoring unit was also available. Monitoring stations that were located within the immediate industrial area and port area are shown in Figure 13. The fixed stations were composed of an equipment trailer and a sampling tower protected by a security fence. Each sampling tower had sensors installed at heights of 10, 50, and 90 meters. The entire monitoring process was automated. Data from sensors was entered into on-site computers and transmitted to a central monitoring station every five minutes. Data was compiled on an hourly, daily, monthly and yearly basis. Once compiled, data was compared to the Royal Commissions Standards.
Figure 13. Location of Air Quality Monitor
Stations within the Industrial &
Monitors were capable of detecting the following pollutants:
a) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
b) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
c) three different oxides of Nitrogen (NO), (NO2), and (NOX)
d) Ozone (O3)
e) Non Methane organic carbons (NMOC)
f) Carbon Monoxide (CO)
g) Inhalable Suspended Particulates (ISP PM10)
h) Lead (monitoring for Lead began after ODS/DS).
It should be noted that the sensors were designed to detect industrial pollutants, and were not capable of detecting chemical warfare agents. All fixed sensor monitoring stations were operational throughout ODS/DS. As stated previously, Air Monitoring Station Number 1 was located 2 km west of Camp 13 (Figure 13). Readings taken by Monitoring Station Number 1 from September 1990 through June 1991 have been provided by the Royal Commission and are contained in Tab E. They show that in the area near Camp 13, there was no large-scale release of industrial chemicals or pollutants during ODS/DS.
Water Quality Monitoring
Water quality was also monitored using a system of ten strategically placed monitoring stations. The Royal Commission established water quality standards that paralleled those of the U.S. EPA. Water was monitored for total organic content, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, and industry-specific pollutants. Waste water was treated at either an Industrial Waste Treatment Plant or a Sewage Waste Treatment Plant, as appropriate. Sanitary waste water was treated to bring it to a level that was near the quality of potable water and was then reused only for irrigation purposes.