DEC 01 '90 20:12									P.4

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[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]


             The Iraqi Air Force gained valuable experience in 

chemical warfare during the Iran-Iraq War, when it conducted 

several chemical attacks against Iranians and Kurds.  [   (b)(1) 

sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

Air Delivery Systems and Munitions

             Iraqi Su-22 FITTERs and MiG-23 FLOGGERs conducted 

most air-launched chemical attacks during the Iran-Iraq War.  Iraq 

also utilized several other airframes, fixed and rotary-wing, for 

the delivery of chemical weapons. A complete list is shown below, 

along with ordnance used to deliver agents:

AIRCRAFT TYPE                        DELIVERY MEANS

Fixed Wing                    Bombs  Rockets  Spray Tanks 


Su-17/22 FITTER               x

MiG-23 FLOGGER F              x

Su-25 FROGFOOT                x

Mirage Fl (probably EQ5/6)    x

PC-9 (and possibly PC-7)      x

Tucano                        x

Rotary Wing

Mi-26 HALO                                     poss     poss

Mi-8 HIP C                             poss    X        poss

Mi-24/25 HIND (possibly)               poss    Ross     poss

    The Iraqi Air Force could also employ other aircraft in their 

inventory to deliver chemical weapons.  These are included below:

                            Bombs   Spray Tanks  Cannisters

Fixed Wing

Su-24 FENCER                  x

TU-22 BLINDER                 x                    x

TU-16 BADGER                  x                    x

L-29/39                       x

IL-76 CANDID                                       x

An-24 COKE                                         x

An-26 CURL                                         x

An-12 CUB                                          x

An-2 COLT                                x

SA-342 GAZELLE                           x         x

Mi-2 HOPLITE                             x         x

B0-105                                   x         x

             The preferred chemical ordnance delivered by Iraqi 

aircraft during the war were 250 and 500-kg bombs.  During the 

war, mustard- and Tabun-filled 250-kg bombs were delivered by 

FLOGGER F and FITTER.  Also, 500-kg mustard-filled bombs were 

delivered by FITTER aircraft, and probably by FLOGGERs as well. 

Iraq may have developed the capability to also use cluster bombs, 

some of which may have been filled with chemicals since the end of 

the Iran-Iraq War.  In addition to bombs, 55-gallon drums filled 

with unknown chemical agents (probably mustard) were dropped onto 

forces from altitudes of 3,000-4,000 feet by Iraqi helicopters.  

Spray systems mounted on the Mi-8 HIP helicopters were also used 

against troop concentrations.  An unknown number of HIPs were 

outfitted with two spray tanks on their underside, each with a 

volume of 1000 liters. A B0-105 reportedly observed near Basrah in 

April 1988 carried a probable chemical spray tank attached to the 

exterior near the cockpit, although there is no confirmed use of 

this helicopter delivering chemical ordnance.  Finally, 90-mm 

air-to-surface rockets filled with chemical agent, possibly fired 

by Mi-24/25 HINDs, were used against Iranian troops.


                            TABUN  SARIN  GF  MUSTARD  DUSTY 


100-kg GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS                     x

250-KG GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS  x      x     x     x    x

500-KG GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS  x      x     x     x    x

90-NM ROCKETS                 x                  x

Spray Tanks                   poss         poss  poss

          The early use of chemical weapons by the Iraqi Air Force 

proved ineffective due to poor employment techniques and 

unfavorable weather.  Iraq initially employed the same tactics as 

with the delivery of conventional weapons and did not factor in 

terrain and meteorological factors, including wind speed and 

direction, humidity, and temperature.  Also, pilots delivered 

chemical ordnance at altitudes too high to be effective, or too 

low for bomb fuzes to function properly, preventing bombs from 

detonating.  The Iraqis later corrected these problems by 

improving delivery techniques and by using impact fuses.

Iraqi Air Force Chemical Use Options Against Desert Shield Forces

          Iraq is unlikely to use chemical weapons initially, but 

might use them in a defensive situation in Iraq or northern Kuwait 

if they are being pushed back by an allied offensive.  During the 

Iran-Iraq war, chemical weapons were usually employed by Iraq in 

conjunction with defensive operations, although by late 1987 

Saddam Hussein extended their use to offensive operations as well. 

 Saddam has demonstrated his willingness to employ chemicals 

weapons against civilians.  Iraq conducted chemical attacks 

beginning in March 1987 against Kurds in northern Iraq in 

retaliation for Kurdish support of Iran during the war.

          Since the 2 August 1990 invasion of Kuwait, possible 

handling of chemical munitions has been noted at several Iraqi 

airfields. This activity includes the possible positioning of 

chemical weapons in airbase ordnance bunkers for use by aircraft 

stationed there.  The location and latest month of activity are 

listed below:

AIRFIELD                    MONTH (1990)

Kirkuk                      October

Qayarrah West               October

Tallil                      October, September, and August

Mosul                       September

Taqaddum                    September

Shilbah                     August

Ubaydah Bin al Jarrah       August

       The Iraqi Air Force would likely deliver chemical munitions 

against Desert Shield Force targets beyond artillery range (15-20 

miles).  Likely targets include northern Saudi airfields, tactical 

command and control facilities, and large troop concentrations and 

logistics areas within striking distance of fighter aircraft based 

in southern Iraq.  Iraq would likely strike shortly after sunrise, 

when the effect of chemicals is strongest due to low temperatures. 

 Based on recent ground attack training and tactics employed 

during the Iran-Iraq War, the Iraqis are likely to attack with one 

to four, 2-ship or 4-ship formations spaced one to five minutes 

apart, possibly supported by air interceptors and ECM aircraft.  

Chemical air strikes would be done with the goals of limiting 

operations from key military facilities, inflicting large numbers 

of casualties in a short time, and breaking the will of Desert 

Shield Forces to fight.

       Likely airfield targets include Dhahran, King Fahd, and 

King Abdul Aziz, each with large concentrations of fighter 

aircraft.   These airfields are located along the Persian Gulf 

coast within 300 nm of Iraqi forward deployment bases in southern 

Iraq.  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   (S) Iraqi Air Force capability to employ chemical attacks 

against area targets, such as troop assembly areas, close to the 

FLOT is good.  Capability to attack point targets, such is command 

and control facilities, is poor to moderate [   (b)(1) sec 

1.3(a)(4)   ]

          Forward-deployed forces might have very little warning 

time before a chemical strike employed by Iraqi aircraft.  While 

Desert Shield air defenses would likely succeed in downing Iraqi 

aircraft, some would likely penetrate beyond the forward defenses. 

 Iraq already has aircraft deployed at southern Iraqi airbases to 

conduct chemical attacks.  Chemical ordnance is stored at several 

Iraqi airfields, so that Iraqi aircraft can be quickly uploaded 

with chemical bombs once Saddam Hussein has given the Air Force 

release authority.

       Iraqi capabilities to conduct deep strike air attacks 

against distant airfields or military headquarters is low.  [   

(b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

                                      Nevertheless, Saddam would 

probably only be willing to subject his aircraft to the risks 

associated with a deep strike if coalition forces are on the verge 

of victory.


       The Iraqi Air Force's successful experience in employing 

chemical weapons makes it likely that it will be called upon once 

again to conduct Iraqi chemical warfare against Desert Shield 

forces.  Chemical weapons are an integral part of Iraqi combat 

doctrine.  The Air Force will likely attack targets near Iraq [   

(b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

                                  Nonetheless, if Saddam is 

determined to employ chemical weapons, he will likely risk losing 

aircraft in order to deliver chemical weapons, as aircraft provide 

Iraq their only means for accurate delivery of chemical weapons 

beyond artillery range.

[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]



AIRCRAFT           5OO-KG    250-KG      LOAD

SU17 FITTER H      8           10       4 250-KG

MiG-23 FLOGGER F   6            8       4 250-KG

SU-25 FROGFOOT     8           16       4 250-KG

SU-24 FENCER      10           28       4 500-KG

MIRAGE F-IE        4  (400-KG)  5       4 250-kg

Prepared By: [   (b)(6)   ]

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