DEC 01 '90 20:12                                                                        P.4

[   (b)(2)   ]

[   (b)(2)   ]



[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]


             The Iraqi Air Force gained valuable experience in 
chemical warfare during the Iran-Iraq War, when it conducted 
several chemical attacks against Iranians and Kurds.  [   (b)(1) 
sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

Air Delivery Systems and Munitions

             Iraqi Su-22 FITTERs and MiG-23 FLOGGERs conducted 
most air-launched chemical attacks during the Iran-Iraq War.  Iraq 
also utilized several other airframes, fixed and rotary-wing, for 
the delivery of chemical weapons. A complete list is shown below, 
along with ordnance used to deliver agents:

AIRCRAFT TYPE                        DELIVERY MEANS
Fixed Wing                    Bombs  Rockets  Spray Tanks 
Su-17/22 FITTER               x
MiG-23 FLOGGER F              x
Su-25 FROGFOOT                x
Mirage Fl (probably EQ5/6)    x
PC-9 (and possibly PC-7)      x
Tucano                        x
Rotary Wing
Mi-26 HALO                                     poss     poss
Mi-8 HIP C                             poss    X        poss
Mi-24/25 HIND (possibly)               poss    Ross     poss

    The Iraqi Air Force could also employ other aircraft in their 
inventory to deliver chemical weapons.  These are included below:
                            Bombs   Spray Tanks  Cannisters

Fixed Wing
Su-24 FENCER                  x
TU-22 BLINDER                 x                    x
TU-16 BADGER                  x                    x
L-29/39                       x
IL-76 CANDID                                       x
An-24 COKE                                         x
An-26 CURL                                         x
An-12 CUB                                          x
An-2 COLT                                x
SA-342 GAZELLE                           x         x
Mi-2 HOPLITE                             x         x
B0-105                                   x         x

             The preferred chemical ordnance delivered by Iraqi 
aircraft during the war were 250 and 500-kg bombs.  During the 
war, mustard- and Tabun-filled 250-kg bombs were delivered by 
FLOGGER F and FITTER.  Also, 500-kg mustard-filled bombs were 
delivered by FITTER aircraft, and probably by FLOGGERs as well. 
Iraq may have developed the capability to also use cluster bombs, 
some of which may have been filled with chemicals since the end of 
the Iran-Iraq War.  In addition to bombs, 55-gallon drums filled 
with unknown chemical agents (probably mustard) were dropped onto 
forces from altitudes of 3,000-4,000 feet by Iraqi helicopters.  
Spray systems mounted on the Mi-8 HIP helicopters were also used 
against troop concentrations.  An unknown number of HIPs were 
outfitted with two spray tanks on their underside, each with a 
volume of 1000 liters. A B0-105 reportedly observed near Basrah in 
April 1988 carried a probable chemical spray tank attached to the 
exterior near the cockpit, although there is no confirmed use of 
this helicopter delivering chemical ordnance.  Finally, 90-mm 
air-to-surface rockets filled with chemical agent, possibly fired 
by Mi-24/25 HINDs, were used against Iranian troops.


                            TABUN  SARIN  GF  MUSTARD  DUSTY 
100-kg GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS                     x
250-KG GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS  x      x     x     x    x
500-KG GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS  x      x     x     x    x
90-NM ROCKETS                 x                  x
Spray Tanks                   poss         poss  poss

          The early use of chemical weapons by the Iraqi Air Force 
proved ineffective due to poor employment techniques and 
unfavorable weather.  Iraq initially employed the same tactics as 
with the delivery of conventional weapons and did not factor in 
terrain and meteorological factors, including wind speed and 
direction, humidity, and temperature.  Also, pilots delivered 
chemical ordnance at altitudes too high to be effective, or too 
low for bomb fuzes to function properly, preventing bombs from 
detonating.  The Iraqis later corrected these problems by 
improving delivery techniques and by using impact fuses.

Iraqi Air Force Chemical Use Options Against Desert Shield Forces

          Iraq is unlikely to use chemical weapons initially, but 
might use them in a defensive situation in Iraq or northern Kuwait 
if they are being pushed back by an allied offensive.  During the 
Iran-Iraq war, chemical weapons were usually employed by Iraq in 
conjunction with defensive operations, although by late 1987 
Saddam Hussein extended their use to offensive operations as well. 
 Saddam has demonstrated his willingness to employ chemicals 
weapons against civilians.  Iraq conducted chemical attacks 
beginning in March 1987 against Kurds in northern Iraq in 
retaliation for Kurdish support of Iran during the war.

          Since the 2 August 1990 invasion of Kuwait, possible 
handling of chemical munitions has been noted at several Iraqi 
airfields. This activity includes the possible positioning of 
chemical weapons in airbase ordnance bunkers for use by aircraft 
stationed there.  The location and latest month of activity are 
listed below:

AIRFIELD                    MONTH (1990)
Kirkuk                      October
Qayarrah West               October
Tallil                      October, September, and August
Mosul                       September
Taqaddum                    September
Shilbah                     August
Ubaydah Bin al Jarrah       August

       The Iraqi Air Force would likely deliver chemical munitions 
against Desert Shield Force targets beyond artillery range (15-20 
miles).  Likely targets include northern Saudi airfields, tactical 
command and control facilities, and large troop concentrations and 
logistics areas within striking distance of fighter aircraft based 
in southern Iraq.  Iraq would likely strike shortly after sunrise, 
when the effect of chemicals is strongest due to low temperatures. 
 Based on recent ground attack training and tactics employed 
during the Iran-Iraq War, the Iraqis are likely to attack with one 
to four, 2-ship or 4-ship formations spaced one to five minutes 
apart, possibly supported by air interceptors and ECM aircraft.  
Chemical air strikes would be done with the goals of limiting 
operations from key military facilities, inflicting large numbers 
of casualties in a short time, and breaking the will of Desert 
Shield Forces to fight.

       Likely airfield targets include Dhahran, King Fahd, and 
King Abdul Aziz, each with large concentrations of fighter 
aircraft.   These airfields are located along the Persian Gulf 
coast within 300 nm of Iraqi forward deployment bases in southern 
Iraq.  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

   (S) Iraqi Air Force capability to employ chemical attacks 
against area targets, such as troop assembly areas, close to the 
FLOT is good.  Capability to attack point targets, such is command 
and control facilities, is poor to moderate [   (b)(1) sec 
1.3(a)(4)   ]

          Forward-deployed forces might have very little warning 
time before a chemical strike employed by Iraqi aircraft.  While 
Desert Shield air defenses would likely succeed in downing Iraqi 
aircraft, some would likely penetrate beyond the forward defenses. 
 Iraq already has aircraft deployed at southern Iraqi airbases to 
conduct chemical attacks.  Chemical ordnance is stored at several 
Iraqi airfields, so that Iraqi aircraft can be quickly uploaded 
with chemical bombs once Saddam Hussein has given the Air Force 
release authority.

       Iraqi capabilities to conduct deep strike air attacks 
against distant airfields or military headquarters is low.  [   
(b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

                                      Nevertheless, Saddam would 
probably only be willing to subject his aircraft to the risks 
associated with a deep strike if coalition forces are on the verge 
of victory.


       The Iraqi Air Force's successful experience in employing 
chemical weapons makes it likely that it will be called upon once 
again to conduct Iraqi chemical warfare against Desert Shield 
forces.  Chemical weapons are an integral part of Iraqi combat 
doctrine.  The Air Force will likely attack targets near Iraq [   
(b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

                                  Nonetheless, if Saddam is 
determined to employ chemical weapons, he will likely risk losing 
aircraft in order to deliver chemical weapons, as aircraft provide 
Iraq their only means for accurate delivery of chemical weapons 
beyond artillery range.

[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]


AIRCRAFT           5OO-KG    250-KG      LOAD
SU17 FITTER H      8           10       4 250-KG
MiG-23 FLOGGER F   6            8       4 250-KG
SU-25 FROGFOOT     8           16       4 250-KG
SU-24 FENCER      10           28       4 500-KG
MIRAGE F-IE        4  (400-KG)  5       4 250-kg

Prepared By: [   (b)(6)   ]
[   (b)(2)   ]
[   (b)(2)   ]


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