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Subject: IRAQI CHEMICAL WARFARE DATA Overview: - Iraq has an extremely sophisticated CW production capbility. - Iraq has used CW on Kurds & Iranians with little reservatlon. - Use approval resides with Hussein. - Production under State Establishment for Pesticide Production Iraqi Chemical Weapons: - Iraqi Blister: Mustard, Dusty-Mustard; poss. lewisite. * (U) Mustard: persistent, oily liquid. Normally takes 4-6 hours for tissue corruption, unless droplets are inhaled. Persistence is 32-36 hours. Dusty-Mustard: solid particulates impregnated with mustard agent. Forms dust cloud upon release. Minute particulates are esaily inhaled and corrupt lung tissue in 10-15 minutes. Can also get onto skin and become active via sweat, etc. [b.1. sec. 1.5.(a)] Is not a true perssitent agent, as a breeze/wind can reduce residual effect through dispersal. Also, it adheres to larger partlcles once settled, thus it is difficult to become airborne a second time for inhalation. Skin contact & activation, however, is still possible in areas of concentration. * (U) Lewisite: like mustard, except faster acting. Persistence is 24 hours to one week. - Iraqi Nerve: Sarin, Tuban; possibly Soman & VX. * (U) Sarin & Tuban G-agent; non-persistent nerve compounds that can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Persistence is approx 30 minutes. * (U) Soman: G-agent; non-persistent nerve compound like Sarin & Tuban, but reacts faster, is more easily absorbed through skin, and is less responsive to therapy. Persistence is 4-5 hours. * (U) VX: V-agent; persistent nerve compound. is rated higher in reaction time, lethality, etc. than G-agents. Persistence is 300-325 hours. - Iraqi Riot Control: CS. * (U) CS: an advanced, non-persistent tearing agent. *Note: Agent persistence is reduced in hot climates (U) Standard Chemical Use Doctrine: - (U) Persistent Agents: Used as an area denial weapon against high lnterest enemy targets (airflelds, loglstic centers, HQs, etc.) or to impede enemy advance/resupply across known choke points. Will not be used in areas its own troops are expected to operate in. - (U) Non-Persistent Agents: Two primary uses. First, it is used defensively to break up an oncomlng attack, thus causing confusion and forcing attackers to don restrictive chemical warfare suits. Second, it is used offensively to degrade enemy defenses prior to attack by own troops. (U) Riot Control Agent: Intended to break up demonstrations or incapacitate occupants in closed areas (buildlngs), it has been successfully used defensively on battle field to break up oncoming attacks, thus causing confusion and forcing the attackers to don restrictive masks (as in non-persistent agents above). Its use is more desirable than non-persistent lethal agents when necessary in close proximity to own troops or in unpredlctable winds. Iraqi CW Use in Missiles: There is no proof that Iraq has mated chemical warheads to its misslle assets (SCUDs, etc.). It is well within their technology, however, and must not be discounted. The best agent would be dusty agents, due to their excellent ballistic quallty as a Warhead fill agent. Also, wlth Iraq's method of keeping liquid chemical agents in plastic vials, and inserting the required vials into ordnance As required, filling a SCUD warhead with such vials is possible (CEP would suffer when compared to HE or dusty agents which provlde more consistent density and balance). As for tactics, typical SCUD-type military target would be an airfleld, logistic center, or HQ. For such targets, both immediate and long-term agent effectiveness is desired to initiate and maintain confuslon/restrictive worklng conditions. Thus, VX would be ideal lf currently in production. If stlll unavailable, a mix of persistent and non-persistent agents is llkely (either by firing several missiles of different types, or more likely by mixing agent vials in each warhead). Dusty mustard can be employed, but most probably by itself as initial blast-dispersal with a combined liquid warhead (in one missile) would llkely negate the dry, dust cloud effect desired. Thus, with current known Iraqi agents, a combined nerve G- agent/mustard is Iraq's best CW missile warhead, augmented by separate firings of dusty mustard.13 Iraqi Biological Weapons: - Iraq is assessed with a mature offensive BW program. Assessed biological agents include anthrax, cholera, gas gangrene, botulinum toxin, staphlococcal enterotoxin, brucellosis, and mycotoxins. - Iraq is currently estlmated to have acquired sufficient microbal media for 74 billion human-lethal doses of botulinum toxin. - Delivery means include all current Iraql CW systems, plus covert release via non-mllltary ship or aircraft. Can be released upwind [b.1. sec 1.5.(a)] and like chemical weapons, atmospheric conditions favor night & early morning release. Iraql Chem/Bio Reaearch & Productlon Facllitly: - Salman Pak (3304N 04435E) 18NM Southeast of Baghdad. * Main research center. - Samarra (3350N 04350E) 40NM Northwest of Baghdad. *Main production facility. - Habbaniyah (3332N 04337E) 47NM Northwest of Baghdad. *Assessed as producer of precursor chemicals supporting the Samarra production facility. Possibly also does final production of some agents. 13 Note: dusty particulates can be impregnated with any chemical agent. To date, dusty mustard is the only proven agent Iraq has particulated. ? Iraqi Chem/Bio Aerial Delivery Systems: Type Size Platform Aerial bomb 250/500kg Fixed Wing & MI-8 Spray Apparatus 1500L Tank MI-8 Canisters Unk MI-8 AS Rockets 90mm MI-8 Canister Bomb14 Unk Fixed Wing & MI-8 Fixed Wing Acft: F-l, MIG-23, & SU-20/22; poss. PC-7 & EMB-312. * Any of their acft with hardpoints can be used, however. Iraqi Chem/Bio Ground Delivery Systems: Type Size Mortar 82 & 120mm Field Arty 122, 130, 152, 155, 180mm MRL 122mm Recoilless Rifle 106mm I R A Q I A N T I - P E R S O N N E L L A S E R S 1. During the Iran/Iraq War, Iranian soldlers suffered over 4000 documented eye casualtles from Iraqi laser systems, enough to indicate Iraq's employment of some laser systems specifically for their casuaity- producing effect. The Iranian casualties showed effects caused by different types of lasers, which is indicative of the mix of western and Communist-block systems in the Iraqi inventory. While range and power considerations make their use more difficult against aircraft than ground personnel, a soldier possessing such a system will certainly attempt to use it when under air attack. Unfortunately, the Iranian fighter/bomber pilots routinely avoided low level tactics over Iraqi ground troops, thus providing no historical data for assessment. 2. Daytime tracking of aircraft would obviously be easier for the laser operator, accomplished by binoculars mechanically boresighted to the laser system. Daytime dazzle effects, however, are reduced due to the eye's adaption to bright, daytime light. At night, the operator has a considerably more difficult time aiming the device, but its effect is several magnitudes higher due to the increased sengitivlty of the night- adapted eye. 3. Blinding and vision disruption by visible and IR lasers in third world inventories are primarily low-power sygtems, which limits their retina damage to a range of about 2NM. The primary threat for aircrews would be the ND:YAG laser, which is invislble and painless during exposure, and capable of retina damage to a range of about 3NM. Iraq, with its extensive mix of western and Communist-block systems, can be expected to deploy the full spectrum of available tactical lasers. * Not avallable in Iran/Iraq war, is assessed available now, Iraq's use of CW/BIO cluster munitions will greatly increases dispersal on target.
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