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File: 091896_aug96_decls21_0002.txt
Page: 0002
Total Pages: 2

Subject: HEPATITIS IMMUNIZATION  23 OCT 91                               

Box  ID: BX005121

Document Number:          2

Folder Title: MEDICAL SERVICES                                                                                

Folder Seq #:         43

Unit: 22D SUPCOM  

Parent Organzation: ARCENT      


         1. 'Anthra)rlis a zoonotic disease caused by a   gram Positive Spore-
         forming ba4teria, Bacillus anthracis.       Human cases normally have
         resulted from. contact with anchrax spores that contaminate a.-.;@.,al
         products such as hides, wool, and hair. Under natural conditions,
         the disease manifests itself in three @linical forms:
                a.  Cutaneous (malignant pustule) :     The most common form,
         ,normally begins as a painless papule at the site of inoculation..
         The papule becomes vesicular and then progresses to. hemorrhagic
         necrosis and escfiar formation with r       'egional lymphadenopathy.
         constitutional symptoms and "ever are absent unless dissemination
                b. Gastrointestinal:     This uncommon form results from the
         ingestion of anthrax-contaminated meat from sick animals.           The
         disease course is characterized by abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea,
         toxemia, shock,,and death.
                C. Inhalation:' This rare   'form has occurred in the past in
         unvaccinated textile workers exposed to aerosols containing anthrax
         spores from contaminated hides or -hair/wool. The disease begins
         after an incubation period varying from 1 to 6 'days,' presumably'.
         dependent on the dose of inhaled spores.         It is difficult to
         diagnose earlye as the onset is gradual and'non-specific, with
         fevers malaise, and fatigue,       sometimes in association with
         nonproductive cough and mild       chest discomfort.'     The initial
         symptoms are followed in 2 to 3    days by the abrid@t deveiopiftent of
         severe respiratory distress with   dyspnea, diat-lhoresist stridor, and
         cyanosis." Physical findings       may include evidence of pleural
         'effusions, edema of the chest wall, and mes,,'-n4itis.   Chest X-ray
ramatically -widened mediastinum, often with pleural
         effusions 'but typically without infiltrates.        Shock and death
         usually follow within 24 to 36 hours of respiratory distress onset.

         2'. If this bacterium were used in a biowarfare attack, aerosolized
         anthrax spores would be released causing the inhalation form of the
         disease. Preventing exposure of the respiratory tract and mucous
         membranes (to include the conjunctivae) to infections and/or toxic
         aerosols through use of a full-face respirator will prevent
         illness# and should, theoretically, obviate che need for additional
         measures. " However, from a practical standpoint it would be very
         difficult to wear the chemical protective mask at all times.

         3. Primary protection against aerosolized anthrax     spores involves
         physical protection from exposure to the respiratory tract and
         mucous membranes through use of the chemical protective mask.
         Immunization with the anthrax vaccine should provide backup
         protection for those individuals exposed to modest spore doses
        .,without benefit of physical  protection.

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Document 2 f:/Week-34/BX005121/MEDICAL SERVICES/hepatitis immunization 23 oct 91:09139616132948
Control Fields 17
File Room = aug96_declassified
File Cabinet = Week-34
Box ID = BX005121
Unit = 22D SUPCOM
Parent Organization = ARCENT
Folder Seq # = 43
Document Seq # = 48
Document Date =
Scan Date = 26-AUG-1996
Queued for Declassification = 01-JAN-1980
Short Term Referral = 01-JAN-1980
Long Term Referral = 01-JAN-1980
Permanent Referral = 01-JAN-1980
Non-Health Related Document = 01-JAN-1980
Declassified = 13-SEP-1996