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parasympathomimetic The effects obtained from stimulation of the parasympathetic portion of the autonomics nervous system, causing cholinergic effects.
parenchyma The functioning part of an organ as contrasted to its structural parts. Parenchyma of the stomach are the secreting glands which produce acid, mucous, and so forth, as contrasted to the stomach wall which provides structure.
pathognomonic A sign or symptom specifically distinctive of a disease.
percutaneous Through the skin, such as applying an ointment with medication or injection by needle.
peristalsis A wave-like contraction in an organ, such as the intestines, which propels the contents.
pernicious anemia One form of anemia associated with a lack of vitamin B12 and other factors. Usually responds to B12 and iron diet.
persistent agent A chemical agent that continues to present a hazard for considerable periods after delivery by remaining as a contact hazard and/or by vaporizing very slowly to produce a hazard by inhalation. Generally, may be in a solid or liquid state.
phagocytosis The engulfing of microorganisms and foreign particles by cells called phagocytes.
pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx.
pharynx The air passageway from the posterior nose to the trachea.
phenol An ingredient used in calamine lotion (1 percent).
phenothiazine A group of psychotherapeutic medications with a phenothiazine structure which act by adrenergic blocking. They have antiemetic, antihistaminic, and antispasmodic activity in addition to CNS effects.
phenyldichloroarsine A vesicant of the L group.
phosgene Carbonyl chloride, a chemical warfare agent used in World War I (was leading cause of death). Causes severe pulmonary irritation and injury.
phosgene oxime Dichloroformoxime. A vesicant, as well as a lung irritant, used as a chemical warfare agent.
phosphoric acid A tribasic acid.
photophobia Literally, fear of light. Occurs when light becomes painful to the eyes.
physical characteristics Chemical agents cover the whole spectrum of physical properties. Their physical of chemical agents state may be aerosol, gaseous, liquid, or solid under normal conditions. Their vapor pressure (the force exerted by the vapor when in equilibrium with the liquid or solid at a given temperature) may be high or negligible. Their vapor density varies from slightly lighter than air to considerably heavier than air. Their range of odors varies from none to highly pungent. They may be soluble or insoluble in water, fats, or organic solvents. The physical characteristics may give an indication of the behavior of the agents in the field with regard to vapor hazard, persistency, decontamination methods required, and personal and subsistence protection required.
physostigmine A reversible anticholinesterase permitting an accumulation of acetylcholine (cholinergic). It readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It improves the tone and action of skeletal muscles, increases intestinal peristalsis, acts as a miotic in the eye, and is used in treatment of BZ.
physostigmine salicylate See physostigmine.
pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs, usually caused by an infective agent. May be secondary to injury to the lungs.
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) A method of ventilating a patient where positive pressure is maintained in the lungs at the end of the expiratory cycle, thus maintaining a higher pressure than the pulmonary circulation which reduces the pooling or shunting of blood in the lungs.
pralidoxime An oxime used in the treatment of organophosphate insecticides and nerve agent poisoning to block the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by nerve agents.
prednisolone A steroid (glucocorticoid) used in the treatment of choking agents over a course of several days.
preganglionic The nerve fiber leading to a ganglion.
pruritus Itching.
pulmonary edema Swelling of the cells of the lungs, associated with an outpouring of fluid from the capillaries into the pulmonary spaces, producing severe shortness of breath. In later stages, produces expectoration of frothy pink serous fluid and cyanosis.
reserpine A medication used in the treatment of high blood pressure.
rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
rhinorrhea Thin watery discharge from the nose.
riot control agent A chemical which produces transient effects that disappear within minutes of removal from exposure and very rarely require medical treatment. Riot control agents are effective in quelling civil disturbances and in some military operations, to preclude unnecessary loss of life.
saprophytic Pertaining to deriving its growth from other living or dead matter.
Sarin A nerve agent of the organophosphate group which inhibits acetylcholinesterase.
smokes An obscurant system in which one or more solids are dispersed in a vapor or gas. Smokes are made from special petroleum oils such as SGF2, HC, FM, FS, and WP.
sodium bicarbonate Commonly called baking soda. Has many uses, including use in irrigating solutions, especially for the eyes.
sodium carbonate An antacid. Also used as a solution for decontaminating the skin to remove irritants. Can be used as a detergent.
sodium hypochlorite Bleach, a source of chlorine, with decontamination and disinfectant properties.
sodium nitrite A hypotensive agent and methemoglobin former, used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning to sequester the cyanide agent.
sodium sulfacetamide A medication used either as an ointment or solution in the eye. It is a mild anti- bacterial agent.
sodium sulfite A compound used (when in solution) as a decontaminant for skin irritants.
sodium thiocyanate The metabolite formed by the action of sodium thiosulfate on cyanide as an antidote, which is then excreted from the body.
sodium thiosulfate An antidote for cyanide or as a source of sulfhydryl groups for other actions in the body. If used for cyanide poisoning, it should be preceded with sodium nitrite.
Soman A nerve agent member of the organophosphate group; inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Used as a chemical warfare agent.
sternutator An agent which induces coughing and sneezing.
steroid See corticosteroid.
substernal Under the sternum.
sulfur trioxide-chlorosulfonic acid solution An obscurant usually dispensed from aircraft, forms hydrochloric and sulfuric acid on contact with moisture. Is irritating to the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin.
sulfuric acid An acid from sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen used in industry. It is caustic and corrosive.
synechia Adhesion of parts, especially adhesion of the iris to the lens and cornea. systemic poison A poison that affects the whole body.
Tabun A nerve agent member of the organophosphate group which inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Is used as a chemical warfare agent. Is the least toxic of the nerve agents but can cause death rapidly.
thermite Incendiaries that are a mixture of powdered iron oxide, powdered aluminum, and other materials.
thrombocytopenia An absolute decrease in the circulating platelets in the blood.
titanium dioxide A breakdown product of FM which can be irritating to the eyes and skin.
titanium oxychloride One of the three components of FM.
titanium tetrachloride A petroleum base oil that is converted into smoke for battlefield obscuration. May be irritating to eyes and respiratory tract.
tracheobronchial Pertaining to the portion of the airway starting at the neck and passing into the lungs.
tracheotomy An opening made into the trachea to permit air to flow directly into the trachea, and bypassing the nose and mouth.
tranquilizer A medication used in the treatment of various psychoneurotic, neurotic, and psychotic disorders. Major tranquilizers are used for psychoses and include phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, and butyrophenones. Minor tranquilizers are used for treatment of neuroses and anxiety states and include certain barbiturates, the benzodiazepines, and other drugs.
triamcinolone Breaking down of a surface (such as the skin or mucous membrane) to form an ulcer.
urticant A skin irritant which causes itching or a raised red area (wheal).
US Army Field Medical Card (DD Form 1380) A card used to record the medical diagnosis, medication, and treatment given for all illnesses or injuries (including chemical agent injuries) and, if known, the contami- nating agent. It is also used to record the disposition of casualties who are dead on arrival at the battalion aid or division clearing station or who died of wounds, injury, or illness.
vacuolation Formation of a space.
V-agent (VX) A nerve agent of the organophosphate group that inhibits acetylcholinesterase.
vascularization Development of new blood vessels in a structure.
vasoconstriction Diminution of the interior size of a blood vessel with resultant decrease in blood flow.
vertigo Dizziness, where space seems to move around.
vesicant A chemical blister agent which injures the eyes and the lungs and burns or blisters the skin. Examples are HD, L, and CX.
vesication Blistering.
vesiculation The process of blistering.
vomiting agent DA, DM, and DC.
wheezing A whistling sound made in breathing, usually caused by partial obstruction of the airways.
white phosphorus (WP) A form of phosphorus which creates spectacular bursts when used in artillery shells. Is very damaging to the skin since it continues to burn upon exposure to oxygen.

 � About This Manual  � Authorities  � Preface  � Table of Contents  � Chapter 1  � Chapter 2 �
 � Chapter 3  � Chapter 4  � Chapter 5  � Chapter 6  � Chapter 7  � Chapter 8 �
 � Chapter 9  � Chapter 10  � Appendix A  � Appendix B  � Appendix C  � Appendix D �
 � Appendix E  � References  � Index  � Foldouts  � Home �

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