Appendix F - Federally Funded Research on Gulf War Veterans' Health Through Fiscal Year 1996
 GROUP I:  Exploratory and Epidemiologic Research on Health, Rates of Diseases and  
                 Death, and Possible Association with Risk Factors                  

Study title, focus highlighted        Facilitya       Funding   Estimated   References  
                                                      agency    completion              

Health and Exposure Survey of         VAMC East      VA        Complete     Manuscript  
Persian Gulf Veterans (general        Orange                                in          
health symptoms, CFS, MCS,                                                  preparation 

Gulf War and Vietnam Veterans Cancer  VAMC Boston    VA        9/99         None        
Incidence Surveillance                                                                  

A Controlled Epidemiological and      King's         DOD       6/99         None        
Clinical Study into the Effect of     College                                           
Gulf War Service on Servicemen and    School of                                         
Women of the United Kingdom Armed     Medicine, UK                                      
Forces (general health symptoms,                                                        
CFS, psychiatric conditions,                                                            
neuropsychological outcomes,                                                            
respiratory function)                                                                   

Epidemiological Studies of Persian    Klemm          DOD       1/99         None        
Gulf War Illnesses, Persian Gulf      Analysis                                          
Women's Health Linkage Study          Group, Inc.,                                      
(general health symptoms,             Washington,                                       
reproductive outcomes, cancer,        DC                                                
psychological conditions)                                                               

Risk Factors Among U.S. Army          WRAIR          DOD and   Complete     Manuscript  
Soldiers for Enrolling in the                        VA                     in          
Department of Veterans Affairs Gulf                                         preparation 
War Registry (demographics, aptitude                                                    
test scores, hospitalizations,                                                          
self-reported health behaviors)                                                         

Epidemiological Study of Gulf War     NHRC           DOD       5/97         None        
Veteran Registrants (risk factors                                                       
associated with enrollment in CCEP                                                      
or VA Registry)                                                                         

The General Well-being of Gulf War    WRAIR          DOD       Complete     245-247,    
Era Service Personnel from the                                              272,340     
States of Pennsylvania and Hawaii:                                                      
A Survey (general symptoms, PTSD,                                                       
and other psychological conditions)                                                     

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC           DOD       6/97         None        
among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                                                      
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 6:  A Comparison of                                                       
Nonfederal Hospitalization                                                              
Experience among Veterans in                                                            
California Who Have Separated from                                                      
Active Service, Persian Gulf War v.                                                     
Era Veterans                                                                            

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC           DOD       Survey in    None        
among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                             OMB review               
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 5:  Seabee mail survey                                                    
(chronic disease outcomes)                                                              

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC           DOD       Complete     33,75       
among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                                                      
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 2:  A Comparative                                                         
Study of Hospitalizations Among                                                         
Active Duty Personnel Who                                                               
Participated in the Gulf War and                                                        
Similar Personnel Who Did Not                                                           

GROUP I (cont.):
Disease Cluster in a Pennsylvania     CDC and        DHHS      Phases 1,2   291         
Air National Guard Unit (general      Pennsylvania             complete;                
health symptoms, psychiatric          Department of            phase 3                  
outcomes, infectious diseases)        Health                   analysis                 

Health Assessment of Persian Gulf     CDC and Iowa   DHHS      1/97         Manuscript  
Veterans from Iowa (CFS, FM,          Department of                         submitted   
psychological conditions, cognitive   Public Health                                     
dysfunction, reproductive outcomes)                                                     

CORE [Clinical and Epidemiology       VAMC Portland  VA        9/99         None        
Research] Project, Portland                                                             
Environmental Hazards Research                                                          
Center:  Environment, Veterans                                                          
Health, and the Gulf War Syndrome                                                       
(general health symptoms and                                                            
diseases, reproductive outcomes,                                                        
stress, psychological conditions)                                                       

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC           DOD       Complete     106         
Among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                                                      
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 1:  A Study of                                                            
Symptoms among 1,500 Seabees                                                            
(general health symptoms, hand grip                                                     
strength, respiratory function)                                                         

National Health Survey of Persian     EES            VA        Phase 1      None        
Gulf Veterans (survey of general                               complete;                
health status, examining general                               phase 2                  
health symptoms and diseases,                                  ongoing,                 
reproductive outcomes, stress,                                 5/98                     
psychological conditions)                                                               

Mortality Follow-up Study of Persian  EES            VA        Complete;    108         
Gulf Veterans                                                  long-term                

United States Military Casualty       National       DHHS      Complete     85          
Comparisons During the Persian Gulf   Institute for                                     
War                                   Occupational                                      
                                      Safety and                                        

Comparative Mortality Among U.S.      WRAIR          DOD       Complete     343         
Military Personnel Worldwide During                                                     
Operations Desert Shield/Storm                                                          

Health and Psychosocial Readjustment  University of  DOD       Complete     199-201     
of Gulf War Veteran Women             Michigan                                          

Health of Persian Gulf War Veteran    University of  DOD       8/99         None        
Women                                 Michigan                                          

Exploratory Data Analysis with the    Naval          DOD       9/97         None        
CCEP Database                         Postgraduate                                      
                                      School, MO                                        

Investigation of a Suspected          WRAIR          DOD       Complete     41          
Outbreak of an Unknown Disease among                                                    
Veterans of Operation Desert                                                            
Shield/Desert Storm, 123rd Army                                                         
Reserve Command (general health                                                         
symptoms, medical and psychological                                                     
conditions, laboratory screening)                                                       

Investigation of Symptomatic Illness  Navy           DOD       Complete     10          
in Naval Mobile Construction          Environmental                                     
Battalion 24, November 1993-February  and                                               
1994 (general health symptoms,        Preventive                                        
review of medical records)            Medicine Unit                                     
                                      #2, Norfolk                                       

GROUP I (cont.)
A Statistical Study Correlating the   U.S. Army       DOD       Complete    72          
Reported Cases of Gulf War Syndrome   Research                                          
to Battlefield Locations of           Laboratory,                                       
Afflicted U.S. Army Personnel During  Aberdeen, MD                                      
the Iraq-Kuwait War-Part I:  Method                                                     
to Relate Troop Deployment and the                                                      
Reported Cases of Gulf War Syndrome                                                     
and Probable Incidence of Maladies                                                      
Defined by the ICD-9-CM (statistical                                                    

              GROUP II:  Health Outcomes from Service in the Gulf War               

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC            DOD       9/97        None        
among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                                                      
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 4:  Infertility and                                                       
Miscarriage in Gulf War Veterans                                                        

Feasibility of Investigating Whether  March of        DOD       6/98        None        
There is a Relationship between       Dimes,                                            
Birth Defects and Service in the      California                                        
Gulf War (birth defects in children   Birth Defects                                     
of Gulf War veterans in California)   Monitoring                                        

Suspected Increase of Birth Defects   Mississippi     DHHS      Complete    195         
and Health Problems among Children    State                                             
Born to Persian Gulf Veterans in      Department of                                     
Mississippi                           Health                                            

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC            DOD       Complete    36          
among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                                                      
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 3:  A Comparative                                                         
Study of Pregnancy Outcomes among                                                       
Gulf War Veterans and Other Active                                                      
Duty Personnel                                                                          

Epidemiologic Studies of Morbidity    NHRC            DOD       6/97        None        
Among Gulf War Veterans:  A Search                                                      
for Etiologic Agents and Risk                                                           
Factors-Study 7:  Prevalence of                                                         
Congenital Anomalies among Children                                                     
of Persian Gulf War Veterans                                                            

Investigation of Seminal Plasma       University of   DOD       9/2000      None        
Hypersensitivity Reactions            Cincinnati                                        
(immunological analysis of semen)     Medical                                           
                                      Science Center                                    

Cutaneous Findings in Gulf War        WRMC            DOD       Complete    123         
Veterans (dermatological                                                                

Diarrhea in Persian Gulf Veterans:    VAMC            VA        1/2000      None        
An Irritable Bowel-Like Disorder      Gainesville                                       

Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in   VAMC Boston     VA        Complete    238         
Persian Gulf Veterans                                                                   

Study of Mycoplasmal Infections in    WRAIR           DOD       8/97        None        
Gulf War Veterans                                                                       

Immunological Evaluation of Persian   VAMC            VA        Complete    None        
Gulf Veterans                         Birmingham                                        

The Symptomatic Persian Gulf          VAMC            VA        12/99       120         
Veterans Protocol:  An Analysis of    Birmingham                                        
Risk Factors with an Immunologic and                                                    
Neuropsychiatric Assessment                                                             

GROUP II (cont.)
Assessment of Genomic Instability     Armed Forces    DOD       5/97       None         
via Chromosome 7 Inversion Frequency  Institute of                                      
in a Gulf War Syndrome Cohort v.      Pathology                                         
Selected Control Groups (immunology)                                                    

Evaluation of Respiratory             VAMC Boston     VA        9/99       None         
Dysfunction Among Gulf War Veterans                                                     
(Kuwait oil-well fire effects)                                                          

Portland Environmental Hazards        VAMC Portland   VA        9/99       None         
Research Center:  Environment,                                                          
Veterans Health and the Gulf War                                                        
Syndrome-Project II. Clinical and                                                       
Neuroendocrine Aspects of                                                               

Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Gulf War  VAMC Long       VA        1/99       None         
Syndrome                              Beach                                             

Evaluation of Muscle Function in      University of   DOD       11/99      None         
Persian Gulf Veterans (causes of      Pennsylvania                                      
chronic fatigue and muscle weakness)                                                    

Evaluation of Neuromuscular Symptoms  Wilford Hall    DOD       Complete   2            
in Veterans of the Persian Gulf War   Medical                                           
(neurological, neuromuscular, and     Center, TX                                        
psychiatric evaluations)                                                                

Fatigue in Persian Gulf               University of   DOD       7/98       None         
Syndrome-Physiologic Mechanisms       Texas                                             
(physiology of muscle fatigue)                                                          

Initial Contact Interview with        VAMC Mountain   VA        3/97       231-236      
Marine Reservists in Operation        Home                                              
Desert Storm and 3-year Followup                                                        
(stress and PTSD outcomes)                                                              

Neurobehavioral Aspects of Persian    VAMC            VA        Complete   73           
Gulf War Experiences:  A Pilot Study  Pittsburgh                                        
(stress, neuro-physiological and                                                        
-psychological effects, PTSD                                                            

A Comparison of PTSD Symptomology     VAMC Phoenix    VA        Complete   296          
among Three Army Medical Units                                                          
Involved in ODS                                                                         

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder        Fort Hood       DOD       Complete   54           
Symptoms and Precombat Sexual and     Mental Health                                     
Physical Abuse in Desert Storm        Clinic, TX                                        
Veterans (previous abuse, combat                                                        
exposure, and PTSD)                                                                     

Combat Stress Diagnosis, PTSD         WRAIR           DOD       9/98       70,188       

Desert Storm Reunion Survey (stress,  VAMC Boston     VA        Complete   335-338      
PTSD outcomes)                                                                          

Portland Environmental Hazards        VAMC Portland   VA        9/99       121          
Research Center:  Environment,                                                          
Veterans Health and the Gulf War                                                        
Syndrome-Project 1. Psychosocial,                                                       
Neuropsychological, and                                                                 
Neurobehavioral Assessment (stress,                                                     
neuropsychological, PTSD outcomes)                                                      

Memory and Attention in PTSD          VAMC New        VA        9/98       317-319      
(neuropsychological outcomes)         Orleans                                           

Neuropsychological Functioning in     VAMC New        VA        Complete   317-319      
Veterans (stress and PTSD outcomes)   Orleans                                           

GROUP II (cont.)
Psychological Assessment of           VAMC New        VA        9/97       250-255      
Operation Desert Storm Returnees      Orleans                                           
(stress, general health symptoms,                                                       
depression, and PTSD outcomes)                                                          

Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning   VAMC New        VA        Complete   254          
In Persian Gulf Veterans Reporting    Orleans                                           
War-related Health Problems (stress,                                                    
neuropsychological and PTSD                                                             

Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning   VAMC Boston     VA        9/99       210,335-338  
of Persian Gulf Veterans (stress,                                                       
depression, general health symptoms,                                                    
PTSD outcomes)                                                                          

MMPI-2 Profiles [Minnesota            Wilford Hall    DOD       Complete   86           
Multiphasic Personality Inventory,    Medical                                           
version 2]  of Symptomatic Persian    Center, TX                                        
Gulf Veterans (psychological                                                            

Female Gender and Other Potential     VAMC Boston     DOD       3/98       210,335-338  
Predictors of Functional Health                                                         
Status Among Persian Gulf Veterans                                                      
(stress, MCS, PTSD outcomes)                                                            

Physiological and Psychological       VAMC East       VA        3/97       None         
Assessments of Persian Gulf Veterans  Orange                                            
(stress, viral/immunological,                                                           
neurophysiological and                                                                  
neuropsychological assessments, CFS,                                                    
MCS outcomes)                                                                           

Effects of Exertion and Chemical      VAMC East       VA        9/99       None         
Stress on Persian Gulf Veterans       Orange/VA                                         
(CFS, MCS outcomes)                                                                     

Evaluation of Neurological            VAMC Boston     VA        9/99       None         
Functioning in Persian Gulf Veterans                                                    
(stress, CFS, MCS, PTSD outcomes)                                                       

Persian Gulf Illnesses:  Preliminary  Madigan Army    DOD       Complete   181          
Neurological Impressions              Medical                                           
(neurological evaluations)            Center, WA                                        

Validity of Computerized Tests        VAMC Boston     VA        9/99       122,332      
(assessment of neurophysiologic                                                         

Psychological and Neurobiological     West Haven      DOD       7/99       239,240      
Consequences of Gulf War Experience   VAMC                                              
(stress, PTSD outcomes)                                                                 

Neuropsychological Functioning in     Boston          DOD       6/99       None         
Persian Gulf War Era Veterans         University                                        
(stress outcomes, cognitive           Medical Campus                                    
impairments, and CNS damage)                                                            

Dysregulation of the Stress Response  Georgetown      DOD       6/99       None         
in the Persian Gulf Syndrome (CFS,    University                                        
FM, psychiatric outcomes,             Medical Center                                    
abnormalities in neurohormones                                                          
related to stress response)                                                             

Acute and Long-Term Impact of         Ft. Detrick     DOD       9/98       None         
Deployment to Southwest Asia on the                                                     
Physical and Mental Health of                                                           
Soldiers and Their Families (stress                                                     

Stress Symptoms and Their Causal      VAMC            VA        12/96      None         
Attribution in Desert Storm Veterans  Clarksburg                                        

Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Among  Army Medical    DOD       Complete   126          
Soldiers Exposed to Combat in the     Department,                                       
Persian Gulf (combat exposure,        Bremerhaven,                                      
stress reactions)                     Germany                                           

An Exploration of Post-traumatic      University of   VA        Complete   215          
Stress Disorder in Reserve Forces     South Florida                                     
Deployed During Desert Storm                                                            

GROUP II (cont.)
Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress     WRAIR/DOD       DOD       Complete    152,153     
Disorder Following Recovery of War                                                      
Dead (followup of PTSD symptoms over                                                    

Psychological and War Stress          Highland Drive  VA        Complete    197,204     
Symptoms among Deployed and           Medical                                           
Non-deployed Reservists Following     Center,                                           
the Persian Gulf War (combat          Pittsburgh                                        
exposure, stress, PTSD, and                                                             

Unit-Based Intervention for Gulf War  Highland Drive  VA        Complete    198,204     
Soldiers Surviving a SCUD Missile     Medical                                           
Attack:  Program Description and      Center,                                           
Preliminary Findings (combat          Pittsburgh                                        
exposure, PTSD, and depression)                                                         

Psychological Adjustment In           VAMC            VA        Complete    237         
Operation Desert Shield/Storm         Gainesville                                       
Veterans (stress outcomes)                                                              

              GROUP III:  Risk Factors and Gulf War Veterans' Health                

Persian Gulf Veterans Health          CHPPM           DOD       12/97       None        
Tracking System (Kuwait oil fire                                                        
smoke and other environmental                                                           

Portland Environmental Hazards        VAMC Portland,  VA        9/99        116         
Research Center:   Environment,       OR                                                
Veterans Health, and the Gulf War                                                       
Syndrome-Project IV.  DNA Damage                                                        
from Chemical Agents and Its Repair                                                     
(nitrogen mustard effects in human                                                      
skin cultures)                                                                          

Chronic Organophosphorus Exposure     University of   DOD       5/98        None        
and Cognition (chemical weapon        Georgia                                           
effects in lab. animals)                                                                

Carcinogenicity of Depleted Uranium   ITRI            DOD       10/98       None        

Health Risk Assessment of Embedded    AFFRI           DOD       9/97        None        
Depleted Uranium:  Behavior,                                                            
Physiology, Histology, and                                                              
Biokinetic Modeling                                                                     

Kuwait Oil Fire Health Risk           CHPPM           DOD       Complete    154,265     

Kuwait Oil Fires Troop Exposure       CHPPM           DOD       12/96       265         
Assessment Model                                                                        

The Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor     VAMC Boston     VA        9/99        None        
AhR as a Biomarker of Susceptibility                                                    
(exposure to Kuwaiti oil well fires                                                     
and petroleum products)                                                                 

Biomarkers of Susceptibility and      NIH             DHHS      1/97        265         
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon                                                         
(PAH) Exposure in Urine and Blood                                                       
Cell DNA from U.S. Army Soldiers                                                        
Exposed to Kuwaiti Oil Well Fires                                                       

Volatile Organic Compounds in the     CDC             DHHS      Complete    55          
Blood of Persons in Kuwait during                                                       
the Oil Fires                                                                           

Characteristics of Emissions from     ITRI            DOD       7/98        none        
Heaters Burning Leaded Diesel Fuel                                                      
in Unvented Tents                                                                       

Forward Deployable Diagnostics for    NMRI, WRAIR,    DOD       9/2001      111,327     
Infectious Diseases                   USAMRIID                                          

Identification of the Genetic         Army Research   DOD       7/98        24,25       
Factors Which Control Tropism in      Lab, Brazil                                       

GROUP III (cont.)
Protective Immunity in Experimental   VAMC San        VA        9/97       None         
Visceral Leishmaniasis                Antonio                                           

Vaccine-mediated Immunity Against     VAMC Cleveland  VA        9/99       81-83        

Development of a Leishmania Skin      WRAIR           DOD       1/2000     243,244      
Test Antigen                                                                            

Serologic Diagnosis of Viscerotropic  WRAIR           DOD       Complete   45-47        

Diagnostic Antigens of Leishmania     Infectious      DOD       6/98       None         
tropica                               Disease                                           

Assessment of the Health of Workers   USAMRIID        DOD       11/98      None         
Formerly Employed at Ft. Detrick Who                                                    
Received Repeated Immunizations with                                                    
Multiple Vaccines-Study I                                                               

Anthrax and Botulinum Vaccines:       USAMRIID        DOD       Complete   202b         
Antibody Prevalence and Immune                                                          
Response to a Booster Dose in                                                           
Military Personnel Initially                                                            
Vaccinated During Desert                                                                
Shield/Desert Storm                                                                     

Combat Stress Pharmacotherapy         WRAIR           DOD       9/99       79,80,206-20 

Neurobehavioral and Immunological     University of   DOD       5/99       None         
Toxicity of Pyridostigmine,           Florida,                                          
Permethrin and DEET in Males and      Gainesville                                       
Females (immune and neurobehavioral                                                     
effects of PB, DEET, and permethrin                                                     
in rats)                                                                                

Effects of Genetics and Stress on     VAMC East       VA        9/97       196          
Responses to Environmental Toxins     Orange                                            
(stress as a mediating factor for                                                       
effects of PB in rats)                                                                  

Effects of PB in Flinders Line Rats   University of   DOD       7/98       None         
Differing in Cholinergic Sensitivity  North                                             
(genetic effects in rats)             Carolina,                                         
                                      Chapel Hill                                       

Physiological and Neurobehavioral     Tri-service     DOD       10/97      180          
Effects in Rodents from Exposure to   Toxicology                                        
Pyridostigmine, Fuels, and            Consortium,                                       
DEET-Toxicity of Simulated Persian    Wright                                            
Gulf War Exposure                     Patterson AFB                                     

Possible Relationship Between         WRAIR           DOD       12/96      49,67,68     
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity of                                                        
Insect Repellent DEET and Carbamate                                                     
Pyridostigmine in Gulf War Veterans'                                                    
Illnesses:  Study of Variability in                                                     
Pyridostigmine Inhibition of Blood                                                      
Cholinesterases in Healthy Adults                                                       
(interactions of PB with various                                                        
pesticides in humans)                                                                   

Pyridostigmine Synergistic Toxicity   CHPPM           DOD       Complete   151,263      
Study (interaction of PB and various                                                    
pesticides in humans)                                                                   

Portland Environmental Hazards        VAMC Portland,  VA        9/99       50           
Research Center:   Environment,       OR                                                
Veterans Heath and the Gulf War                                                         
Syndrome-Project III.  Neurotoxicity                                                    
of Environmental Pollutants and                                                         
Warfare Agents (effects of PB and                                                       
hydrocarbon solvents on rodent                                                          
nervous system)                                                                         

Male/Female Differential Tolerances   South Florida   DOD       Complete   128          
to Pyridostigmine Bromide (humans)    Drug Research                                     
                                      and Clinical                                      

GROUP III (cont.)
Retrospective Studies Involving       USAMRMC         DOD       Complete    270         
Military Use of Pyridostigmine as a                                                     
Pretreatment for Nerve Agent                                                            
Poisoning (humans)                                                                      

Pyridostigmine Used as a Nerve Agent  USAMRIC         DOD       Complete    110c        
Pretreatment Under Wartime                                                              
Conditions (humans)                                                                     

Effects of Persian Gulf War Service   AFIP            DOD       12/98       None        
on Military Working Dogs                                                                

Use of Roster of Veterans Who Served  EES, U.S.       VA        Complete    None        
in Persian Gulf Area                  Army, and the                                     
                                      Joint Services                                    
                                      Support Group                                     

a Abbreviations:AFFRI Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MDCCEP Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation ProgramCDC Centers for Disease Control and PreventionCFS Chronic Fatigue SyndromeCHPPM U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen, MDDHHS Department of Health and Human ServicesDOD Department of DefenseEES VA Environmental Epidemiology ServiceFM FibromyalgiaITRI Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NMMCS Multiple Chemical SensitivityNHRC Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CANMRI Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MDPB pyidostigmine bromidePTSD Post-traumatic Stress DisorderUK United KingdomUSAEHA U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (now CHPPM)USAMRIC U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical DefenseUSAMRIID U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious DiseasesUSAMRMC U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel CommandVA Department of Veterans AffairsVAMC Veterans Affairs Medical CenterWRAIR Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DCWRMC Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC
b Considerable general vaccine research concerning botulinum and anthrax vaccines is ongoing.
c Before and after the Gulf War, DOD has conducted research on PB in conjunction with IND 23,509.

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