TAB A Acronym Listing/Glossary

This Tab provides a listing of acronyms found in this report. Additionally, the Glossary section provides definitions for selected technical terms that are not found in common usage.


ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ARCENT Army Central Command
AVHRR Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer
CO carbon monoxide
CO2 carbon dioxide
CURR Center for Unit Record Research
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
DoD Department of Defense
FAE Fuel Air Explosive
FSTC Foreign Science and Technology Center
GAO General Accounting Office
GIS Geographic Information System
HI Hazard Index
HRA Health Risk Assessment
H2S Hydrogen Sulfide
IMO International Maritime Organization
KOC Kuwait Oil Company
km kilometer
KNPC Kuwait National Petroleum Corporation
KPC Kuwait Petroleum Corporation
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MEDCOM Medical Command
mg/m3 milligrams per cubic meter
MEPA Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (Saudi Arabia)
MOPP Mission Oriented Protective Posture
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NIOSH National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOx oxide of nitrogen
O3 ozone
ODS/DS Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm
OPEC Organization of Oil Producing Countries
OSAGWI Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTA Office of Technology Assessment
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PEL permissible exposure level
PM10 Particulate Matter Less Than 10 Microns in Diameter
PPB parts per billion
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PPM parts per million
PSI pounds per square inch
REL recommended exposure level
RfD reference dose
SBCCOM Soldier and Biological Chemical Command
SO2 sulfur dioxide
SVOC semi-volatile organic compound
TLV threshold limit value
TSP total suspended particulate
m g/m3 Microgram per Cubic Meter
UIC Unit Identification Code
UN United Nations
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme General Council
USACHPPM United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine
USAEHA United States Army Environmental Hygiene Agency
USCENTCOM United States Central Command
US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
USIAAT United States Interagency Air Quality Assessment Team
VOC volatile organic compound
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization


Air quality standards

Six "criteria pollutants" (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and lead) US EPA uses to indicate air quality. US EPA has established for each of them a maximum concentration above which adverse effects on human health may occur. These threshold concentrations are called National Ambient Air Quality Standards.


The homologous group of linear saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C(n)H(2n+2). Alkanes can be straight or branched chains or ring structures. Also called paraffins.


Chronic respiratory system disorder characterized by wheezing, coughing, and difficulty in breathing.

Barrel of Oil (BBL)

One stock tank barrel of oil or natural gas liquids, with volumes expressed in standard 42 US gallon barrels or 34.972 Imperial gallon barrels.


An inflammation of the mucous lining of the bronchial tubes.


A compound or material capable of producing cancer.

Chronic Reference Dose

An estimated daily exposure level for the human population, including sensitive sub-populations, likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects over the long term (seven years to a lifetime).

Coalition Forces

Multi-national military force assembled and aligned to remove the occupation forces of the Republic of Iraq from Kuwait.


The amount of a substance available for interaction with metabolic processes or biologically significant receptors after crossing an organism’s outer boundary. Dose is a function of the concentration of the substance to which a receptor is exposed and exposure duration.
Potential dose: The amount ingested, inhaled, or applied to the skin.
Applied dose: The amount of a substance presented to an absorption barrier and available for absorption (although not necessarily having yet crossed the outer boundary of the organism).
Absorbed dose: The amount crossing a specific absorption barrier (e.g., the exchange boundaries of skin, lung and digestive tract) through uptake.
Internal dose: A more general term denoting the amount absorbed without respect to specific absorption barriers or exchange boundaries.
Delivered dose (for an organ or cell): The amount of a chemical available for interaction by any particular organ or cell.

Excess Cancer Risk

The probability an individual will acquire cancer over a lifetime of exposure. US EPA has determined the acceptable range of excess cancer as one in a population of 10,000 to one in a population of 1,000,000 under conditions of exposure. Regulatory agencies often use a risk level, or probability of one in 1,000,000 an individual could develop cancer due to an exposure to potential carcinogens at a site, as the point of departure to trigger action.


Contact with a chemical or physical agent, quantified as the agent’s concentration in the medium in contact integrated over the time duration of that contact.

Exposure Assessment

The determination or estimation (qualitative or quantitative) of the magnitude, frequency, duration, route, and extent (number of people) of exposure to a chemical.

Exposure Pathways

The course a contaminant takes from the source to the exposed person, generally consisting of four elements: 1) source of chemical release; 2) receiving and/or transporting medium (e.g., air, soil, water); 3) point of potential contact; and 4) exposure route (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact).

Hazard Index

The sum of more than one hazard quotient for several substances and/or several exposure pathways, calculated separately for chronic, sub-chronic, and shorter duration exposures.

Hazard Quotient

The ratio of a single substance exposure level over a specified time period (e.g., sub-chronic) to a reference dose for that substance derived from a similar exposure period.

Heavy Metals

Metallic elements with high atomic weights, e.g., mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead. They can cause damage to living organisms at very low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain.

Health Risk Assessment

A qualitative or quantitative evaluation of the environmental health risk resulting from exposure to a chemical or physical agent (pollutant); combines exposure assessment results with toxicity assessment results to estimate risk.

Hydrogen Sulfide

A highly toxic, highly flammable, heavier-than-air gas present in crude oil; normally removed during the refining process.

Intake Rate

The rate by which a substance crosses an organism’s outer boundary without passing an absorption barrier, e.g., through ingestion or inhalation.


The isolation of a pollutant plume aloft, occurring when the plume is emitted or disperses to a position above a stable layer or temperature inversion lid that inhibits downward dispersion and isolates the plume from lower layers near the ground.

Marrat Structure

A regional oil-bearing geologic structure 12,000 to 14,000 feet deep below the earth’s surface.


Using mathematical methods to simulate processes to predict results. In the context of exposure assessment, any mathematical method describing a physical system used to predict the concentration of specific chemicals as a function of space and time subject to transport, intermedia transfer, storage, and degradation in the environment.

Mission Oriented Protective Posture

Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) is a flexible system used to direct the wearing of chemical protective garments and mask – a system that balances mission requirements with the chemical warfare agent threat. Wearing chemical protective garments and mask provides soldiers protection against most know chemical warfare agents, biological agents, and toxins.

At MOPP Level 0 soldiers carry their protective mask while their remaining MOPP gear must be readily available (e.g., within the work area, fighting position, living space, etc.). At MOPP Level 1, soldiers wear their overgarment and carry the rest of their MOPP gear. At MOPP Level 2, soldiers wear their overgarment and overboots while carrying the mask with hood and gloves. At MOPP Level 3, soldiers wear their overgarment, overboots, and mask with hood, but not the gloves. At MOPP Level 4, soldiers wear all their MOPP gear. Commanders can raise or lower the amount of protection through five levels of MOPP. In addition, commanders, under certain situations, can exercise a mask-only option.

Monitoring Data Measured concentrations of substances in environmental media or in human or other biological tissues.
Organics Chemical compounds made from molecules containing carbon, whether natural materials (e.g., from animal or plant sources) or man-made (e.g., synthetic organics).
Oxide A binary chemical compound in which oxygen combines with a metal or non-metal.
Pathway The physical route a chemical or pollutant takes from the source to the organism exposed.
Plume The way polluted air extends downwind from the pollution source (e.g., smoke from a smokestack as it drifts downwind in the atmosphere).
Pollutant An environmental contaminant.
Reference Dose The US EPA’s preferred toxicity value for evaluating non-carcinogenic effects resulting from exposures at Superfund sites. See also chronic and sub-chronic reference dose.
Risk The probability an undesirable outcome will occur, defined in terms of the probability of a particular adverse effect. It has the dimensions of frequency or incidence (e.g., 1 in 1,000,000) and is coupled to an exposure estimate. The actual risk statement may take the form of the probability of an outcome associated with a unit exposure. For example, there is a lifetime "risk" of 2.5 excess cancers in10,000 from an exposure to 1 part per million of a chemical (unspecified) in community air breathed 24 hours a day, every day for 70 years.
Sampling Data A representative portion of the whole. Exposure-related measurements usually are samples of environmental or ambient media, exposures of a small subset of a population for a short time, or biological samples, all for the purpose of inferring the nature and quality of parameters important to evaluating exposure.
Scorched Earth Policy The plan Iraq adopted to cripple Kuwait’s economy by destroying its oil infrastructure. The plan was also designed to obtain a military advantage against Coalition forces.
Shamal Winds Strong, hot, dry, persistent northwest winds occurring in Kuwait most often in summer; frequently accompanied by dust storms, especially in the southern part of the country.
Silicosis A fibrogenic pneumoconiosis caused by inhaling crystalline-free silica (quartz) dust; characterized by discrete nodular pulmonary fibrosis and, in more advanced stages, by conglomerate fibrosis and respiratory impairment
Slope factor Biological system response per unit intake of a chemical over a lifetime. The slope factor is used to estimate an upper-bound probability of an individual developing cancer as a result of a lifetime of exposure to a particular level of a potential carcinogen.
Sour crude Kuwait crude oil containing as many as 20 to 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide.
Sub-chronic reference dose An estimated daily exposure level for the general population, including sensitive sub-populations, likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a portion of a lifetime(14 days to 2 years).
Temperature inversion A meteorological condition in which in very still, stable air, cooler, denser air settles close to the ground and warmer air forms a blanket above it, trapping air pollutants, such as smoke and soot. In such an inversion, temperature increases with height.
Toxicity factors See Reference Dose and Slope Factor
Troop unit An organization of troops, aircraft, or ships intended to serve as a single unit in combat. Any military element whose structure is prescribed by competent authority, such as a table of organization and equipment; specifically, part of an organization. An organization title of a group’s or task force’s subdivision. When applied to reserve Armed Forces components, denotes a Selected Reserve unit organized, equipped and trained for mobilization to serve on active duty as a unit or to augment or be augmented by another unit.
Volatile Capable of vaporizing or evaporating quickly at relatively low temperatures.
Well Head A configuration of valves, gates, and piping designed to control the flow of oil from an oil well.

| First Page | Prev Page | Next Page |