END NOTES

[1] Tab C-1 contains acronyms, abbreviations, and a glossary of terms used in this report; Tab C-2 contains the bibliography.

[2] "Pesticides" is a general term that refers to any of the chemicals designed to control pests. They include insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides and herbicides.

[3] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000.

[4] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000.

[5] Withers, Benjamin G, et al., "Preventing Disease and Non-Battle Injury in Deployed Units," Military Medicine: International Journal of AMSUS, Vol. 159, No. 1, January 1994, p. 39-40.

[6] Withers, Benjamin G., and Ralph L Erickson, "Good Doctors Are Not Enough," Military Review, March 1994, p. 57, 63.

[7] Smoak, Bonnie, Medical Threat Assessment: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Communicable Disease Report (Special Edition), September 1990, p.7; US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Personal Protective Techniques Against Insects and Other Arthropods of Military Significance," Technical Guide No. 174, June 1, 1991, p. 1-1, 1-2.

[8] Hyams, Kenneth C., et al., "The Impact of Infectious Diseases on the Health of US Troops Deployed to the Persian Gulf During Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm," Clinical Infectious Diseases, 20:1497-1504, 1995, p. 1-8; Samuel Martin, et. al., "Leishmaniasis in the United States Military," Military Medicine, December 1998, p. 801.

[9] US House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, "Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses: VA, DoD Continue to Resist Strong Evidence Linking Toxic Causes to Chronic Health Effects," House Report 105-388, November 7, 1997, p. 77-78, 82.

[10] Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Final Report, December 1996, p. 125.

[11] US Senate, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, "Report of the Special Investigation Unit on Gulf War Illnesses," September 9, 1998, p. 162-163.

[12] Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Final Report, December 1996, p. 107.

[13] US Senate, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, "Report of the Special Investigation Unit on Gulf War Illnesses," 105-39, Part I, 1998, p. 118.

[14] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Personal Protective Techniques Against Insets and Other Arthropods of Military Significance," USEHA Technical Guide No. 174, Figure 2-12, June 1991, p. 2-20.

[15] For more information about general issues in this section see Tab C-3, "Pesticide Guidance, Reference Information, and Research;" Tab C-4, "Pest Management and Operations," and Tab C-7, "Logistics."

[16] US Central Command, CENTCOM Surgeon message, Subj:, "Preventive Medicine Guidance for Operation Desert Shield," August 10, 1990, p. 2.

[17] Memorandum from XVIII Airborne Corps, Surgeon, Subj: "Operation Desert Shield Medical and Chemical Threat," (no month) 1990, p. 1-2.

[18] Department of Defense, permethrin arthropod repellent label, May 8, 1990.

[19] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.2, p. 22.

[20] Memorandum from XVIII Airborne Corps G-3, Subj: "Daily Staff Journal (Medical Update)", August 15, 1990, p. 2. See Tab C-7 for additional information on pesticide logistics; Memorandum from 82nd Airborne Division, preventive medicine physician to the Army Surgeon General, Preventive Medicine Consultant, Subj: "Operation Desert Shield," October 5, 1990, p. 3.

[21] Navy Environmental Health Center Technical Report NEHC-TR91-2, "Initial Preventive Medicine Assessments from Operation Desert Shield 1990," March 1991, p. 39.

[22] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, R.E.D. Facts, "DEET," EPA-738 F-95-010, April 1998.

[23] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.2, p. 22.

[24] See Tab C-3 for guidance on pesticide usage issued by DoD and the military services.

[25] Lead Sheet #9034, Interview with 47th MEDSOM soldier, December 18, 1997; Lead Sheet #10181, Interview with 1015th AG Postal Company soldier, December 18, 1997; Lead Sheet #15477, Interview with 1072nd Refueling Wing (Provisional) airman, March 18, 1998.

[26] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.2, p. 22.

[27] Lead Sheet #7253, Interview with 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment veteran, December 9, 1997.

[28] Lead Sheet #7172, Interview with 1st Cavalry Division veteran, November 26, 1997, p. 1-2; Lead Sheet #7156, Interview with 47th Ordnance Detachment (EOD) veteran, November 25, 1997, p. 1; Lead Sheet #7183, Interview with 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment veteran, December 1, 1997, p. 1-2.

[29] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.18, p. 41.

[30] US Army Field Manual FM 21-10-1, "Unit Field Sanitation Team," Appendix D, October 11, 1989.

[31] Defense Logistics Agency, Defense General Supply Center, "List of Pesticides Procured During Desert Shield/Storm (Acquired Through the Federal Supply System)," April 12, 1994. Permethrin was packaged with 12 cans per box. Except for the DEET supplied in bottles, DEET was packaged with 12 tubes per box.

[32] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.3, p. 22.

[33] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.7, p. 28.

[34] US Army Field Manual FM 21-10-1, "Unit Field Sanitation Team," Appendix D, October 1989.

[35] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 25.

[36] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Flea Collars Registered with EPA Prior to 1992," September 29, 2000.

[37] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, Table 3.8, p. 29.

[38] Army Air Force Exchange Service, "Health Alert - Flea and Tick Collars - Operation Desert Shield," December 12, 1990, p. 1.

[39] US Army Health Services Command message, Subj: "Misuse of Tick/Flea Collars," September 14, 1990.

[40] US Army Surgeon General, Preventive Medicine Consultant, Situation Summary Report, Desert Storm Preventive Medicine, February 1991.

[41] Lead Sheet #15295, Interview with 3rd Marine Air Wing preventive medicine technician, July 2, 1998, p. 2.; Lead Sheet #15289, Interview with 1st Force Service Support Group preventive medicine technician, March 11, 1998, p.2; Lead Sheet #15752, Interview with Navy preventive medicine technician, April 1, 1998, p. 11.

[42] US Army Field Manual FM 21-10-1, "Unit Field Sanitation Team," October 11, 1989, p. 1-1.

[43] US Army Field Manual FM 21-10-1, "Unit Field Sanitation Team," October 11, 1989, p. 1-1.

[44] US Army Field Manual FM 21-10-1, "Unit Field Sanitation Team," October 11, 1989, p. 1-3.

[45] Lead Sheet #14966, Interview with 24th ID, 724th CS BN environmental science officer, February 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #14968, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 10, 1998.

[46] Lead Sheet #15883, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, April 7, 1998; Lead Sheet #15111, Interview with 24th Mech. Infantry Division preventive medicine specialist, February 16, 1998; Lead Sheet #15040, Interview with 71st Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 26, 1998; Lead Sheet #15122, Interview with 24th Mech. Infantry Division preventive medicine specialist, February 17, 1998.

[47] Tab C-6 provides additional information on EPW processing; US Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Appendix L: "Enemy Prisoner of War Operations," April 1992, p. 577-581.

[48] Memorandum from 14th Preventive Medicine Detachment to Commanding General, 332nd Medical Brigade, Subj: "Synopsis of Major Diseases in Theater of Operation," February 13, 1991; 22nd Support Command, Assistant Chief of Staff internal note to Commanding General, 22nd Support Command, Subj: "Delousing," January 25, 1991.

[49] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Maintenance and Operations NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual AFM 91-16, "Military Entomology Operational Handbook," December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27; US Army Field Manual, FM 8-250 "Preventive Medicine Specialist," July 31, 1974, p. 15-10 through 15-12; Military Specification MIL-I-11490D "Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting 25 Pounds," March 31, 1986.

[50] Military Specification MIL-I-11490D, "Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting, 25 Pounds," March 31, 1986.

[51] Lead Sheet #20822, Interview with 403rd Military Police Camp veteran, December 18, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #20386, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp veteran, December 18, 1998, p. 3.

[52] Lead Sheet #19990, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp veteran, November 9, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #20386, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp veteran, November 24, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #24703, Interview with 358th Military Police Co. (Processing) veteran, September 5, 1999; Lead Sheet #20798, Interview with 403rd Military Police Camp veteran, December 18, 1997.

[53] Lead Sheet #20177, Interview with 400th Military Police Camp veteran, November 18, 1998, p. 3-4; Lead Sheet #19990, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp veteran, November 9, 1998, p. 3; Lead Sheet #20911, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, January 6, 1998, p. 3.

[54] Lead Sheet #19946, Interview with 403rd Military Police Camp veteran, November, 3, 1998, p. 3.

[55] Lead Sheet #19908, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, November 4, 1998, p. 3.

[56] United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence, Organophosphate Pesticide Investigation Team Substantive Report, December 6, 1996, p. 3-7.

[57] Letter from French Defense Minister to US Secretary of Defense, Subj: "Unofficial Translation" of fact sheet on uses of insecticides or insect repellents by French troops during Operation Daguet, June 7, 1999.

[58] Lead Sheet #6616, Interview with Air Force environmental health technician, October 27, 1997.

[59] Lead Sheet #5973, Interview with Marine 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, September 3, 1997; Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 3, 1999.

[60] Lead Sheet #5973, Interview with Marine 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, September 3, 1997.

[61] Lead Sheet #15952, Interview with Navy preventive medicine technician, February 23, 1999; Lead Sheet #18781, Interview with Air Force pest controller, February 23,1998; Lead Sheet #18845, Interview with Air Force pest controller, September 2, 1998.

[62] Lead Sheet #6616, Interview with Air Force environmental health technician, Oct. 27, 1997.

[63] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[64] Meister Publishing Company, "Farm Chemicals Handbook 2000," Willoughby, Ohio, p. C115 and C311.

[65] Meister Publishing Company, "Farm Chemicals Handbook 2000," Willoughby, Ohio, p. C125.

[66] Lead Sheet #18857, Interview with 363rd Civil Engineering Squadron Al Dhafra, United Arab Emirates pest controller, September 16, 1998.

[67] Lead Sheet #14992, Interview with 983rd Medical Detachment entomologist, February 11, 1998.

[68] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[69] Lead Sheet #15002, Interview with 307th Medical Detachment preventive medicine NCO, March 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #15033, Interview with 14th Preventive Medicine Detachment preventive medicine specialist, September 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15210, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 27, 1998; Lead Sheet #15713, Interview with 173rd Medical Group preventive medicine specialist, April 15, 1998; Lead Sheet #15747, Interview with 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade preventive medicine technician, April 8, 1998; Lead Sheet #15906, Interview with 439th Military Police EPW Camp Advisory Detachment preventive medicine NCO, April 13, 1998; Lead Sheet #18848, Interview with 831st Civil Engineering Squadron pest controller, September 14, 1998; Lead Sheet #18858, Interview with an Air Force pest controller, September 11, 1998.

[70] Lead Sheet #18858, Interview with an Air Force pest controller, September 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #18848, Interview with 831st Civil Engineering Squadron Shaikh Isa International Airport pest controller, September 14, 1998.

[71] Lead Sheet #15002, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, March 11, 1998.

[72] Lead Sheet #17074, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion entomologist, June 5, 1998.

[73] Lead Sheet #16775, Interview with Marine 4th Civil Affairs Group environmental health officer, May 21, 1998; Lead Sheet #17155, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion environmental health officer, January 6, 1998.

[74] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. xvii.

[75] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. xxviii.

[76] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. xxviii.

[77] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. xxviii.

[78] Lead Sheet #28069, Interview with 3rd Mobile Aerial Port Squadron airman, October 17, 2000.

[79] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 87-107.

[80] Institute of Medicine, Gulf War and Health, Volume 1 Depleted Uranium, Sarin, Pyridostigmine Bromide, and Vaccines, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000, p. 368.

[81] Ames, Richard G., et al., "Chronic Neurologic Sequelae to Cholinesterase Inhibition among Agricultural Pesticide Applicators," Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 50, p. 440-444, 1995; Steenland, Kyle, et al., "Chronic Neurological Sequelae to Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, p.731-736, 1994; Feldman, Robert G., Occupational and Environmental Neurotoxicology, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1999, p. 432; Brown, Mark A. and Kelley A. Brix, "Review of Health Consequences from High-, Intermediate-, and Low-level Exposure to Organophosphorus Nerve Agents," Journal of Applied Technology, Vol. 18, 1998, p. 405.

[82] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 107-110.

[83] Ames, Richard G., et al., "Chronic Neurologic Sequelae to Cholinesterase Inhibition among Agricultural Pesticide Applicators," Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 50, p. 440-444, 1995.

[84] US Environmental Protection Agency, "1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclyhexane (all stereo isomers)(Lindane)," www.epa.gov/ttnuatw1/hlthef/lindane.html as of June 13, 2000.

[85] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 28.

[86] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 33.

[87] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 37.

[88] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 37.

[89] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 37.

[90] Department of Veterans Affairs, Board of Veterans' Appeals, Docket No. 96-08 850, "Entitlement to service connection for the cause of the veteran's death," September 15, 1998, p. 2, 7.

[91] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 57-69.

[92] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 58.

[93] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 69.

[94] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 39-51.

[95] US Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticide Regulation PR Notice 97-6, Subj: "Notice to Manufacturers, Formulators, Producers, and Registrants of Pesticide Products," June, 1997.

[96] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 119.

[97] Golomb, Beatrice A., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide, RAND, 1999, p. 269-70.

[98] Golomb, Beatrice A., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide, RAND, 1999, p. 270.

[99] Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Appendix L: "Enemy Prisoner of War Operations," April 1992, p. 577-587.

[100] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Mainteance and Operations NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual (AFM) 91-16, "Military Entomology Operational Handbook," December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27; US Army Field Manual FM 8-250 "Preventive Medicine Specialist," July 31, 1974, p. 15-10 through 15-12; Military Specification MIL-I-11490D "Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting 25 Pounds," March 31, 1986.

[101] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Paper, "AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War," August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[102] United Kingdom, House of Commons, Defence Committee, Sixth Report, Gulf War Illness: Latest Developments, Session 1996-1997, p. xv; Letter from British Liaison Office (Gulf Health) to Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Subj: "OSAGWI Request: Pesticide Policy," June 11, 1999.

[103] Defense General Supply Center Message, Subj: "AFPMB Notice on Insecticide, Lindane Dusts," April 14, 1994.

[104] Memorandum from Department of Defense, Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition & Technology), Subj: "Approval for Local Purchase of Pesticides During Deployment Operations," February 1, 1999.

[105] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Military Pest Management Handbook, Chapter 6 - Safety," June 1992.

[106] Memorandum from Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) to Secretaries of the Military Departments, Subj: "Recording and Archiving Pesticide Use During Military Operations," August 21, 1997; Memorandum from Department of Army, Office of the Assistant Secretary (Installation and Environment) to Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environment Security), Subj: "Recording and Archiving Pesticide Use During Military Operations," November 13, 1997, p. 1-2; Memorandum from Department of the Navy, Office of the Assistant Secretary (Installation and Environment) to Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology), Subj: "Recording and Archiving Pesticide Use During Military Operations," November 4, 1997, p. 1; Memorandum from the Department of Air Force to Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology), Subj: "Recording and Archiving Pesticide Use During Military Operations," October 29, 1997, p. 1.

[107] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "DoD and Service Policy and Guidance on recording, Reporting, and Archiving Pesticide Use During Military Operations," May 18, 2000, p. 1-4.

[108] Department of Defense, Technical Manual DoD 6055.5-M, "Occupational Medical Surveillance Manual," May 1998, para. C3.2.1.3.

[109] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides Programs, "Dichlorvos; Notice of Preliminary Determination to Cancel Certain Registrations and Draft Notice of Intent to Cancel," Federal Register, vol. 60, no. 188, September 28, 1995, p. 50340.

[110] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume III, Activity Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002Fc, August 1997, p. G-2.

[111] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, p. xvi.

[112] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, pp. 7-16.

[113] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, p. 22.

[114] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, p. 23-41.

[115] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, pp. 28-34.

[116] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, pp. 35-41.

[117] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, p. 41.

[118] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, pp. 44-47.

[119] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 4th Edition, September 1991, p. 17.

[120] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Determination of Exposure Levels in a Simulated Delousing Procedure," Study # 75-51-0580-87, February 1987, p. 1-2.

[121] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 14, "Personal Protective Equipment for Pest Management Personnel," March 1992, pp. 11, 13, 14.

[122] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Interim Final," EPA/540/1-89/002. December 1989, p. 5-22.

[123] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000.

[124] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, www.epa.gov/pesticides/, as of January 23, 2001.

[125] Oregan State University, www.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet, as of January 23, 2001.

[126] National Institute of Health, Natioinal Library of Medicine, www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/, as January 23, 2001. Select "HSDB."

[127] Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, www.atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov/, as January 23, 2001. Select "ToxFAQs."

[128] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998.

[129] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997.

[130] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 17.

[131] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 20.

[132] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 21.

[133] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 20.

[134] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 20.

[135] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 40.

[136] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 15.

[137] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 16. The 14.7% propoxur EC is not listed, so the highest listed final concentration for the 70% propoxur WP was used.

[138] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, pp. 18, 24, 37, 40, 44.

[139] Assumed maximum final concentration for ultra low volume (ULV) application.

[140] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 15.

[141] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 25.

[142] Lead Sheet #27859, Meeting with US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, December 7, 1999.

[143] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT, Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 2.

[144] US Environmental Protection, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 4. EPA specifies that typical application rates should be used in cancer risk assessments.

[145] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 10.

[146] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 9.

[147] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002Fa, August 1997, p. 7-10.

[148] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002Fa, August 1997, p. 8-1.

[149] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002Fa, August 1997, p. 5-24.

[150] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002Fa, August 1997, p. 7-4.

[151] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, p. 16.

[152] Klaassen, C.D. and D.L. Eaton, Principles of Toxicology, in: Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Chapter 2, 5th Edition, M.O. Amdur, J. Doull, C. Klaassen, editors, Pergamon Press, New York, 1996, p. 15.

[153] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A)-Interim Final," EPA/540/1-89/002. December 1989, p. 6-2.

[154] Lead Sheet #27859, Meeting with US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, December 7, 1999.

[155] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998.

[156] Leighton, T.M. and A.P. Nielsen, "The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and National Agriculture Chemicals Association Pesticide Handlers Database," Applied. Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 10(4), April 1995, p. 270-273.

[157] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, p. 10.

[158] Coulston International Corporation, Final US Environmental Protection Agency Approved Label - Permethrin, Easton, PA, May 1990.

[159] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, p. 30. High confidence.

[160] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, p. 30. High confidence.

[161] Memorandum from the XVIII Airborne Corps surgeon's office, Subj: "Operation Desert Shield Medical and Chemical Threat," August 1990 - January 1991 (undated), p. 2. Values are 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the maximum rate recommended.

[162] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994, p. 134. Fraction of applied dose dermally absorbed.

[163] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 74.

[164] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 6. Inputs are all medium exposure factors.

[165] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, pp. 29-30.

[166] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002Fa, August 1997, p. 6-25. Central tendency for 25% of the body, respectively.

[167] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 46.

[168] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 46.

[169] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 19.

[170] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 47-48.

[171] Coulston International Corporation, Final US Environmental Protection Agency Approved Label - Permethrin, Easton, PA, May 1990.

[172] Coulston International Corporation, Final US Environmental Protection Agency Approved Label - Permethrin, Easton, PA, May 1990.

[173] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 49. This is the surface area of the body covered by a BDU.

[174] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994, p. 134. Fraction of applied dose dermally absorbed.

[175] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 49.

[176] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994, p. 134. Fraction of applied dose dermally absorbed.

[177] The mass balance equation does not come from a specific source; it is based on logic.

[178] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 118-119.

[179] GEOMET Technologies, Inc., "MCCEM: Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model and User's Guide," Developed for US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Washington, DC, November 1995.

[180] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 107. Flux rate = CS x MF; the ET and CF1 factors from the source document are not applicable here, because the migration factor accounts for an entire day's exposure.

[181] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 6.

[182] Airosol Company, Inc., Product label for Airosol(r) Aircraft Insecticide, 1995. The active ingredient is d-phenothrin.

[183] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 10, August 1998, p. 30. High confidence.

[184] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 10, August 1998, p. 30. High confidence.

[185] Airosol Company, Inc., Product label for Airosol(r) Aircraft Insecticide, 1995. The active ingredient is d-phenothrin. Label specifies application rate of 10 grams per 1,000 ft3.

[186] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 74.

[187] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, pp. 49-50.

[188] Airosol Company, Inc., Product label for Airosol(r) Aircraft Insecticide, 1995. The active ingredient is d-phenothrin.

[189] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 38.

[190] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 17, August 1998, p. 42. Scenario 17 covers granular bait dispersed by hand. Medium confidence in the low and medium values; low confidence in high value.

[191] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 17, August 1998, p. 42. Scenario 17 covers granular bait dispersed by hand. Medium confidence.

[192] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Product label for Snip Fly Killer, Issued by Saudi Company for Agricultural and Chemical Products (SACOM), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Recommended application rate = 200 g/100 m2. Each container held 500 g of formulation.

[193] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 40. Palmar surface area for one hand.

[194] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 40-41.

[195] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development , "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 4-21. Recommended central estimate for adults.

[196] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development , "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 6-23. The value of 0.47 mg/cm2 is the highest of two values for soil adherence on the hands of farmers.

[197] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, p. 10. Chemical resistant gloves provide a 90% reduction in exposure to hands.

[198] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 41.

[199] Ciba-Geigy Ltd, "Toxicological Evaluation: Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809)," April 16, 1992, p. 13. Fraction of 0.1-mg dose absorbed by rats.

[200] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, p. 1164. In a dermal study in mice, more than half of applied methomyl penetrated the skin.

[201] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 41.

[202] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Safety Data Sheet: Azamethiphos Tech.," June 19, 1995, p. 5. Source states vapor pressure equals 0.0049 mPa at 20oC; 1 mPa = 7.5 x 10-6 mm Hg.

[203] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 39.

[204] Lead Sheet #7151, Interview with member of Army 2nd Bn 505th Infantry, November 24, 1997, p. 1.

[205] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1401.

[206] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1346.

[207] Freeze, RA and JA Cherry, Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 37.

[208] Lead Sheet #7160. Interview with member of 2nd Marine Division FW Commision CP, November 25, 1997, p. 1.

[209] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1401.

[210] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1346.

[211] Freeze, RA and JA Cherry, Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 37.

[212] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1401.

[213] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1346.

[214] Freeze, RA and JA Cherry, Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 37.

[215] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1401.

[216] Budavari, S. et al. (eds.), The Merck Index, 11th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1989, p. 1346.

[217] Freeze, RA and JA Cherry, Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 37.

[218] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 41. The value of 480 mg/d is considered by EPA to be a worst-case scenario. It is used here, in part, to compensate for the lack of post-application dermal evaluation.

[219] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, "Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors," EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 4-21, 4-22. The medium value is the recommended central estimate for adults. The high value is the highest value listed for adults.

[220] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 38.

[221] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 125.

[222] Shell Chemical Company, Product label for No-Pest Strip(r) Insecticide., San Ramon, CA, (no date).

[223] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Dichlorvos (DDVP): Risk Assessment Issues for the Science Advisory Panel," July 8, 1998, p. 38.

[224] National Library of Medicine Toxicology Network, Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), "Dichlorvos," (www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov) (retrieved September 25, 2000), p. 2.

[225] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Dichlorvos (DDVP): Risk Assessment Issues for the Science Advisory Panel," July 8, 1998, p. 32-38.

[226] Collins, RD and DM DeVries, "Air Concentrations and Food Residues from Use of Shell's No-Pest Insecticide Strip," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 9(4):227-233.

[227] Collins, RD and DM DeVries, "Air Concentrations and Food Residues from Use of Shell's No-Pest Insecticide Strip," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 9(4):227-233.

[228] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, p. 10.

[229] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 59. The equation shown above to calculate VF is the same as Equation 1 presented in the source; we renamed the variables for consistency in the HRA.

[230] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 32, August 1998, p. 68.

[231] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 34, August 1998, p. 71.

[232] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, Scenario 32, p. 68-69.

[233] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 34, August 1998, p. 71.

[234] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 56.

[235] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[236] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[237] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 7. Typical value presented in source is 5 gal/d; maximum value is 40 gal/d.

[238] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[239] DowElanco, Specimen Label for Dursban 4E Insecticide (contains 44.9% chlorpyrifos), Indianapolis, IN, 2 pp.

[240] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos," 1997, p. 65. Dermal absorption study in a human.

[241] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[242] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[243] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 7. Typical value presented in source is 5 gal/d; maximum value is 40 gal/d.

[244] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum 24 (TIM 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, pp. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[245] Octagon Process Inc., Product Label for Insecticide Diazinon Emulsifiable Concentrate (contains 47.4% diazinon), Edgewater, New Jersey, September 18, 1973, 2 pp.

[246] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon-Update," 1996, p. 77. Highest value reported from a dermal absorption study in humans.

[247] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum 24 (TIM 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, pp. 15, 21, 30, 35.

[248] Octagon Process Inc., Product Label for Insecticide Malathion Emulsifiable Concentrate (contains 57% malathion), Edgewater, New Jersey, September 18, 1973, 2 pp.

[249] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum 24 (TIM 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, pp. 15, 21, 30, 35.

[250] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 7. Typical value presented in source is 5 gal/d; maximum value is 40 gal/d. 90th Percentile exposure time = 6 hours; thus, the high value = (6/8) x 40 gal/d = 30 gal/d.

[251] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 15, 21, 30, 35.

[252] Octagon Process Inc., Product Label for Insecticide Malathion Emulsifiable Concentrate (contains 57% malathion), Edgewater, New Jersey, 2 pp.

[253] Memorandum for US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 7. Recommended value based on a human dermal absorption study.

[254] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 16, 19, 22, 24, 32, 37, 41, 44.

[255] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 16, 19, 22, 24, 32, 37, 41, 44. TIM 24 does not list the 14.7% EC; rather, a 70% WP and 1% oil solution are listed.

[256] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 7. Typical value presented in source is 5 gal/d; maximum value is 40 gal/d. 90th Percentile exposure time = 3 hours; thus, the high value = (3/8) x 40 gal/d = 15 gal/d.

[257] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 16, 19, 22, 24, 32, 37, 41, 44. TIM 24 does not list the 14.7% EC; rather, a 70% WP and 1% oil solution are listed.

[258] Miles Inc., Specialty Products, Product Label for Insecticide Baygon Emulsifiable Concentrate (contains 14.7% propoxur). Kansas City, MO, December 4, 1992, 4 pp.

[259] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, p. 1174. Value from a human dermal absorption study.

[260] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 74.

[261] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 6. Inputs are all medium exposure factors.

[262] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, pp. 14-15.

[263] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997. Table 6-4, p. 6-14, mean surface areas for adult male.

[264] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, pp. 14-15.

[265] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, pp. 14, 18, 20, 29, 36, 39, 43.

[266] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[267] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[268] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume III, Activity, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in kitchen for men and women is 104 minutes.

[269] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in bathroom for men and women is 38 minutes.

[270] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos," 1997, p. 65. Dermal absorption study in a human.

[271] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p.18, 23, 26, 36, 40, 43.

[272] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[273] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[274] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume III, Activity, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in kitchen for men and women is 104 minutes.

[275] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume III, Activity, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in bathroom for men and women is 38 minutes.

[276] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon-Update," 1996, p. 77. Highest value reported from a dermal absorption study in humans.

[277] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 15, 21, 30, 35.

[278] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[279] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[280] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in kitchen for men and women is 104 minutes.

[281] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in bathroom for men and women is 38 minutes.

[282] Memorandum from US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Developmen, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 7. Recommended value based on a human dermal absorption study.

[283] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 16, 19, 22, 24, 32, 37, 41, 44. TIM 24 does not list the 14.7% EC; rather, a 70% WP and 1% oil solution are listed.

[284] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[285] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14.

[286] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in kitchen for men and women is 104 minutes.

[287] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a. August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in bathroom for men and women is 38 minutes.

[288] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, p. 1174. Value from a human dermal absorption study.

[289] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 125.

[290] Wright, CG and RB Leidy, HE Dupree, "Insecticides in the Ambient Air of Rooms Following Their Application for Control of Pests," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, vol. 26, p. 552.

[291] Wright, CG and RB Leidy, "Chlorpyrifos Residues in Air After Application to Crevices in Rooms," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, vol. 19, p. 343.

[292] Wright, CG and RB Leidy, "Chlorpyrifos Residues in Air After Application to Crevices in Rooms," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, vol. 24, p. 586.

[293] Howard, P.K., Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals, Volume III, Pesticides, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, 1991, p. 135.

[294] Howard, P.K., Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals, Volume III, Pesticides, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, 1991, p. 212.

[295] Howard, P.K., Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals, Volume III, Pesticides, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, 1991, p. 475.

[296] Wright, CG and RB Leidy, "Chlorpyrifos Residues in Air After Application to Crevices in Rooms," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, vol. 26, p. 548-553.

[297] Howard, P.K., Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals, Volume III, Pesticides, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, 1991, p. 586.

[298] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 15.

[299] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments," December 19, 1997, p. 6.

[300] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 59.

[301] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 18, 24, 30, 37, 40, 44.

[302] "No glove" hand data were not provided in Scenario 33 from the PHED Guide. Value shown is from Scenario 32 for liquids. Since the value for gloved hands under WPs is higher than for liquids, it may be presumed that the ungloved value for WPs should be at least as high as for liquids.

[303] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 33, August 1998, p. 76.

[304] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 33, August 1998, p. 77.

[305] 90th Percentile exposure time = 3 hours; OPP/HED assume a typical rate of 5 and a maximum of 40 gal/d for an 8-hour day. The high value = (3/8) x 40 gal/d = 15 gal/d.

[306] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 18, 24, 37, 40, 44.

[307] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 56.

[308] NOR-AM Chemical Company, Specimen Label for Ficam W Wettable Powder Insecticide (contains 76% bendiocarb),Wilmington, DE, (no date), 4 pp.

[309] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc., 1991, p. 1144. Value from a human dermal absorption study.

[310] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 74.

[311] Oregon State University, www.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet, Pesticide Information Profile for Bendiocarb. Revised June 1996, p. 3. Vapor pressure listed as 0.66 mPa @ 25o C; 1 mPa = 7.5 x 10-6 mm Hg.

[312] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 12.

[313] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 18, 24, 30, 37, 40, 44.

[314] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14. The OPP recommendation for ECs was applied to bendiocarb.

[315] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 14. The OPP recommendation for ECs was applied to bendiocarb.

[316] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in kitchen for men and women is 104 minutes.

[317] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 15A-19. Based on national survey, mean daily time spent in bathroom for men and women is 38 minutes.

[318] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, p. 1144. Value from a human dermal absorption study.

[319] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 15.

[320] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 13, "Ultra Low Volume Dispersal of Insecticides by Ground Equipment," March 1985, pp. 6-9.

[321] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 13, "Ultra Low Volume Dispersal of Insecticides by Ground Equipment," March 1985, p. 1.

[322] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 3, August 1998, p. 19.

[323] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 3, August 1998, p. 19.

[324] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 28. AR for 25% chlorpyrifos EC/ULV for light to medium vegetative cover. Heavy vegetative cover was unlikely.

[325] Clarke Outdoor Spraying Co., Product label for Dursban 1.5 U.L.V. Mosquitocide., Roselle, Illinois, (no date).

[326] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos," 1997, p. 65. Dermal absorption in a human study.

[327] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 15.

[328] American Cyanamid Co., Specimen Label for Cythion Malathion ULV Concentrate (contains 91.0% malathion).

[329] Memorandum from US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 7.

[330] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Residential Exposure Assessments-Draft," December 19, 1997, p. 74.

[331] Lead Sheet #25231, Interview of Air Force deputy base commander, September 28, 1999, p. 1.

[332] Lead Sheet #24865, Interview of Air Force E6, September 15, 1999, p. 1.

[333] Time to complete application in vicinity of receptor. Wind would have substantially diminished air concentrations beyond 30 minutes.

[334] Values are 10th percentile, average, and 90th percentile from PM interviews.

[335] Time to complete application in vicinity of receptor. Wind would have substantially diminished air concentrations beyond 30 minutes.

[336] Values are 10th percentile, average, and 90th percentile from PM interviews.

[337] Clarke Outdoor Spraying Co., Product label for Dursban 1.5 U.L.V. Mosquitocide. Roselle, Illinois, (no date).

[338] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 24, "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 28.

[339] American Cyanamid Co., "Material Safety Data Sheet for Malathion ULV Concentrate Insecticide," MSDS No. AG00087-5, June 2, 1997. Obtained from Internet at http://siri.uvm.edu/msds/mf/cyanamid/files/3.

[340] US Environmental Protection Agency, "INPUFF 2.0 - A Multiple Source Gaussian Puff Dispersion Algorithm," EPA-600/8-86/024, August 1986

[341] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum No. 13 (TIM 13), "Ultra Low Volume Dispersal of Insecticides by Ground Equipment," March 1985, p. 10-11.

[342] US Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War - Appendix L: Enemy Prisoner of War Operations, April 1992, p. 577-587.

[343] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Maintenance and Operations NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual AFM 91-16, December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27.

[344] US Army Field Manual FM 8-250 "Preventive Medicine Specialist," July 31, 1974, p 15-10 through 15-12.

[345] Military Specification MIL-I-11490D "Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting, 25 Pounds," Edgewater, New Jersey, March 31, 1986.

[346] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," August 1998, p. 10.

[347] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 4, August 1998, p. 20. Scenario 4 covers open mixing and loading for wettable powder; confidence is low.

[348] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "PHED Surrogate Exposure Guide," Scenario 4, August 1998, p. 21. Scenario 4 covers open mixing and loading for wettable powder; confidence is medium.

[349] US Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War - Appendix L: Enemy Prisoner of War Operations, April 1992, p. 577-587.

[350] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Maintenance and Operations/NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual AFM 91-16, December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27. The power unit described is provided with 10 lengths of hose.

[351] US Army Field Manual FM 8-250 "Preventive Medicine Specialist," July 31, 1974, p. 15-10 through 15-12. The power unit illustrated has 10 ports for discharging pesticide dust.

[352] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Review of Department of Defense Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, 3/9/99 DRAFT Environmental Exposure Report: Pesticides in the Gulf," February 29, 2000, p. 17.

[353] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Maintenance and Operations/NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual AFM 91-16, December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27.

[354] Octagon Process Inc., Product Label for Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting (contains 1% lindane), Edgewater, New Jersey, March 31, 1986, 3 pp.

[355] WA = APR x AMT x (1 lb/16 oz) x (0.01 lb a.i./lb).

[356] Low exposure assumes use of a respirator. Medium exposure assumes 12 ACH. High exposure assumes 4 ACH.

[357] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 6-25. Values are central tendency for 10%, 25%, and 100% of the body, respectively.

[358] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Determination of Exposure Levels in a Simulated Delousing Procedure," Study # 75-51-0580-876, February 11, 1987, p. 3. The Army determined a 12-fold protection factor for BDUs. Therefore, in cases of high dust levels, substantial amounts lindane would reach the skin through BDUs, translating to nearly whole-body exposure.

[359] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 6-22, 6-23. Low = lowest of five geometric means for soil on the arms of groundskeepers. Medium = highest of five geometric means for soil on the arms of groundskeepers. High = higher of two geometric means for soil on the arms of farmers.

[360] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, p. 4-20 through 4-21.

[361] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Alpha, Beta, Gamma-, and Delta-Hexachlorocyclohexane-Draft Update," 1997, p. 78. At least 9 percent was absorbed through human forearm after 24 hours.

[362] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Determination of Exposure Levels in a Simulated Delousing Procedure," Study # 75-51-0580-87, February 1987, p. C-1.

[363] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Determination of Exposure Levels in a Simulated Delousing Procedure," Study # 75-51-0580-87, February 1987, p. 3.

[364] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I, General Factors, EPA/600/P-95/002a, August 1997, pp. 416-421.

[365] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Determination of Exposure Levels in a Simulated Delousing Procedure," Study # 75-51-0580-87, February 1987.

[366] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Maintenance and Operations/NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual AFM 91-16, December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27.

[367] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Interim Final," EPA/540/1-89/002, December 1989, p. 7-1.

[368] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000.

[369] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Permethrin", April 26, 1994, p. 2.

[370] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[371] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[372] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 20.

[373] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," September 21, 1999, p. 17.

[374] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee.," December 17, 1997, p. 19.

[375] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 21.

[376] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Bendiocarb - Hazard Identification Committee Report," HIARC-HED document #012437, December 16, 1997, p. 12.

[377] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Lindane," October 1994, p. 3.

[378] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Permethrin", April 26, 1994, p. 4.

[379] US Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR Part 372, Part IV EPA, "Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Regulations," Federal Register, reference # 193- Phenothrin, January 12, 1994, p. 105.

[380] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Toxicological Evaluation of Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809)," April 16, 1992, p. 6.

[381] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[382] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[383] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 13.

[384] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," September 21, 1999, p. 17.

[385] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion: Revised NOAEL for Derivation of the Chronic Reference Dose," November 1, 1999, p. 3.

[386] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 14.

[387] US Environmental Protection Agency, "R.E.D. Facts: Bendiocarb," EPA document #738-F-99-010, September 1999, p. 2-3.

[388] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Lindane" October 1994, p. 3.

[389] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," September 1998, p. 12-13.

[390] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Permethrin," April 26, 1994, p. 5.

[391] US Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR Part 372, Part IV EPA, "Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Regulations" Federal Register ref. # 193- Phenothrin. January 12, 1994, p. 105.

[392] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Toxicological Evaluation of Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809)," April16,1992, p. 8-9.

[393] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[394] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[395] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[396] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," document #013745, September 21, 1999, p. 17.

[397] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Malathion - Revised NOAEL for Derivation of the Chronic Reference Dose - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," November 1, 1999, p. 3.

[398] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Propoxur - Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED)," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 14.

[399] US Environmental Protection Agency, "R.E.D. Facts: Bendiocarb," EPA document #738-F-99-010, September 1999, p. 2-3.

[400] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Lindane," October 1994, p. 3.

[401] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994, p. 61.

[402] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Toxicological Evaluation of Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809)," April 16, 1992, pp. 4&7.

[403] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[404] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[405] Memorandum from the Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[406] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 17.

[407] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," Dec. 17, 1997, p. 19.

[408] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[409] US Environmental Protection Agency, "R.E.D. Facts: Bendiocarb," EPA document #738-F-99-010, September 1999, p. 2.

[410] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Bendiocarb: Hazard Identification Committee Report," December 16, 1997, p. 12.

[411] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Permethrin," April 26, 1994, p. 4.

[412] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Toxicological Evaluation of Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809)," April16,1992, p 4&7.

[413] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[414] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[415] Memorandum from US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[416] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 17.

[417] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 19.

[418] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[419] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Bendiocarb: Hazard Identification Committee Report," December 16, 1997, p. 12.

[420] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[421] Memorandum from US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[422] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 17.

[423] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 19.

[424] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[425] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Bendiocarb - Hazard Identification Committee Report," December 16, 1997, p. 12.

[426] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[427] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[428] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[429] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 9.

[430] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 19.

[431] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[432] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[433] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[434] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[435] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 9.

[436] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 19.

[437] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED)," EPA #738-R-97-009, Propoxur," August 1997, p. 22.

[438] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Methomyl-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," March 3, 1998, p. 11.

[439] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Dichlorvos (DDVP)-Replacement of Human Studies Used in Risk Assessments-Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," June 2, 1999, p. 12.

[440] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 21.

[441] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 9.

[442] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Report of the Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee," December 17, 1997, p. 19.

[443] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[444] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Bendiocarb: Hazard Identification Committee Report," December 16, 1997, p. 12.

[445] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, April 28, 1998, p. 24.

[446] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., p. 93-103.

[447] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Toxicological Evaluation of Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809)," April16,1992, p. 8-10.

[448] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Methomyl," October 10,1996, p. 9.

[449] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Revised Preliminary HED Risk Assessment for Dichlorvos," August 9, 2000, p. 2.

[450] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 13.

[451] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 10.

[452] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Malathion - Revisions to the Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," April 28, 2000, p. 2.

[453] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997. p. v.

[454] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Bendiocarb - Hazard Identification Committee Report," December 16, 1997, p. 4.

[455] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Lindane," October 1994, p. 6.

[456] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994, p. 93-103.

[457] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Revised Preliminary HED Risk Assessment for Dichlorvos," August 9, 2000, p. 2.

[458] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos - HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 13.

[459] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Diazinon - Replacement of Human Study Used in Risk Assessments," September 21, 1999, p. 10.

[460] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Lindante," October 1994, p. 6.

[461] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Bendiocarb - Hazard Identification Committee Report," December 16, 1997, p. 4.

[462] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000.

[463] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Human Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos," June 8, 2000, p. 106.

[464] Barnes, DG and M Dourson, "Reference Dose (RfD): Description and Use in Health Risk Assessments," Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 8, 1988, pp. 485-486.

[465] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Science Policy on The Use of Data on Cholinesterase Inhibition for Risk Assessments of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides,"August 18, 2000, p. 25-30.

[466] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," April 28, 1998, p. 24.

[467] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," April 28, 1998, p. v.

[468] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," April 28, 1998, p. 22, 30, 31.

[469] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," April 28, 1998, p. 20-21.

[470] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 39-51.

[471] US Environmental Protection Agency, Subj: "Chlorpyrifos: HED Preliminary Risk Assessment for Registration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," October 18, 1999, p. 13, 20, 21.

[472] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Human Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos," June 8, 2000, p. 25.

[473] Osimitz, T. and F. Murphy, "Neurological Effects Associated with Use of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET)," J. Toxicol. Clinical Toxicol., vol. 35, no. 5, 1997, p. 439.

[474] Robbins P.J. and M.G. Cherniack, "Review of the Biodistribution and Toxicity of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET)," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1986, p. 506.

[475] Gotoh, Y, M Kawakami, N Matsumoto, and Y Okada, "Permethrin Emulsion Ingestion: Clinical Manifestations and Clearance of Isomers," Clinical Toxicol., vol. 36, nos. 1,2, 1998, p. 58.

[476] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Permethirin," Vol. 53, 1991, p. 334, 341.

[477] World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin, WHO Publications, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990, p. 11.

[478] World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin, WHO Publications, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990, p. 11.

[479] Scott, G., "National Guideline for the Management of Phthirus Pubis Infestation," Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 75, no. 1, 1999, p. S78.

[480] World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin, WHO Publications, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990, p. 11.

[481] Liddle, JA., RD Kimbrough, LL Needham, RE Cline, AL Smrek, LW Yert, and DD Bayse, "A Fatal Episode of Accidental Methomyl Poisoning," Clinical Toxicology, vol. 15, no. 2, 1979, p. 166.

[482] World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 178: Methomyl, WHO Publications, Geneva, Switzerland: 1996, p. 27, 107.

[483] World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 178: Methomyl, WHO Publications, Geneva, Switzerland: 1996, p. 81.

[484] Miyazaki, T, M Yashiki, T Kojima, F Chikasue, A Ochiai, and Y Hidani, "Fatal and Non-Fatal Methomyl in an Attempted Double Suicide," Forensic Science International, vol. 42, 1989, p. 269.

[485] Gillett, JW, JR Harr, FT Lindstrom, DA Mount, AD St. Clair, and LJ Weber, "Evaluation of Human Health Hazards on Use of Dichlorvos, Especially in Resin Strips," Residue Reviews - Residues of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in the Total Environment, vol. 44, 1972, p. 142.

[486] US Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), "Dichlorvos [online]," Available from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0151.htm. [Updated May 5, 1998.], p. 12.

[487] US Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), "Dichlorvos [online]," Available from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0151.htm. [Updated May 5, 1998.], p. 12.

[488] Deer, HM, ED Beck, and AH Roe, "Respiratory Exposure of Museum Personnel to Dichlorvos Insecticide," Veterinary and Human Toxicology, vol. 35, no. 3, 1993, p. 226.

[489] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Human Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos," June 8, 2000, p. 17.

[490] Nolan, RJ, DL Rick, NL Freshour, and JH Saunders, "Chlorpyrifos: Pharmacokinetics in Human Volunteers," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol, vol. 73, no. 1, 1984, p. 10.

[491] Lotti, M, et al., "Inhibition of Lymphocytic Neuropathy Target Esterase Predicts the Development of Organophosphate-Induced Delayed Polyneuropathy," Archives of Toxicology, vol. 59, no. 3, 1986, p. 176.

[492] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Human Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos," June 8, 2000, p. 17.

[493] Nolan, RJ, DL Rick, NL Freshour, and JH Saunders, "Chlorpyrifos: Pharmacokinetics in Human Volunteers," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol, vol. 73, no. 1, 1984, p. 10.

[494] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon-Update," 1996, p. 19-20.

[495] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon-Update," 1996, p. 19-20.

[496] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon-Update," 1996, p. 19-20.

[497] Hayes, A.L., RA Wise, and FW Weir, "Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphates by Pest Control Operators," Am. Ind. Hyg. J. vol. 41, no. 8, 1980, p. 569.

[498] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards: Diazinon - 2. Effects on Humans, Supplement IV-OHG," 1995, p. 3.

[499] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Diazinon," June 4, 1997, p. 4.

[500] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Diazinon," June 4, 1997, p. 4.

[501] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards: Diazinon - 2. Effects on Humans, Supplement IV-OHG," 1995, p. 3.

[502] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document, Diazinon," June 4, 1997, p. 4.

[503] Maizlish, N., M Schenker, C Weisskopf, J Selber, and S Samuels, "A Behavioral Evaluation of Pest Control Workers with Short-Term, Low-Level Exposure to the Organophosphate Diazinon," American Jounral of Industrial Medicine, vol. 12, 1997, p. 158-159.

[504] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division, Toxicology Endpoint Selection Document for Diazinon, June 4, 1997, p. 6.

[505] National Toxicology Program, NTP Chemical Repository, "Malathion [online]," Available from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/CHEM_H&S/NTP_Chem1/Radian121-75-5.html, [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

[506] National Toxicology Program, NTP Chemical Repository, "Malathion [online]," Available from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/CHEM_H&S/NTP_Chem1/Radian121-75-5.html, [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

[507] US Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), "Malathion [online]," Available from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0248.htm, [Updated May 5, 1998.], p. 3.

[508] US Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), "Malathion [online]," Available from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0248.htm, [Updated May 5, 1998.], p. 3.

[509] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 21.

[510] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 21.

[511] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 21.

[512] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 21.

[513] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, pp. 22-23.

[514] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur, " EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[515] Lewalter, J and G Leng, "Consideration of Individual Susceptibility in Adverse Pesticide Effects," Toxicology Letters, vol. 107, 1999, pp. 134-135.

[516] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[517] Lewalter, J and G Leng, "Consideration of Individual Susceptibility in Adverse Pesticide Effects," Toxicology Letters, vol. 107, 1999, pp. 134-135.

[518] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[519] Lewalter, J and G Leng, "Consideration of Individual Susceptibility in Adverse Pesticide Effects," Toxicology Letters, vol. 107, 1999, pp. 134-135.

[520] US Environmental Protection Agency, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Propoxur," EPA #738-R-97-009, August 1997, p. 22.

[521] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, pp. 1143-1144.

[522] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, pp. 1143-1144.

[523] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, pp. 1143-1144.

[524] Patel, F., "Poisoning from Carbofuran," Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 38, no. 1, 1993, p. 7.

[525] Bonsall, JL and J Goose, "The Safety Evaluation of Bendiocarb, A Residual Insecticide for Vector Control," Toxicology Letters, vol. 33, nos. 1-3, 1986, p. 58.

[526] Currie, KL, EC McDonald, LTK Chung, and AR Higgs, "Concentrations of Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, and Bendiocarb after Application in Offices," American Industrial Hygiene Associatioin Journal, vol. 51, no. 1, 1990, p. 24.

[527] Bonsall, JL and J Goose, "The Safety Evaluation of Bendiocarb, A Residual Insecticide for Vector Control," Toxicology Letters, vol. 33, nos. 1-3, 1986, p. 58.

[528] Currie, KL, EC McDonald, LTK Chung, and AR Higgs, "Concentrations of Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, and Bendiocarb after Application in Offices," American Industrial Hygiene Associatioin Journal, vol. 51, no. 1, 1990, p. 24.

[529] Hayes, WJ and ER Laws (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1991, pp. 1143-1144.

[530] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 124: Lindane," 1991, p. 123.

[531] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 124: Lindane," 1991, p. 123.

[532] Toxicology Network (TOXNET), "Lindane [online]," Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/. [Accessed September 2000.], p. 5.

[533] American Cancer Society, "What is Cancer? [online]," Available from: http://www3.cancer.org/cancerinfo (retrieved 1/25/01), p. 1.

[534] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Malathion: Revisions to the Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document," April 28, 2000, p. 2.

[535] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Interim Final, EPA/540/1-89/002, December 1989, pp. A-1 through A-4.

[536] Used for deriving dermal toxicity values from oral toxicity values, where appropriate.

[537] National Research Council, Committee on Toxicology, Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1994, p. 28.

[538] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Toxicology Expert Report, Azamethiphos (CGA 18'809), April 30, 1992, p. 12.

[539] Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), National Library of Medicine Toxicology Network, "Carbaryl [online]," Available from: http://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/servlets/TOXNET (retrieved December 10, 1998), p. 2.

[540] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Dichlorvos," 1997, p. 67.

[541] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos," 1997, p. 65.

[542] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon-Upate," 1996, p. 76.

[543] Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), National Library of Medicine Toxicology Network, "Malathion [online]," Available from: http://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/servlets/TOXNET (retrieved December 10, 1998), p. 1. The disposition of an oral dose in rats after 24 hours was as follows: 83% in urine, 6% in feces, 3% in expired air, and 8% remained in the GI tract. Thus, we assumed that all except that in feces was eventually absorbed.

[544] Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), National Library of Medicine Toxicology Network, "Carbaryl [online]," Available from: http://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/servlets/TOXNET (retrieved December 10, 1998), p. 2.

[545] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Hexachlorocyclohexane-Update," 1997, p. 78.

[546] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Guidance for Performing Aggregate Exposure and Risk Assessments, October 29, 1999, p. 38. OPP states that an HQ or HI > 1 suggests a risk of concern.

[547] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Human Health Risk Assessment: Dichlorvos (DDVP)," August 9, 2000, p. 7.

[548] US Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum, Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, NCEA-F-0644, July 1999, p. xviii.

[549] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, pp. 87, 107.

[550] Ecobichon, DJ, "Toxic Effects of Pesticides," Chapter 22, Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Edition, C.D. Klaasen, editor, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, p. 655.

[551] Karczmar, A., "Anticholinesterases: dramatic aspects of their use and misuse," Neurochemistry International, vol. 32, 1998, p. 401.

[552] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "A Science Policy on a Common Mechanism of Toxicity: the Carbamate Pesticides and the Grouping of Carbamate with the Organophosphorus Pesticides-Draft," August 30, 1999, pp. 1-28.

[553] Ecobichon, DJ, "Toxic Effects of Pesticides," Chapter 22, Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Edition, C.D. Klaasen, editor, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, p. 643-689.

[554] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos," 1997, pp. 63-64, 73-74.

[555] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Dichlorvos," 1997, p. 65.

[556] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile for Diazinon," 1996, pp. 3, 83, 102.

[557] Extension Toxicology Network, Oregon State University, "Pesticide Information Profile for Propoxur," revised June 1996, 4 pp.

[558] Extension Toxicology Network, Oregon State University, "Pesticide Information Profile for Propoxur," revised June 1996, 4 pp.

[559] Golomb, BA, A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pyridostigmine Bromide, RAND, Volume 2: 1999.

[560] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000.

[561] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000, p. 61.

[562] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, pp. 116-117.

[563] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 117.

[564] Golomb, BA, A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pyridostigmine Bromide, RAND, Volume 2: 1999, pp. 115, 118.

[565] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "R.E.D. Facts: DEET," EPA-783-F-95-010, April 1998, p. 1.

[566] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "R.E.D. Facts: Methomyl," EPA-738-F-98-019, December 1998, p. 2.

[567] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "R.E.D. Facts: Propoxur," EPA-738-F-97-009, August 1997, p. 2.

[568] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decisions Projected for FY2000-FY2001 [online]," Available from: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDS/factsheets/comingreds.htm

[569] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Dichlorvos; Notice of Preliminary Determination to Cancel Certain Registrations and Draft Notice of Intent to Cancel," Federal Register, vol. 60, no. 188, September 28, 1995, p. 50338.

[570] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "R.E.D. Facts: Bendiocarb," EPA-738-F-99-010, September 1999, p. 5.

[571] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Chlorpyrifos Revised Risk Assessment and Agreement with Registrants," June 2000, p. 1.

[572] Sittig, M., Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 2nd Edition, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1985, p. 824.

[573] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 90.

[574] Karczmar, A., "Anticholinesterases: dramatic aspects of their use and misuse," Neurochemistry International, vol. 32, 1998, p. 403-404.

[575] Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticide and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, "EPA's Pesticide Programs," May 1991, p.1; Environmental Protection Agency, legislative and regulatory information internet links, website: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/regleg.htm

[576] Department of Defense, Directive 4150.7, "DoD Pest Management Program," October 24, 1983, p. 5.

[577] US Navy, OPNAVINST 6250.4A, "Pest Management Programs," November 28, 1990, p. 9.

[578] US Army, Regulation 40-5, "Preventive Medicine," October 15, 1990, section 5-9.a.

[579] US Air Force, Regulation 91-21, "Pest Management Program," March 6, 1981, p. 4.

[580] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum (No. 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. ii.

[581] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum (No. 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988.

[582] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum (No. 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 1-2.

[583] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum (No. 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 3.

[584] Department of Defense, DoD 4150.7-M, "Plan for Certification of Pesticide Applicators for Restricted Use Pesticides," December 8, 1985, p. B-9 - B-12.

[585] Department of Defense, DoD 4150.7-M, "Plan for Certification of Pesticide Applicators for Restricted Use Pesticides," December 8, 1985, p. B-14.

[586] Lead Sheet #6028, Interview with Air Force civil engineer, September 16, 1997.

[587] Department of Veterans Affairs, Research Working Group of the Persian Gulf Veterans Coordinating Board, "Annual Report to Congress, Federally Sponsored Research on Gulf War Veteran's Illnesses for 1998," June 1999.

[588] US Army Regulation 611-101, "Commissioned Officer Classification System," July 26, 1995, p. 22, 23, 52, 53.

[589] This paper uses the title Environmental Science Officer for two Army occupational specialties, Environmental Science Officer and Sanitary Engineer. At the company grade level, second lieutenant to captain, the two specialties have very similar duty assignments.

[590] US Army Regulation 611-201, "Enlisted Career Management Fields and Military Occupational Specialty," July 26, 1995, p. 483.

[591] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Military Pest Management Handbook," not dated, possibly 1992, p. 2.

[592] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Military Pest Management Handbook," not dated, possibly 1992, p. 5.

[593] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Military Pest Management Handbook," not dated, possibly 1992, p. 6.

[594] Armstrong Laboratory is now part of the Air Force Research Laboratory.

[595] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Military Pest Management Handbook," not dated, possibly 1992, p. 4; For current information about Department of Defense pesticide programs visit the Armed Forces Pest Management Board website, www.afpmb.org and the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Entomology Science Program website, http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/ento/.

[596] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Preventive Medicine on Operation Desert Shield: The First 40 Days," Proceedings of the 135th Board Meeting, November 14, 1990, p. F-1.

[597] US Central Command, CENTCOM Surgeon message, Subject: "Preventive Medicine Guidance for Operation Desert Shield," August 10, 1990, p. 2.

[598] US Central Command, "Medical CONOPS for Desert Shield," August 13, 1990, p. 5.

[599] US Army, Field Manual 8-10, "Health Service Support in a Theater of Operations," March 1991, p. 10-2.

[600] US Army, Field Manual 8-10, "Health Service Support in a Theater of Operations," March 1991, p. 3.

[601] US Army Surgeon General, Preventive Medicine Consultant, "Preventive Medicine Assets in Theater," January 29, 1991.

[602] US Army Surgeon General, Preventive Medicine Consultant, "Preventive Medicine Assets in Theater," January 29, 1991.

[603] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment, Subj: "Interim After Action Report," April 20, 1991, p. 2.

[604] US Army Surgeon General, Preventive Medicine Consultant, "Preventive Medicine Assets in Theater," January 29, 1991.

[605] Memorandum form 12th Medical Detachment, Subj: "Interim After Action Report," April 20, 1991, p. 2.

[606] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment to Commander, U.S. ARCENT Medical Command, Subject: "Situation Report," April 15, 1991, p. 2.

[607] Preventive Medicine Detachment - Southwest Asia, "Field Report #2 on Preventive Medicine in Southwest Asia," August 17, 1991.

[608] 983rd Medical Detachment, information sheet, "List of Recommended Substitutes Available in the Local Economy," undated, p. 1.

[609] Society for Vector Ecology, "Navy/Marine Desert Shield/Storm Vector Control Activity," Vector Ecology Newsletter, Vol. 22, No. 1, April 1991, p. 3.

[610] Department of Defense, "Deployment to Operation Desert Shield: An Entomologist's Perspective," Proceedings of the DoD Preventive Medicine Workshop, February 10-14, 1992, p. G-2.

[611] Navy Environmental Health Center, "Initial Preventive Medicine Assessments from Operation Desert Shield 1990," Technical Report NEHC-TR91-2, March 1991, p. 20.

[612] US Marine Corps Central Command, "OPLAN Desert Storm (U)," Tab C to Appendix 3 to Annex D, "Preventive Medicine," January 1, 1991, p. D-3-C-4 through D-3-C-5.

[613] Society for Vector Ecology, "Navy/Marine Desert Shield/Storm Vector Control Activity," Vector Ecology Newsletter, Vol. 22, No. 1, April 1991, p. 3.

[614] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, "Desert Shield/Storm Presentation," Proceedings of the 137th Board Meeting, July 18, 1991, p. H-1.

[615] The number of Air Force pest control personnel in the KTO was established by searching personnel registry data provided by the Defense Personnel Manpower Data Center (DMDC) for Air Force specialty code 566X0 for pest controllers.

[616] Fricker, R.D. Jr., et al., Pesticide Use During the Gulf War: A Survey of Gulf War Veterans, RAND, 2000.

[617] Lead Sheet #15462, Interview with CENTCOM preventive medicine physician, March 26, 1998.

[618] Lead Sheet #14966, Interview with 24th ID, 724th Combat Support Battalion, Company F environmental science officer, February 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #15110, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion environmental science officer, February 16, 1998.

[619] Lead Sheet #16267, Interview with a Navy Bureau of Medicine team entomologist, April 29, 1998.

[620] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[621] Lead Sheet #15456, Interview with 1st Armored Division, preventive medicine physician, March 13, 1998; Lead Sheet #15018, Interview with 101st Airborne Division doctor, April 23, 1998; Lead Sheet #16823, Interview with 1st Cavalry Division doctor, May 22, 1998.

[622] Lead Sheet #15400, Interview with 1st Armored Division, preventive medicine specialist, July 2, 1998; Lead Sheet #14971, Interview with 1st Armored Division, preventive medicine specialist, February 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #16044, Interview with 24th Mech. Infantry Division preventive medicine specialist, May 20, 1998.

[623] Lead Sheet #15365, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment entomologist, March 9, 1998.

[624] Lead Sheet #14966, Interview with 24th Mech. Infantry Division environmental science officer, February 10, 1998.

[625] Lead Sheet #14973, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment entomologist, February 10, 1998.

[626] Lead Sheet #14968, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 10, 1998.

[627] Lead Sheet #15871, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, April 14, 1998.

[628] Lead Sheet #18318, Interview with 1st Marine Division entomologist, September 11, 1998.

[629] Lead Sheet #15053, Interview with 223rd Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 13, 1998.

[630] Lead Sheet #15010, Interview with 326th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, February 23, 1998.

[631] Lead Sheet #14968, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 10, 1998.

[632] Lead Sheet #15270, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 31, 1998; Lead Sheet #15033, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, September 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #15269, Interview with 1st Marine Expeditionary Force preventive medicine technician, March 30, 1998; Lead Sheet #15458, Interview with Undetermined unit US Army preventive medicine specialist, September 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15685, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, June 15, 1998.

[633] Lead Sheet #15058, Interview with 983rd Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 4, 1998; Lead Sheet #15062, Interview with 82nd Airborne Battalion, 307th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, March 18, 1998; Lead Sheet #15210, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 27, 1998.

[634] Lead Sheet #15361, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 6, 1998; Lead Sheet #15378, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15245, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 3, 1998; Lead Sheet #15177, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 26, 1998; Lead Sheet #15176, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 4, 1998.

[635] Lead Sheet #14384, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, February 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15006, Interview with 326th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, February 19, 1998; Lead Sheet #15019, Interview with 926th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, May 6, 1998; Lead Sheet #15037, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #15122, Interview with 24th Infantry Division, 724th Combat Support Battalion preventive medicine specialist, February 17, 1998; Lead Sheet #15348, Interview with 61st Medical Detachment preventive medicine technician, March 6, 1998; Lead Sheet #15415, Interview with 3rd Armored Division, 122nd Combat Support Battalion, Company F preventive medicine specialist, March 10, 1998.

[636] Lead Sheet #18865, Interview with 23rd Civil Engineering Squadron King Fahd International Airport pest controller, August 26, 1998; Lead Sheet #18779, Interview with 4th Civil Engineering Squadron Al Kharj Airport pest controller, August 25, 1998; Lead Sheet #18781, Interview with 35th Tactical Fighter Wing pest controller, August 31, 1998; Lead Sheet #18860, Interview with 52nd Civil Engineering Squadron Doha INTL, QA pest controller, October 6, 1998; Lead Sheet #18775, Interview with 2849th Civil Engineering Squadron Minhad AB, UAE pest controller, August 21, 1998.

[637] Lead Sheet #15218, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 27, 1998; Lead Sheet #16572, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, June 22, 1998.

[638] Lead Sheet #15480, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 17, 1998; Lead Sheet #15452, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 12, 1998; Lead Sheet #15009, Interview with 326th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, February 24, 1998.

[639] Lead Sheet #15747, Interview with 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade preventive medicine technician, April 8, 1998; Lead Sheet #15749, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, April 4, 1998.

[640] Lead Sheet #15871, Interview with 1st Marine Division preventive medicine technician, April 14, 1998; Lead Sheet #15718, Interview with 10th Marine preventive medicine technician, April 15, 1998; Lead Sheet #15270, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 30, 1998.

[641] Lead Sheet #14384, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, February 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #14967, Interview with 71st Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #14971, Interview with 1st Armored Division, 123rd Combat Support Battalion, Company F preventive medicine specialist, February 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #15375, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 9, 1998.

[642] Lead Sheet #15800, Interview with 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade preventive medicine technician, April 17, 1998.

[643] Lead Sheet #15241, Interview with 714th Medical Detachment entomologist, March 3, 1998; Lead Sheet #15270, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 30, 1998; Lead Sheet #18775, Interview with 2849th Civil Engineering Squadron Minhad Air Base, United Arab Emirates pest controller, August 25, 1998; Lead Sheet #18779, Interview with 4th Civil Engineering Squadron Al Kharj Airport pest controller, August 21, 1998.

[644] Lead Sheet #15479, Interview with 3rd Armored Division, 122nd Combat Support Battalion, Company F environmental science officer, March 17, 1998.

[645] Lead Sheet #15952, Interview with Navy preventive medicine technician, April 13, 1998.

[646] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[647] Lead Sheet #24945, Interview with 3rd Marine Air Wing environmental health officer, October 4, 1999.

[648] Lead Sheet #15749, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, April 7, 1998; Lead Sheet #15968, Interview with 1st Marine Division preventive medicine technician, April 10, 1998.

[649] Lead Sheet #15295, Interview with 3rd Marine Air Wing preventive medicine technician, July 2, 1998.

[650] Lead Sheet #15110, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion environmental science officer, February 26, 1998.

[651] Lead Sheet #22700, Interview with 61st Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, April 22, 1998.

[652] Lead Sheet #15270, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 4, 1998; Lead Sheet #15237, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 3, 1998.

[653] Lead Sheet #18827, Interview with 834th Civil Engineering Squadron King Fahd International Airport pest controller, September 3, 1998; Lead Sheet #18779, Interview with 4th Civil Engineering Squadron Al Kharj Airport pest controller, August 25, 1998.

[654] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[655] Lead Sheet #15848, Interview with 403rd Enemy Prisoner of War Camp preventive medicine specialist, April 7, 1998.

[656] Lead Sheet #15666, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 31, 1998.

[657] Lead Sheet #15193, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment entomologist, April 14, 1998; Lead Sheet #15365, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment entomologist, March 9, 1998.

[658] Lead Sheet #15019, Interview with 926th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 23, 1998; Lead Sheet #16769, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, June 12, 1998.

[659] Lead Sheet #15040, Interview with 71st Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 3, 1998.

[660] Lead Sheet #15527, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 19, 1998.

[661] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Technical Information Memorandum (No. 24), "Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide," 3rd Edition, April 1988, p. 4.

[662] Lead Sheet #28069, Interview with 3rd Mobile Aerial Port Squadron air trans. specialist, October 17, 2000.

[663] Lead Sheet #15053, Interview with 223rd Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 13, 1998; Lead Sheet #15378, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15997, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, April 15, 1998; Lead Sheet #16048, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion Navy entomologist, August 20, 1998

[664] Lead Sheet #15431, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, June 11, 1998.

[665] Lead Sheet #23916, Interview with 401st MP Camp medical officer, July 2, 1999.

[666] Lead Sheet #15038, Interview with 48th Medical Detachment environmental science officer, February 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #15268, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, July 29, 1998; Lead Sheet #15458, Interview with Undetermined unit USA preventive medicine specialist, September 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15728, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, April 16, 1998; Lead Sheet #16012, Interview with 400th MP Battalion preventive medicine specialist, April 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #15419, Interview with Gulf War veteran, March 10, 1998.

[667] Lead Sheet #9415, Interview with 319th airborne Field Arty Regiment targeting/intell. specialist, May 20, 1997; Lead Sheet #12498, Interview with 185th Transportation Co. purchasing agent, August 4, 1997; Lead Sheet #22016, Interview with 316th Quartermaster Detachment truck driver, March 31, 1999; Lead Sheet #24814, Interview with 4th Tank Battalion assault specialist, September 9, 1999; Lead Sheet #18131, Interview with 3rd Battalion, 504th Infantry squad leader, December 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #11395, Interview with 307th Engineer Battalion platoon leader, September 30, 1998.

[668] Lead Sheet #12255, Interview with 299th Engineer Battalion engineer, November 4, 1997; Lead Sheet #21089, Interview with 2nd Marine Division preventive medicine specialist, January 14, 1999; Lead Sheet #21530, Interview with MAG26/VMO-1 quality assurance senior supervisor, February 4, 1999; Lead Sheet #24152, Interview with 1st Battalion, 5th SFG(A) special forces engineer, July 13, 1999.

[669] Lead Sheet #21119, Interview with 165th Airlift Wing turbo propulsion technician, February 2, 1999; Lead Sheet #21359, Interview with HMM-365, 4th MEB helicopter pilot, February 9, 1999; Lead Sheet #12263, Interview with 724th Support Battalion executive officer, October 18, 1997; Lead Sheet #12465, Interview with 53rd Quartermaster Detachment airborne rigger, August 19, 1999; Lead Sheet #12559, Interview with 210th MP Co. mechanic, December 18, 1997; Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999; Lead Sheet #15174, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment environmental science officer, March 10, 1998; Lead Sheet #15270, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 30, 1998; Lead Sheet #21892, Interview with 44th Evac Hospital nurse, April 30 1999; Lead Sheet #17650, Interview with 3rd Armored Division refueler, January 20, 1999; Lead Sheet #19307, Interview with 338th FSU Gulf War veteran, October 5, 1998.

[670] Lead Sheet #15874, Interview with 1st Marine Division preventive medicine technician, April 10, 1998.

[671] Lead Sheet #12644, Interview with 53rd Quartermaster Detachment mechanic supervisor, September 8, 1997; Lead Sheet #16477, Interview with 1640th TAWP airman, July 12, 1998; Lead Sheet #21230, Interview with 20th Engineer Battalion engineer, August 4, 1999; Lead Sheet #8098, Interview with 762nd Transportation Co. truck driver, October 6, 1997.

[672] Lead Sheet #15110, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion environmental science officer, February 16, 1998; Lead Sheet #16267, Interview with a BUMED team entomologist, April 29, 1998.

[673] Lead Sheet #6292, Interview with XVIII Airborne Corps contracting officer, October 2, 1997, p. 1.

[674] Lead Sheet #9067, Interview with a US Air Force contracting officer stationed in Tabuk City, January 16, 1997.

[675] Navy Environmental Health Center, "Initial Preventive Medicine Assessments from Operation Desert Shield 1990," Technical Report NEHC-TR91-2, March 1991, p. 44.

[676] Lead Sheet #15449, Interview with 105th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, June 22, 1998.

[677] Lead Sheet #15402, Interview with 227th Medical Detachment preventive Medicine NCO, April 20, 1998.

[678] Lead Sheet #15708, Interview with 10th Special Forces Group preventive medicine specialist, March 31, 1998.

[679] Lead Sheet #18858, Interview with an Air Force pest controller, September 11, 1998.

[680] Lead Sheet #16008, Interview with Fleet Hospital 6 preventive medicine technician, September 15, 1998.

[681] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[682] Lead Sheet #15747, Interview with 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade preventive medicine technician, April 8, 1998.

[683] Lead Sheet #15062, Interview with 307th Medical Battalion preventive medicine specialist, March 18, 1998; Lead Sheet #15458, Interview with undetermined unit US Army preventive medicine specialist, September 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #15758, Interview with 1st Marine Expeditionary Force preventive medicine technician, April 6, 1998; Lead Sheet #15666, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, April 15, 1998.

[684] Lead Sheet #15739, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, August 5, 1998; Lead Sheet #22238, Interview with Preventive Medicine Detachment Southwest Asia preventive medicine specialist, October 6, 1998.

[685] Lead Sheet #18795, Interview with 1st Civil Engineering Squadron Dhahran International Airport pest controller, September 1, 1998; Lead Sheet #18797, Interview with 314th Civil Engineering Squadron Bateen, United Arab Emirates pest controller, October 28, 1998; Lead Sheet #18781, Interview with 35th Tactical Fighter Wing pest controller, February 2 1999.

[686] Lead Sheet #18858, Interview with an Air Force pest controller, September 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #18848, Interview with 831st Civil Engineering Squadron Shaikh Isa International Airport pest controller, September 14, 1998.

[687] Lead Sheet #15966, Interview with US Army environmental science officer assigned as an advisor to the Saudi Arabian National Guard, June 16, 1998.

[688] Lead Sheet #15225, Interview with 44th Medical Brigade Physician, March 2, 1998.

[689] Lead Sheet #15002, Interview with 307th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 11, 1998.

[690] Lead Sheet #17074, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion entomologist, June 5, 1998.

[691] Lead Sheet #17074, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion entomologist, June 5, 1998; Lead Sheet #17155, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion entomologist, January 6, 1998.

[692] Lead Sheet #18781, Interview with 35th Tactical Fighter Wing pest controller, February 22, 1999; Lead Sheet #18845, Interview with 35th Tactical Fighter Wing pest controller, September 2, 1998.

[693] Lead Sheet #15952, Interview with Navy preventive medicine technician, February 23, 1999.

[694] Lead Sheet #6616, Interview with Air Force environmental health technician, Oct. 27, 1997.

[695] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[696] Degesch America, Inc., Applicator's Manual for Degesch Phostoxin(r), undated, p. 1; Lead Sheet #15270, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion preventive medicine technician, March 30, 1998.

[697] Lead Sheet #18857, Interview with 363rd Civil Engineering Squadron Al Dhafra, United Arab Emirates pest controller, September 16, 1998.

[698] Lead Sheet #14992, Interview with 983rd Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, February 11, 1998.

[699] Lead Sheet #25262, Interview with 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, November 4, 1999.

[700] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[701] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[702] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[703] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[704] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[705] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[706] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[707] Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Summary: AFPMB Questionnaire on Lessons Learned from the Gulf War, August 25, 2000, p. 1-3.

[708] Zoecon Corporation, "Improved Golden Malrin(r) Fly Bait," product insert, Dallas, Texas, 1984.

[709] Lead Sheet #6001, Interview with 714th Preventive Medicine unit entomologist, September 11, 1997, p. 2.

[710] Lead Sheet #5973, Interview with Marine 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, September 3, 1998, p. 1.

[711] 24th Infantry Division Environmental Science Officer, "Control of Filth Flies in the 24th ID Mech," Information Paper, October 30, 1990.

[712] Memorandum For Record from Non-Commissioned Officer-in-Charge, 223rd Medical Detachment (LB), Subject: "Field Sanitation Evaluations Performed for Operation Desert Shield to Date," January 3, 1991.

[713] 983rd Medical Detachment, information sheet/flyer, "List of Recommended Substitutes Available in the Local Economy," ca. 1990 or 1991.

[714] Lead Sheet #5946, Interview with Gulf War veteran, September 2, 1997; Lead Sheet #5947, Interview with battalion support platoon leader, September 2, 1997; Lead Sheet #6004, Interview with Gulf War veteran, September 12, 1997; US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Chemical Analysis of Fly Bait, June 8, 1998.

[715] See Tab C-4 Pest Management and Operations.

[716] Photo acquired from an Army medical doctor and Gulf War veteran.

[717] Lead Sheet #17485, Interview with Army administrative supervisor, July 14, 1998, p. 5.

[718] Lead Sheet #18170, Interview with Gulf War veteran, July 23, 1998, p. 3.

[719] Lead Sheet #7253, Interview with 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment veteran, December 9, 1997; Lead Sheet #7160, Interview with 2nd Marine Division veteran, November 25, 1997.

[720] Air Force Instruction 32-1053, "Civil Engineering Pest Management Program," April 1, 1999.

[721] Ministry of Defence, "Organophosphate Pesticide Investigation Team, Substantive Report," Parts One-Three, United Kingdom, December 6, 1996, pp. 3-7 and 3-8.

[722] Ciba-Geigy Ltd., "Safety Data Sheet: Azamethiphos Tech.," June 19, 1995.

[723] Personal communication with an Arabic translator.

[724] Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Appendix L: "Enemy Prisoner of War Operations," April 1992, p. 577-581.

[725] 800th Military Police Brigade (PW), "After Action Report, 800th MP Bde (PW)," 1 June 1991, p. 2-3.

[726] Brinkerhoff, JR, T Silva, and J Seitz, "United States Army Reserve in Operation Desert Storm: Enemy Prisoner of War Operations; the 800th Military Police Brigade," June 1992, p. 44-47.

[727] Memorandum from 14th Preventive Medicine Detachment Commander for 332nd Medical Brigade Commanding General, Subject: "Synopsis of Major Diseases in Theater of Operation," February 13, 1991.

[728] Memorandum from 14th Preventive Medicine Detachment Commander for 332nd Medical Brigade Commanding General, Subject: "Synopsis of Major Diseases in Theater of Operation," February 13, 1991.

[729] Office of the Surgeon General, "Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of Tactical Importance to US CENTCOM Forces," Second Edition, January 1991, p. 70.

[730] Memorandum from 22nd Support Command, Assistant Chief of Staff for 22nd Support Command Commanding General, Subject: "Delousing," January 26, 1991.

[731] Army Materiel Command, no title, Subject: "current operational status of delousing outfit," e-mail from headquarters technical support, ca. January 1991.

[732] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment (PMS) for Commander, 3rd MEDCOM, Subject: "Command Report, Operation Desert Storm," April 13, 1991.

[733] Lead Sheet #15413, Interview with preventive medicine specialist, 105th Medical Detachment, March 10, 1998.

[734] Lead Sheet #19904, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, December 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #19908, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, November 4, 1998; Lead Sheet #19912, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, November 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #19932, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, December 7, 1998; Lead Sheet #20506, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, December 9, 1998; Lead Sheet #20911, Interview with 301st Military Police Camp veteran, January 6, 1999.

[735] Lead Sheet #15805, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp preventive medicine specialist, April 20, 1998; Lead Sheet #20824, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp veteran, April 5, 1999.

[736] Lead Sheet #20091, Interview with 403rd Military Police Camp veteran, December 8, 1998; Lead Sheet #20095, Interview with 403rd Military Police Camp veteran, November 24, 1998; Lead Sheet #20822, Interview with 403rd Military Police Camp veteran, December 18, 1998.

[737] Octagon Process Inc., Product Label for Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting (contains 1% lindane), Edgewater, New Jersey, March 31, 1986, p. 1.

[738] Lead Sheet #19908, Interview with 301st MP soldier, November 4, 1998.

[739] US Army Technical Manual TM 5-632/Naval Facilities Maintenance and Operations NAVFAC MO-310/Air Force Manual AFM 91-16, "Military Entomology Operational Handbook," December 1971, p. 7-25 through 7-27; US Army Field Manual, FM 8-250 "Preventive Medicine Specialist," July 31, 1974, p. 15-10 through 15-12; Military Specification MIL-I-11490D "Insecticide, Lindane, Powder, Dusting 25 Pounds," March 31, 1986.

[740] Defense Logistics Agency, "ODS Pesticide Data Call," Defense General Supply Center, November 1993.

[741] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment (PMS) to Commander, 3rd MEDCOM, Subject: "Command Report, Operation Desert Storm," April 13, 1991, p. 1.

[742] US Army Physician, "ICI Lindane 26WP," photograph taken during Operation Desert Storm/Desert Shield, provided to OSAGWI, ca. 1991.

[743] Ministry of Defence, "Organophosphate Pesticide Investigation Team, Substantive Report," Parts One-Three,United Kingdom, December 6, 1996, p. 3-21.

[744] Ministry of Defence, "Organophosphate Pesticide Investigation Team, Substantive Report," Parts One-Three, United Kingdom, December 6, 1996.

[745] Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Appendix L, "Enemy Prisoner of War Operations," April 1992, p. 577-578.

[746] Ministry of Defence, "Organophosphate Pesticide Investigation Team - Substantive Report," Parts One-Three, United Kingdom, December 6, 1996, p. 3-21.

[747] Navy Environmental Health Center, "Initial Preventive Medicine Assessments from Operation Desert Shield 1990," Technical Report NEHC-TR91-2, March 1991, p. 43-44.

[748] US Army, Field Manual 21-10-1, "Unit Field Sanitation Team," Appendix D, Field Sanitation Team Materials, October 11, 1989.

[749] US Army Forces Command Regulation 700-2, "FORSCOM Standing Logistics Instructions," August 15, 1990, p. 6-9.

[750] Defense Logistics Agency, "ODS Pesticide Data Call," Defense General Supply Center, November 1993.

[751] Navy Environmental Health Center, "Initial Preventive Medicine Assessments from Operation Desert Shield 1990," Technical Report NEHC-TR91-2, March 1991, p. 43-44.

[752] Navy Environmental Health Center, "Initial Preventive Medicine Assessments from Operation Desert Shield 1990," Technical Report NEHC-TR91-2, March 1991, p. 43-44.

[753] Lead Sheet #5973, Interview with Marine 1st Medical Battalion entomologist, September 3, 1997, p. 1; Lead Sheet #5971, Interview with Navy/Marine Central Command preventive medicine officer, September 8, 1997, p. 1.

[754] Lead Sheet #5946, Interview with an 82nd Airborne Division executive officer , September 2, 1997.

[755] Lead Sheet #6004, Interview with unit commander, September 12, 1997, p. 1; See Tab C-5 Fly Baits, for further information.

[756] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment to Commander, U.S. ARCENT Medical Command, Subject: "Situation Report," April 15, 1991, p. 2.

[757] 983rd Medical Detachment, information sheet, "List of Recommended Substitutes Available in the Local Economy," undated, p. 1.

[758] Lead Sheet #16048, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion Navy entomologist, April 14, 1998.

[759] Lead Sheet #17074, Interview with 2nd Medical Battalion entomologist, June 5, 1998.

[760] Lead Sheet #15269, Interview with 1st MEF Preventive medicine technician, March 4, 1998.

[761] Lead Sheet #18865, Interview with 23rd Civil Engineering Squadron King Fahd International Airport pest controller, August 26, 1998; Lead Sheet #18858, Interview with an Air Force pest controller, September 11, 1998; Lead Sheet #18857, Interview with 363rd Civil Engineering Squadron Al Dhafra, United Arab Emirates pest controller, August 28, 1998; Lead Sheet #18853, Interview with 823rd Civil Engineering Squadron Riyadh International Airport pest controller, August 25, 1998.

[762] Lead Sheet #18779, Interview with 4th Civil Engineering Squadron AL Kharj APT pest controller, August 21, 1998.

[763] Memorandum from SUPCOM Medical Group (Provisional), Preventive Medical Detachment, Southwest Asia through Commander, 22nd Support Command, Subject: "Pesticide Use by Untrained Personnel," August 8, 1991, p. 1.

[764] Lead Sheet #6770, Interview with an Army Central Command staff entomologist, November 3, 1997.

[765] Lead Sheet #16267, Interview with a Navy Bureau of Medicine team entomologist, April 29, 1998; Lead Sheet #15038, Interview with 48th Medical Detachment environmental science officer, February 11, 1998.

[766] Lead Sheet #18781, Interview with 35th Tactical Fighter Wing pest controller, August 21, 1998; Lead Sheet #15431, Interview with 14th Medical Detachment preventive medicine specialist, March 11, 1998.

[767] Lead Sheet #18857, Interview with 363rd Civil Engineering Squadron Al Dhafra, United Arab Emirates pest controller, August 28, 1998; Lead Sheet #22238, Interview with PM DET SWA preventive medicine specialist, March 1, 1998.

[768] Lead Sheet #20824, Interview with 401st Military Police Camp veteran, April 5, 1999; Lead Sheet #16044, Interview with 24 ID 724th CS Battalion preventive medicine specialist, April 14, 1998; Lead Sheet #15293, Interview with 1st Marine Division preventive medicine technician, March 16, 1998.

[769] Lead Sheet #15012, Interview with 101 ABN 326th Medical Battalion doctor, February 11, 1998.

[770] Memorandum from Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition & Technology), Subject: "Approval for Local Purchase of Pesticides During Deployment Operations," February 1, 1999.

[771] Tenenbein, Milton, "Severe Toxic Reactions and Death Following the Ingestion of Diethyltoluamide-Containing Insect Repellents," Journal of the American Medical Association, September 18, 1987, p. 1509.

[772] Osimitz , Thomas G., and Jerome V. Murphy, "Neurological Effects Associated with Use of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET)," Journal of Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology, vol. 35, no. 5, p. 439.

[773] Olson, C.T., J.A. Blank, and R.G. Menton, "Neuromuscular Effects of Low Level Exposures to Sarin, Pyridostigmine, DEET, and Chlorpyrifos," Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 21, suppl. 1, p. 153.

[774] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 23.

[775] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 18.

[776] Moody, Richard P., Brita Nadeau, and Ih Chu, "In Vitro Dermal Absorption of N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET) in Rat, Guinea Pig, and Human Skin," In Vitro Toxicology, vol. 8, November 3, 1995, p. 273.

[777] Stinecipher, Julie, and Jaymin Shah, "Percutaneous Permeation of N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET) from Commercial Mosquito Repellents and the Effect of Solvent," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 52, no. 2, p.125-126, 130.

[778] Osimitz , Thomas G., and Jerome V. Murphy, "Neurological Effects Associated with Use of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET)," Journal of Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology, vol. 35, no. 5, p. 435-436, 439-440.

[779] Amichai, Boaz, Aneta Lazarov and Sima Halevy, "Contact Dermatitis from Diethyltoluamide," Contact Dermatitis, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 188.

[780] Olson, C.T., J.A. Blank, and R.G. Menton, "Neuromuscular Effects of Low Level Exposures to Sarin, Pyridostigmine, DEET, and Chlorpyrifos," Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 21, suppl. 1, p. 153.

[781] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010) September 1998, p. 23.

[782] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET,"(EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 23-24.

[783] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 24.

[784] Cherniack, M.G., and P.J. Robbins, "Review of the Biodistribution and Toxicity of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET)," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 506, 520.

[785] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 30-31.

[786] US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET," EPA #738-R-98-010, September 1998, p. 24.

[787] Cherniack, M.G., and P.J. Robbins, "Review of the Biodistribution and Toxicity of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide (DEET)," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 515.

[788] Gotoh, Y., M Kawakami, N Matsumoto, and Y Okada, "Permethrin Emulsion Ingestion: Clinical Manifestations and Clearance of Isomers," Clinical Toxicology, vol. 36, no. 1&2, p. 57-58.

[789] Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Final Report, "Gulf War Risk Factors," Chapter 4, p. 5, http://www.gwvi.gov/ch4.html [as of 09/04/98].

[790] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Permethrin," vol. 53, 1991, p. 339.

[791] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Permethrin," vol. 53, 1991, p. 341.

[792] Snodgrass, Hubert L., "Permethrin Transfer from Treated Cloth to the Skin Surface: Potential for Exposure in Humans," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 35, p. 104.

[793] Extension Toxicology Network (EXTONET), "Pesticide Information Profile: Permethrin [online]. Available from: http://ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/pips/permethrin/htm [Revised June 1996], p. 1.

[794] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 58-59.

[795] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 59.

[796] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 59, 69.

[797] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Permethrin," 1991, p. 334.

[798] Gotoh, Y., M Kawakami, N Matsumoto, and Y Okada, "Permethrin Emulsion Ingestion: Clinical Manifestations and Clearance of Isomers," Clinical Toxicology, vol. 36, no. 1&2, p. 59.

[799] Cecchine, G., et al., A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pesticides, Volume 8, RAND, 2000, p. 61.

[800] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, p. 11, 13.

[801] Airosol Company, Government Insecticide, 20206-Insecticide, D-Phenothrin, Material Safety Data Sheet, Manufacturers Cage # 14676, MSDS Serial # BTKTG, Airosol Company, Neodesha, KS, June 16, 1994. Chemscope-Insecticide Aerosol D-Phenothrin-2%, Material Safety Data Sheet, Manufacturers Cage# 53984, Chemscope Corp, Arlington Texas, July 20, 1992.

[802] Scott, Gordon, "National Guideline for the Management of Phthirus Pubis Infestation," Sexually Transmitted Infections, August 1999, p. S78.

[803] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, p. 11, 44.

[804] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, p. 11, 12.

[805] Airosol Company, Government Insecticide, 20206-Insecticide, D-Phenothrin, Material Safety Data Sheet, Manufacturers Cage # 14676, MSDS Serial # BTKTG, Airosol Company, Neodesha, KS, June 16, 1994. Chemscope-Insecticide Aerosol D-Phenothrin-2%, Material Safety Data Sheet, Manufacturers Cage# 53984, Chemscope Corp, Arlington Texas, July 20, 1992.

[806] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 96: d-Phenothrin," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, p. 14.

[807] Ciba-Geigy, Ltd., "Safety Data Sheet: Azamethiphos Tech.," June 1995, p. 6.

[808] Ciba-Geigy, Ltd., "Safety Data Sheet: Azamethiphos Tech.," June 1995, p. 1.

[809] Liddle, J.A., et.al., "A Fatal Episode of Accidental Methomyl Poisoning, Clinical Toxicology, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 160,166.

[810] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 178: Methomyl," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1996, p. 27.

[811] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 178: Methomyl," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1996, p. 81.

[812] Miyazaki, T., et al., "Fatal and Non-Fatal Methomyl in an Attempted Double Suicide," Forensic Science International, Vol. 42, p. 263, 264, 267, 269.

[813] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 178: Methomyl," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1996, p. 102.

[814] Saiyed, H.N., et al., "Cardiac Toxicity Following Short-term Exposure to Methomyl in Spraymen and Rabbits," Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 11, p. 93-97.

[815] Hayes, W. J. Jr., and E.R. Laws, (eds.), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Vol. 3 - Classes of Pesticides, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1991, p. 1165; Hayes, W..J. Jr., Pesticides Studied in Man, Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, San Diego, 1982, p. 456.

[816] Driskell, William J., et al., "Methomyl in the Blood of a Pilot who Crashed During Aerial Spraying," Journal of Analytical Toxicology, November/December 1991, p. 339-340.

[817] Morse, Dale L., et al., "Propanil-Chloracne and Methomyl Toxicity in Workers of a Pesticide Manufacturing Plant," Clinical Toxicology, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 19-20.

[818] Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET), "Pesticide Information Profile: Dichlorvos," [online]. Available from http://ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/pips/dichlorv.htm. [Revised June 1996.], p. 1, 2; and Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Dichlorvos," [online]. Available from: http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/dichlorvos/recognition.html. [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

[819] Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Dichlorvos," [online]. Available from: http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/dichlorvos/recognition.html. [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

[820] Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET), "Pesticide Information Profile: Dichlorvos," [online]. Available from http://ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/pips/dichlorv.htm. [Revised June 1996.], p. 2; and Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Dichlorvos," [online]. Available from: http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/dichlorvos/recognition.html. [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

[821] Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Dichlorvos," [online]. Available from: http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/dichlorvos/recognition.html. [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

[822] Gillett, James W., et al., "Evaluation of Human Health Hazards on Use of Dichlorvos, Especially in Resin Strips," Residue Reviews; Residues of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in the Total Environment, vol. 44, p. 142.

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[858] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile of Diazinon," 1996, p. 77.

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[864] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards: Diazinon - 2. Effects on Humans," Supplement IV-OHG, 1995, p. 3.

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[872] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxicological Profile of Diazinon," 1996, p. 106.

[873] Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET), "Pesticide Information Profile: Malathion," [online]. Available from: http://ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/pips/malathio.htm. [Revised June 1996], p. 1-2.

[874] National Toxicology Program, NTP Chemical Repository, "Malathion," [online]. Available from: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/CHEM_H&S/NTP_Chem1/Radian121-75-5.html. [Accessed September 2000.], p. 4.

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[901] Bonsall, J.L., and J. Goose, "The Safety Evaluation of Bendiocarb, A Residual Insecticide for Vector Control," Toxicology Letters, Vol. 33, 1986, p. 58; Currie, K.L., et al., "Concentrations of Diazinon, Chlopyrifos, and Bendiocarb After Application in Offices," American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, January 1990, p. 23-24.

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[906] Bowie, C., A. Hill and V. Murray, "The Effect of a Lindane and Mercury Polluting Incident on the Health of a Community: The Somerton Health Survey," Public Health, vol., 112, p. 249, 250.

[907] Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET), "Pesticide Information Profile: Lindane," [online]. Available from: http://ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/pips/lindane.htm. [Revised June 1996.], p. 2.

[908] World Health Organization, "Environmental Health Criteria 124 - Lindane," Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1991, p. 123.

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