PART C TABS
TAB C-1 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary
This Tab lists acronyms and abbreviations found in Parts A, B and C of this report. Additionally the glossary defines selected uncommon technical terms.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
|ACGIH||American Council of Government Industrial Hygienists|
|A||area, as in surface area|
|ABS||dermal absorption factor|
|AC||number of applicators working in an EPW camp|
|ACR||armored Cavalry Regiment|
|ADA||air defense artillery|
|ADD||absorbed dermal dose|
|ADI||acceptable daily intake|
|AF||formulation or solid medium to skin adherence factor|
|AFMIC||Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center|
|AFPMB||Armed Forces Pest Management Board|
|AFESC||Air Force Engineering and Servicing Center|
|AMMNET||Saudi ARAMCO Air Quality Monitoring and Meteorology Network|
|APC||armored personnel carrier|
|APR||applicator processing rate for EPWs|
|AR||volumetric application rate|
|atm||atmosphere (a unit of pressure)|
|ATSDR||Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|
|BDU||battle dress uniform|
|BUMED||Bureau of Medicine and Surgery|
|C||centigrade temperature scale or concentration, depending on context|
|CA||a.i. concentration in air|
|Ca||ambient (outdoor) concentration|
|CAG||USEPAs Carcinogen Assessment Group|
|Cai||concentration of a.i. in applied formulation|
|CAS||Chemical Abstract Service|
|CAsat||saturation concentration of a.i. in air|
|CDC||Center for Disease Control, Public Health Service|
|Cest||a.i. concentration in soil/sand assumed for air modeling|
|CF||unit conversion factor|
|CHPPM||US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine|
|Ci||modeled indoor air concentration|
|Col.||Colonel (Air Force)|
|CONOPS||concept of operations|
|COPR||Control of Pesticide Regulations|
|Cp||modeled indoor air concentration attached to particulates|
|CPR||camp processing rate for EPWs|
|CS||a.i. concentration in formulation or medium|
|Csi||bulk-soil concentration of component i|
|CS BN||combat support battalion|
|Cv||modeled indoor air concentration in vapor form|
|CWA||chemical warfare agent|
|d||day, or Chinn evaporation time, depending on context|
|DCT||delayed cognitive toxicity|
|Di||molecular diffusion coefficient i in air|
|Dei||effective diffusion coefficient i|
|DLA||Defense Logistics Agency|
|DMDC||Defense Personnel Manpower Data Center|
|DNBI||disease and nonbattle injury|
|DoD||Department of Defense|
|DODAAC||Department of Defense Activity Address Code|
|DPMIAC||Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center|
|DT||dislodgeable transferable residue|
|DUSD(ES)||Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Environmental Security|
|DVEP||disease vector ecology profiles|
|EAC||echelons above corps|
|EDE||estimated dermal exposure; that is, the mass of a.i. contacting skin|
|EE||US Air Force environmental engineer|
|EER||Environmental Exposure Report|
|EHO||environmental health officer|
|Ei||emission rate of chemical i|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|EPC||exposure point concentration|
|EPCA||EPC in air|
|EPCTWA||time-weighted average exposure point concentration|
|EPW||enemy prisoner of war|
|ETOXNET||Extension Toxicology Network|
|f||fraction of pesticide formulation which becomes airborne|
|FAO/WHO||Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization|
|FDA||Food and Drug Administration|
|Fe||fraction of applied formulation remaining airborne|
|FFDCA||Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act|
|Foc||fraction of organic carbon in soil|
|Fi||average flux of component i for exposure interval|
|FIFRA||Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act|
|fl oz||fluid (volume) ounce|
|FQPA||Food Quality Protection Act of 1996|
|FSSG||field service support group|
|FST||field sanitation team|
|GP||general purpose tent|
|GVIU||Gulf Veterans Illnesses Unit (United Kingdom)|
|H||Henry's Law Constant, or mixing height, depending on context|
|HED||USEPA OPP Health Effects Division|
|HHC||Headquarters and Headquarters Company|
|HIARC||Hazard Identification Committee Report|
|HRA||health risk assessment|
|HSDB||USEPAs hazardous substances databank|
|I||air changes per unit time|
|IAD||Investigation and Analysis Directorate|
|IOM||Institute of Medicine|
|IRIS||Integrated Risk Information System|
|K||Kelvin temperature scale, or decay rate, depending on context|
|k||correction factor or mixing factor, depending on context|
|Kas||soil/air partition coefficient|
|Kd||soil/water partition coefficient|
|KKMC||King Khalid Military City|
|KTO||Kuwait Theater of Operations|
|LADD||lifetime average daily dose, for carcinogenic effects|
|LADDD||lifetime average daily dermal dose, for carcinogenic effects|
|LADDI||lifetime average daily inhalation dose, for carcinogenic effects|
|LADDO||lifetime average daily oral dose, for carcinogenic effects|
|LTC||Lieutenant Colonel (Army)|
|Lt. Col.||Lieutenant Colonel (Air Force)|
|Mai||mass of active ingredient|
|MARCENT||Marine Corps Central Command|
|MAW||Marine Air Wing|
|MCCEM||Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model|
|MSDS||material safety data sheet|
|MEB||Marine Expeditionary Brigade|
|MEF||Marine Expeditionary Force|
|MF||migration factor (BDU to skin)|
|MOPP||mission oriented protective posture|
|MOS||military occupational specialty|
|n||number of responses|
|N||number; of applications, vessels, batches, etc., depending on equation|
|NAVENVIRHLTHCEN||Navy Environmental Health Center|
|NAVFACCENCOM||Navy Facilities Central Command|
|NAVMEDCOM INST||Navy Medical Command Instruction|
|NDVECC||Navy Disease Vector Ecology and Control Center|
|NEPMU||Navy Environmental Preventive Medicine Unit|
|NIH||National Institute of Health|
|NIOSH||National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health|
|NSN||national stock number|
|NTP||National Toxicology Program|
|OAF||oral absorption factor|
|ODS/DS||Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm|
|OPIDN||organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy|
|OPNAVINST||Chief of Naval Operations Instruction|
|OPP||[Environmental Protection Agency] Office of Pesticide Programs|
|OSA||Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments|
|OSAGWI||Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses|
|OSHA||Occupational Safety and Health Administration|
|oz||avoirdupois (weight) ounce|
|p||fraction by weight of active ingredient in pesticide formulation|
|PAC||Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans Illnesses|
|PDR||potential dose rate|
|PDRD||potential dose rate for dermal contact|
|PDRI||potential dose rate for inhalation|
|PDRO||potential dose rate for ingestion|
|PGW||Persian Gulf War|
|PIR||Parachute Infantry Regiment|
|PM10||particulate matter less than or equal to 10 mm in diameter|
|PMT||preventive medicine technician|
|Pocket guide||Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide|
|POPC||pesticide of potential concern|
|PPB||parts per billion|
|PPE||personal protective equipment|
|PPM||parts per million|
|PR||daily processing rate for EPWs|
|Q||air exchange rate|
|R||universal gas constant or reservoir of material subject to wind erosion, depending on context|
|RAMC||Royal Army Medical Corps|
|RBC||red blood cell|
|RED||Registration Eligibility Decision|
|RfDd||dermal reference dose|
|RfDi||inhalation reference dose|
|RfDo||oral reference dose|
|RME||reasonable maximum exposure|
|S||amount of pesticide formulation applied|
|SA||skin surface area available for contact|
|SF||carcinogenic slope factor|
|t||time, as in duration of application|
|te||Chinn evaporation time|
|TG||technical guide (USAEHA)|
|TIM||technical information memorandum (AFPMB)|
|TOC||Tactical Operations Center|
|[u]||mean wind speed|
|UE||unit dermal exposure|
|UIE||unit inhalation exposure|
|ULV||ultra low volume|
|URF||unit risk factor|
|USACHPPM||US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine|
|USAEHA||US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (now USACHPPM)|
|USCENTCOM||US Central Command|
|USEPA||US Environmental Protection Agency|
|ut||threshold value of wind speed at 7 meter anemometer height|
|ut||surface threshold friction velocity|
|u*t||corrected threshold friction velocity|
|VA||US Department of Veterans Affairs|
|VECTRAP||vector risk assessment profile|
|VF||volume of formulation|
|W||crosswind width of box|
|WA||weight of a.i. handled|
|WD||density of water|
|WF||weight of formulation handled|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
|b||soil bulk density|
The amount of pesticide active ingredient penetrating across the absorption barriers (exchange boundaries) of a test organism or human (same as "internal dose").
A critical cholinesterase regulating the synaptic transmission of impulses in the central and peripheral nervous systems of humans and animals. Symptoms of inhibition of nervous system acetylcholinesterase span a range from mild to severe depending upon the degree of inhibition. Mild symptoms include narrowing of the pupil and runny nose. More severe symptoms may include additionally any or all of the following: dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heart rate, breathing difficulty, death.
In any pesticide product, the component which kills, or otherwise controls, targeted pests. Pesticides are regulated primarily on the basis of their active ingredient.
The capacity of a substance to cause a poisonous effect (such as skin or eye irritation or damage to an organ) or death from a single or short-term exposure.
|Adverse health effect||
An indication of unequivocal health impairment, including a frank effect and/or laboratory measurement. Adverse health effects may be mild, moderate, or severe. Thus, inhibition of blood cholinesterases, by itself, does not constitute an adverse health effect. Abnormal contraction of the pupil following exposure to an anticholinesterase is a mild adverse health effect.
A chemical which inhibits cholinesterase.
A pesticide application conducted under the supervision of a DoD-certified applicator.
A pesticide application not conducted under the supervision of a DoD-certified applicator.
Any of numerous invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods, that are characterized by an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages.
A type of cholinesterase present in blood plasma. Frequently used as an indicator of potential acetylcholinesterase inhibition by chemicals.
A group of synthetic pesticide active ingredients that act on the nervous system by reversibly inhibiting cholinesterase. Bendiocarb, methomyl, and propoxur are carbamates.
A cancer-causing substance or agent.
A group of synthetic organic compounds with one or more chlorine atoms. Chlordane, dieldrin, and DDT are examples.
Either of two enzymes found in the nervous system and blood of humans and animals. An enzyme that helps regulate nerve impulses. The two forms are acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase.
The capacity of a substance to cause harmful health effects after long-term exposure.
About; used before an approximate date, or numeric value.
Being of sufficient magnitude as to potentially affect the outcome of the health risk assessment. A "consequential exposure" is known or likely to be greater than or equal to one-tenth of any relevant risk-based threshold such as a reference dose.
Marked by moderation or caution. In risk assessment, a conservative assumption is one that is used due to the uncertainty present, and is more likely to overestimate than it is to underestimate exposure and/or risk. A conservative analysis, containing one or more conservative assumptions, is conducted in order to estimate an upper limit on exposure and/or risk.
A pesticide that is handled, mixed, and applied by specially trained and certified pesticide personnel.
US common name for diethyl-m-toluamide.
Supervision that includes being at the specific location where work is conducted and maintaining a line-of-sight view of the work performed.
Any animal capable of transmitting diseases to humans; or that serves as the intermediate or reservoir host of disease-causing organisms; or that is capable of producing human discomfort or injury, including (but not limited to) mosquitoes, flies, ticks, mites, snails, and rodents.
Military or civilian pesticide personnel certified in accordance with the "DOD Plan for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators."
A pesticide that can be mixed with water or other liquid to form a suspension of droplets that can be applied with a sprayer.
The contact of a chemical with the outer boundary of a human or test animal. The outer boundary means the skin, the lining of the alimentary canal, and the lining of the airways.
Describes the path a pesticide travels from point of release to exposure point.
The physical location where exposure took place.
A description of how the exposure took place, including the amounts of pesticide used, means of application, and the characteristics of potentially-exposed personnel.
Generic term that covers various fly species (including the housefly) attracted to waste.
An objective, clinically evident effect.
Used informally to refer to the exposure levels recommended by the EPA.
Being of insufficient magnitude to affect the outcome of the health risk assessment. An "inconsequential exposure" is known or likely to be less than one-tenth of any relevant risk-based threshold such as a reference dose.
A pesticide component (e.g., a solvent or carrier) that is not active against targeted pests.
A pesticide made from mineral compounds (e.g., arsenic, copper, mercury, sulfur, zinc).
A substance to control insects, sometimes used in a broader sense to mean a substance that controls arthropods other than insects.
|Integrated pest management||
A comprehensive approach to pest control or prevention that considers various chemical, physical, and biological suppression techniques, the habitat of the pest, and the interrelationship between pest populations and the ecosystem.
One of two clinically distinct ulcerative skin diseases, transmitted to human beings and animals by sand flies.
The M8A1 is a remote, continuous, air-sampling alarm that automatically detects nerve agent vapors and warns personnel with both audible and visual signals.
A disease caused by parasites, transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever.
Having the power to cause mutations.
A distinctive character appearing for the first time in a pure line of plants or animals that is transmitted through succeeding generations; due to some change in the chromosomes.
Work supervision that requires being physically at the installation (but not necessarily at the specific work site) and being able to get to the work site within 30 minutes.
The British designation for Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm.
A group of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides that act on the nervous system by interfering with nerve conduction. Lindane is an organochlorine.
A group of phosphorous-containing synthetic pesticide active ingredients that act on the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Irreversible inhibition is characteristic of many organophosphates (OPs). Azamethiphos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion are OPs.
A chemical exposure sufficient to cause observable symptoms which have a reasonable potential to be detrimental to health.
An insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed (or other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life), virus, bacteria, or microorganism that is annoying or injurious to health or the environment.
A substance or mixture of substances that prevents, destroys, repels, or reduces any pest. Also any substance or mixture of substances used as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.
Any individual who applies pesticides or supervises the use of any pesticide by others.
The amount of pesticide active ingredient contained in material ingested, air breathed, or bulk material applied to skin.
A group of both natural (from the chrysanthemum family) and synthetic pesticides, of varying chemical structure, which act on the nervous system by interfering with nerve conduction. Permethrin and d-phenothrin are synthetic pyrethroids.
A person potentially exposed to a pesticide.
A pesticide capable of killing or repelling a target pest for an extended period of time after the pesticide is applied.
The pesticide remaining after natural or technological processes take place.
An EPA classification for pesticides that may potentially cause adverse effects to the environment or to the applicatoreven when label directions are followed. Restricted-use pesticides may be procured and applied only by trained, certified applicators or those under their direct supervision.
A substance used to kill rodents.
Any of the various small biting flies of the genus Phlebotomus. Sand flies are found in tropical areas, and some transmit diseases.
|Sand fly fever||
A mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly, characterized by fever, malaise, eye pain, and headache.
Swing fog (also known as space spraying) is the use of a knock-down insecticide from an aerosol can to clear confined spaces (such as offices, kitchens, or inside aircraft).
A chemical exposure which triggers symptoms near the time of exposure. For example, exposure to excessive levels of organophosphate pesticides may cause runny nose, temporary cough, and burning eyes.
A material thatwhen added to a pesticideincreases the effectiveness of that pesticide. A pesticide with a synergist has a sum total effect greater than that of the pesticide or synergist alone.
The simultaneous action of separate agents which, together, have greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects.
Harmful to living organisms.
The inherent capability of a substance to cause adverse effects in human, animal, or plant life.
A pesticide available without control through the military supply system or through local purchase. These pesticides may be applied by uncertified personnel without direct supervision.
|West Nile Fever||
Viral fever transmitted by mosquitoes.
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