PART C – TABS

TAB C-1 – Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

This Tab lists acronyms and abbreviations found in Parts A, B and C of this report. Additionally the glossary defines selected uncommon technical terms.

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ac acre
ACGIH American Council of Government Industrial Hygienists
AChE acetylcholinesterase
A area, as in surface area
Abn airborne
 
ABS dermal absorption factor
AC number of applicators working in an EPW camp
ACR armored Cavalry Regiment
ADA air defense artillery
ADD absorbed dermal dose
 
ADI acceptable daily intake
AF formulation or solid medium to skin adherence factor
AFMIC Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center
AFPMB Armed Forces Pest Management Board
AFESC Air Force Engineering and Servicing Center
 
a.i. active ingredient
AMMNET Saudi ARAMCO Air Quality Monitoring and Meteorology Network
AMT amount
APC armored personnel carrier
APR applicator processing rate for EPWs
 
AR volumetric application rate
Artil artillery
AT averaging time
atm atmosphere (a unit of pressure)
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
 
Avg average
Bde brigade
BDU battle dress uniform
BN battalion
BT bottle
 
BUMED Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
BW body weight
BX box
C centigrade temperature scale or concentration, depending on context
Co initial concentration
 
CA a.i. concentration in air
Ca ambient (outdoor) concentration
CAG USEPA’s Carcinogen Assessment Group
Cai concentration of a.i. in applied formulation
CAS Chemical Abstract Service
 
CAsat saturation concentration of a.i. in air
Cav cavalry
Cavg average concentration
CDC Center for Disease Control, Public Health Service
CDR commander
  
Cest a.i. concentration in soil/sand assumed for air modeling
CF unit conversion factor
ChE cholinesterase
CHPPM US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine
Ci modeled indoor air concentration
 
cm centimeter
cm2 square centimeter
cm3 cubic centimeter
Co company
COL Colonel (Army)
 
Col. Colonel (Air Force)
COMM communications
CONOPS concept of operations
COPR Control of Pesticide Regulations
CN can
 
CP command Post
Cp modeled indoor air concentration attached to particulates
CPR camp processing rate for EPWs
CPR cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
CS a.i. concentration in formulation or medium
 
Csi bulk-soil concentration of component i
CS BN combat support battalion
Cv modeled indoor air concentration in vapor form
CWA chemical warfare agent
d day, or Chinn evaporation time, depending on context
 
D depth
DCT delayed cognitive toxicity
DDVP dichlorvos
DDT dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane
Di molecular diffusion coefficient i in air
 
DEET diethyl-m-toluamide
Dei effective diffusion coefficient i
Div division
DLA Defense Logistics Agency
DMDC Defense Personnel Manpower Data Center
 
DNBI disease and nonbattle injury
DoD Department of Defense
DODAAC Department of Defense Activity Address Code
DPMIAC Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center
DR drum
 
DT dislodgeable transferable residue
DUSD(ES) Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Environmental Security
DVEP disease vector ecology profiles
E emission rate
EA exposure assessment
 
EAC echelons above corps
EC emulsifiable concentrate
ED exposure duration
EDE estimated dermal exposure; that is, the mass of a.i. contacting skin
EE US Air Force environmental engineer
 
EEG electroencephalogram
EER Environmental Exposure Report
EF exposure frequency
EH environmental health
EHO environmental health officer
 
Ei emission rate of chemical i
Engr engineering
EP exposure point
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPC exposure point concentration
 
EPCA EPC in air
EPCTWA time-weighted average exposure point concentration
EPW enemy prisoner of war
ET exposure time
ETOXNET Extension Toxicology Network
 
Evac evacuation
f fraction of pesticide formulation which becomes airborne
FC finished concentration
FAO/WHO Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization
FDA Food and Drug Administration
 
Fe fraction of applied formulation remaining airborne
FFDCA Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
Foc fraction of organic carbon in soil
FI fraction ingested
Fi average flux of component i for exposure interval
 
FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
fl oz fluid (volume) ounce
FORSCOM Forces Command
FQPA Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
FSSG field service support group
 
FST field sanitation team
ft foot
ft2 square foot
ft3 cubic foot
FW forward
 
gal gallon
GL gallon
GP general purpose tent
GVIU Gulf Veterans Illnesses Unit (United Kingdom)
h hour
 
H Henry's Law Constant, or mixing height, depending on context
HED USEPA OPP Health Effects Division
Hg mercury
HHC Headquarters and Headquarters Company
HI hazard index
 
HIARC Hazard Identification Committee Report
HQ hazard quotient
HRA health risk assessment
HSDB USEPA’s hazardous substances databank
I air changes per unit time
 
IAD Investigation and Analysis Directorate
ID infantry division
IOM Institute of Medicine
IR ingestion rate
IRA inhalation rate
  
IRIS Integrated Risk Information System
K Kelvin temperature scale, or decay rate, depending on context
k correction factor or mixing factor, depending on context
Kas soil/air partition coefficient
Kd soil/water partition coefficient
  
kg kilogram
KKMC King Khalid Military City
KTO Kuwait Theater of Operations
L liter
LADD lifetime average daily dose, for carcinogenic effects
 
LADDD lifetime average daily dermal dose, for carcinogenic effects
LADDI lifetime average daily inhalation dose, for carcinogenic effects
LADDO lifetime average daily oral dose, for carcinogenic effects
lb pound
LOEL lowest-observed-effect level
 
LTC Lieutenant Colonel (Army)
Lt. Col. Lieutenant Colonel (Air Force)
m meter
m2 square meter
m3 cubic meter
 
MAJCOM major command
Mai mass of active ingredient
MARCENT Marine Corps Central Command
MARDIV Marine Division
MAW Marine Air Wing
 
MCCEM Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model
MSDS material safety data sheet
MEB Marine Expeditionary Brigade
Med medium
MEDCOM medical command
 
MEF Marine Expeditionary Force
MF migration factor (BDU to skin)
mg milligram
MI Military Intelligence
min minute
 
mm millimeter
mo month
MOPP mission oriented protective posture
MOS military occupational specialty
MP Military Police
 
mPa millipascal
mw molecular weight
n number of responses
N number; of applications, vessels, batches, etc., depending on equation
NAVENVIRHLTHCEN Navy Environmental Health Center
 
NAVFACCENCOM Navy Facilities Central Command
NAVMEDCOM INST Navy Medical Command Instruction
N/A not applicable
NCO noncommissioned officer
NDVECC Navy Disease Vector Ecology and Control Center
 
NEPMU Navy Environmental Preventive Medicine Unit
NIH National Institute of Health
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
ng nanogram
NOAEL no-observed-adverse-effect level
 
NOEL no-observed-effect level
NSN national stock number
NTP National Toxicology Program
OAF oral absorption factor
OC organochlorine
 
ODS/DS Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm
OP organophosphate
OPIDN organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy
OPNAVINST Chief of Naval Operations Instruction
OPP [Environmental Protection Agency] Office of Pesticide Programs
 
OSA Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments
OSAGWI Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
oz avoirdupois (weight) ounce
p fraction by weight of active ingredient in pesticide formulation
PAC Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans Illnesses
PB pyridostigmine bromide
PDR potential dose rate
PDRD potential dose rate for dermal contact
PDRI potential dose rate for inhalation
 
PDRO potential dose rate for ingestion
PGW Persian Gulf War
PIR Parachute Infantry Regiment
PM preventive medicine
PKG package
 
PM10 particulate matter less than or equal to 10 mm in diameter
PMT preventive medicine technician
Pocket guide Contingency Pest Management Pocket Guide
POPC pesticide of potential concern
PPB parts per billion
 
PPE personal protective equipment
PPM parts per million
PR daily processing rate for EPWs
PT physical training
PVNTMED preventive medicine
Q air exchange rate
registered trademark
R universal gas constant or reservoir of material subject to wind erosion, depending on context
RAMC Royal Army Medical Corps
RBC red blood cell
RED Registration Eligibility Decision
RfC reference concentration
RfD reference dose
RfDd dermal reference dose
RfDi inhalation reference dose
RfDo oral reference dose
rho bulk density
RME reasonable maximum exposure
S amount of pesticide formulation applied
SA skin surface area available for contact
sec second
SF carcinogenic slope factor
SITREP situation report
Sqdn squadron
SWA Southwest Asia
T temperature
t time, as in duration of application
t1/2 half life
te Chinn evaporation time
TF transfer factor
TG technical guide (USAEHA)
TIM technical information memorandum (AFPMB)
TOC Tactical Operations Center
TOXNET toxicology network
TWA time-weighted average
U wind speed
[u] mean wind speed
UE unit dermal exposure
UIE unit inhalation exposure
UK United Kingdom
ULV ultra low volume
�m micrometer
URF unit risk factor
US United States
USACHPPM US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine
USAEHA US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (now USACHPPM)
USCENTCOM US Central Command
USEPA US Environmental Protection Agency
ut threshold value of wind speed at 7 meter anemometer height
u’t surface threshold friction velocity
u*t corrected threshold friction velocity
V volume
VA US Department of Veterans’ Affairs
VECTRAP vector risk assessment profile
VF volume of formulation
vp vapor pressure
W crosswind width of box
WA weight of a.i. handled
WD density of water
WF weight of formulation handled
WHO World Health Organization
WP wettable powder
wt weight
r density
e soil porosity
b soil bulk density
S sum
m micro

Glossary

Absorbed dose

The amount of pesticide active ingredient penetrating across the absorption barriers (exchange boundaries) of a test organism or human (same as "internal dose").

Acetylcholinesterase

A critical cholinesterase regulating the synaptic transmission of impulses in the central and peripheral nervous systems of humans and animals. Symptoms of inhibition of nervous system acetylcholinesterase span a range from mild to severe depending upon the degree of inhibition. Mild symptoms include narrowing of the pupil and runny nose. More severe symptoms may include additionally any or all of the following: dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heart rate, breathing difficulty, death.

Active ingredient

In any pesticide product, the component which kills, or otherwise controls, targeted pests. Pesticides are regulated primarily on the basis of their active ingredient.

Acute toxicity

The capacity of a substance to cause a poisonous effect (such as skin or eye irritation or damage to an organ) or death from a single or short-term exposure.

Adverse health effect

An indication of unequivocal health impairment, including a frank effect and/or laboratory measurement. Adverse health effects may be mild, moderate, or severe. Thus, inhibition of blood cholinesterases, by itself, does not constitute an adverse health effect. Abnormal contraction of the pupil following exposure to an anticholinesterase is a mild adverse health effect.

Anticholinesterase

A chemical which inhibits cholinesterase.

Application, supervised

A pesticide application conducted under the supervision of a DoD-certified applicator.

Application, unsupervised

A pesticide application not conducted under the supervision of a DoD-certified applicator.

Arthropod

Any of numerous invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods, that are characterized by an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages.

Butyrylcholinesterase

A type of cholinesterase present in blood plasma. Frequently used as an indicator of potential acetylcholinesterase inhibition by chemicals.

Carbamates

A group of synthetic pesticide active ingredients that act on the nervous system by reversibly inhibiting cholinesterase. Bendiocarb, methomyl, and propoxur are carbamates.

Carcinogenic

A cancer-causing substance or agent.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

A group of synthetic organic compounds with one or more chlorine atoms. Chlordane, dieldrin, and DDT are examples.

Cholinesterase

Either of two enzymes found in the nervous system and blood of humans and animals. An enzyme that helps regulate nerve impulses. The two forms are acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase.

Chronic toxicity

The capacity of a substance to cause harmful health effects after long-term exposure.

Circa

About; used before an approximate date, or numeric value.

Consequential

Being of sufficient magnitude as to potentially affect the outcome of the health risk assessment. A "consequential exposure" is known or likely to be greater than or equal to one-tenth of any relevant risk-based threshold such as a reference dose.

Conservative

Marked by moderation or caution. In risk assessment, a conservative assumption is one that is used due to the uncertainty present, and is more likely to overestimate than it is to underestimate exposure and/or risk. A conservative analysis, containing one or more conservative assumptions, is conducted in order to estimate an upper limit on exposure and/or risk.

Controlled pesticide

A pesticide that is handled, mixed, and applied by specially trained and certified pesticide personnel.

DEET

US common name for diethyl-m-toluamide.

Direct supervision

Supervision that includes being at the specific location where work is conducted and maintaining a line-of-sight view of the work performed.

Disease vector

Any animal capable of transmitting diseases to humans; or that serves as the intermediate or reservoir host of disease-causing organisms; or that is capable of producing human discomfort or injury, including (but not limited to) mosquitoes, flies, ticks, mites, snails, and rodents.

DoD-certified applicator

Military or civilian pesticide personnel certified in accordance with the "DOD Plan for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators."

Emulsifiable concentrate

A pesticide that can be mixed with water or other liquid to form a suspension of droplets that can be applied with a sprayer.

Exposure

The contact of a chemical with the outer boundary of a human or test animal. The outer boundary means the skin, the lining of the alimentary canal, and the lining of the airways.

Exposure pathway

Describes the path a pesticide travels from point of release to exposure point.

Exposure point

The physical location where exposure took place.

Exposure scenario

A description of how the exposure took place, including the amounts of pesticide used, means of application, and the characteristics of potentially-exposed personnel.

Filth fly

Generic term that covers various fly species (including the housefly) attracted to waste.

Frank effect

An objective, clinically evident effect.

Guidelines

Used informally to refer to the exposure levels recommended by the EPA.

Inconsequential

Being of insufficient magnitude to affect the outcome of the health risk assessment. An "inconsequential exposure" is known or likely to be less than one-tenth of any relevant risk-based threshold such as a reference dose.

Inert ingredient

A pesticide component (e.g., a solvent or carrier) that is not active against targeted pests.

Inorganic pesticide

A pesticide made from mineral compounds (e.g., arsenic, copper, mercury, sulfur, zinc).

Insecticide

A substance to control insects, sometimes used in a broader sense to mean a substance that controls arthropods other than insects.

Integrated pest management

A comprehensive approach to pest control or prevention that considers various chemical, physical, and biological suppression techniques, the habitat of the pest, and the interrelationship between pest populations and the ecosystem.

Leishmaniasis

One of two clinically distinct ulcerative skin diseases, transmitted to human beings and animals by sand flies.

M8A1 alarm

The M8A1 is a remote, continuous, air-sampling alarm that automatically detects nerve agent vapors and warns personnel with both audible and visual signals.

Malaria

A disease caused by parasites, transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever.

Mutagenic

Having the power to cause mutations.

Mutation

A distinctive character appearing for the first time in a pure line of plants or animals that is transmitted through succeeding generations; due to some change in the chromosomes.

Onsite supervision

Work supervision that requires being physically at the installation (but not necessarily at the specific work site) and being able to get to the work site within 30 minutes.

Operation Granby

The British designation for Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm.

Organochlorine

A group of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides that act on the nervous system by interfering with nerve conduction. Lindane is an organochlorine.

Organophosphates

A group of phosphorous-containing synthetic pesticide active ingredients that act on the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Irreversible inhibition is characteristic of many organophosphates (OPs). Azamethiphos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion are OPs.

Overexposure

A chemical exposure sufficient to cause observable symptoms which have a reasonable potential to be detrimental to health.

Pest

An insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed (or other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life), virus, bacteria, or microorganism that is annoying or injurious to health or the environment.

Pesticide

A substance or mixture of substances that prevents, destroys, repels, or reduces any pest. Also any substance or mixture of substances used as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.

Pesticide applicator

Any individual who applies pesticides or supervises the use of any pesticide by others.

Potential dose

The amount of pesticide active ingredient contained in material ingested, air breathed, or bulk material applied to skin.

Pyrethroids

A group of both natural (from the chrysanthemum family) and synthetic pesticides, of varying chemical structure, which act on the nervous system by interfering with nerve conduction. Permethrin and d-phenothrin are synthetic pyrethroids.

Receptor

A person potentially exposed to a pesticide.

Residual pesticide

A pesticide capable of killing or repelling a target pest for an extended period of time after the pesticide is applied.

Residue

The pesticide remaining after natural or technological processes take place.

Restricted-use

An EPA classification for pesticides that may potentially cause adverse effects to the environment or to the applicator—even when label directions are followed. Restricted-use pesticides may be procured and applied only by trained, certified applicators or those under their direct supervision.

Rodenticide

A substance used to kill rodents.

Sand fly

Any of the various small biting flies of the genus Phlebotomus. Sand flies are found in tropical areas, and some transmit diseases.

Sand fly fever

A mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly, characterized by fever, malaise, eye pain, and headache.

Swing fog

Swing fog (also known as space spraying) is the use of a knock-down insecticide from an aerosol can to clear confined spaces (such as offices, kitchens, or inside aircraft).

Symptomatic exposure

A chemical exposure which triggers symptoms near the time of exposure. For example, exposure to excessive levels of organophosphate pesticides may cause runny nose, temporary cough, and burning eyes.

Synergist

A material that—when added to a pesticide—increases the effectiveness of that pesticide. A pesticide with a synergist has a sum total effect greater than that of the pesticide or synergist alone.

Synergistic effect

The simultaneous action of separate agents which, together, have greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects.

Toxic

Harmful to living organisms.

Toxicity

The inherent capability of a substance to cause adverse effects in human, animal, or plant life.

Uncontrolled pesticide

A pesticide available without control through the military supply system or through local purchase. These pesticides may be applied by uncertified personnel without direct supervision.

West Nile Fever

Viral fever transmitted by mosquitoes.


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