TAB A – Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

This tab provides a listing of acronyms and abbreviations found in this report. Additionally, the Glossary section provides definitions for selected technical terms that are not found in common usage.

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADA air defense artillery
ARCENT United States Army Component United States Central Command
BDA battle damage assessment
Bn battalion
BW biological warfare
CENTAF United States Air Force Component United States Central Command
CEP circular error probable
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CINC commander-in-chief
CTOC corps tactical operations center
CURR Center for Unit Records Research
CW chemical warfare
CWA chemical warfare agent
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
DISUM defense intelligence summary
DoD Department of Defense
DS Desert Storm
DSP Defense Support Program
DTG date time group
EOD explosive ordnance disposal
GPALS Global Protection Against Limited Strikes
HTH calcium hypochlorite
INTSUM intelligence summary
IRFNA inhibited red fuming nitric acid
IZ 2-letter shorthand for Iraq
JTF joint task force
KG kilogram
KKMC King Khalid Military City
KTO Kuwait theater of operations
MOPP mission oriented protective posture
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NESA (CIA office) Near East South Asia
NBC nuclear biological chemical
Ref reference
S2/S-2 intelligence officer or staff
SigOps significant operations
SITREP situation report
SRBM short-range ballistic missile
TBM tactical ballistic missile
UDMH unsymmetrical dimethylhydrozine
UNSCOM United Nations Special Commission
USARCENT United States Army Component United States Central Command
USCINCCENT United States Commander-in-Chief Central Command



The time in the time zone located two time zones east of the time zone centered on the prime meridian. This time zone included Israel.


Circular error probable. An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of a missile’s projectiles are expected to fall.[174]


The time in the time zone located three time zones east of the time zone centered on the prime meridian. This time zone included the KTO.


Defense Support Program uses a satellite-borne system with infrared detectors to sense heat from missile plumes against the earth background. It detects and reports in real time missile launches, space launches, and nuclear detonations. During Desert Storm, DSP detected the launch of Iraq’s Scud missiles and permitted timely warning to civilian populations and coalition forces in Israel and the KTO.[175]

Fox Nuclear, Biological Chemical Reconnaissance System

The Fox vehicle is a six-wheeled, light armored vehicle designed primarily for reconnaissance of liquid chemical warfare agent hazards. On-board chemical warfare agent detection capabilities include the MM-1 mobile mass spectrometer (primary detection device), the M43A1 chemical agent detector (an integral component of the M8 alarm system), and the M256A1 chemical agent detector kit. The Fox also has two radiation detectors. The Fox does not provide any biological warfare agent detection capability, but it does protect the crew from biological hazards, and it allows the crew to mark areas of potential hazard and safely take samples for laboratories to analyze for biological hazards.[176]

M256 Chemical Warfare Agent Detector Kit

In the field, the M256-series chemical warfare agent detector kit is referred to simply as the M256 kit. The portable, expendable M256 kit can detect and identify hazardous concentrations of blister, blood, and nerve agents. The M256 kit is used after a chemical warfare agent warning to test for and confirm the presence and type of chemical warfare agent, and to determine if it is safe to unmask. The M256A1 kit has replaced the M256 kit. The only difference between the two kits is that the M256A1 kit will detect lower levels of nerve agent. United States forces used both the M256 kit and the M256A1 kit during the Gulf War.

Some smokes, high temperatures, standard United States decontamination solution number two (DS2), and petroleum products may cause false readings. Sampling in smoke from burning debris may produce inaccurate results.[177]

M8A1 Chemical Alarm

The M8A1 is an automatic chemical agent detection and warning system designed to detect the presence of nerve agent vapors or inhalable aerosols. The M8A1 will automatically signal the presence of the nerve agent in the air with both an audible and visual warning. The United States military fielded the M8A1 to replace the wet chemical M8 detector—which eliminated the M229 refill kit, the logistic burden, and associated costs. The M8A1 operates in a fixed, portable, or vehicle mounted configuration.[178]

Mission Kill

Patriot intercepts that do not disable the ballistic missile warhead but nevertheless minimize damage on the ground. There were two types of mission kills. One involved low yield kills in which the Patriot damaged the ballistic missile warhead to the point that either it only burned at ground impact or it exploded with greatly reduced force. The other involved diversion in which a Patriot deflects the ballistic missile from its initial path and it impacted with no significant ground damage to personnel or major structures.[179]

Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)

Mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) is a flexible system used to direct the wearing of chemical protective garments and mask—a system that balances mission requirements with the chemical warfare agent threat. Wearing chemical protective garments and mask provides individuals protection against most known chemical warfare agents, biological agents, and toxins. At MOPP Level 0 servicemembers carry their protective mask and keep their remaining MOPP gear readily available (e.g., within the work area, fighting position, living space, etc.) At MOPP Level 1, servicemembers wear their overgarment and carry the rest of their MOPP gear. At MOPP Level 2, servicemembers wear their overgarments and overboots while carrying the mask with hood and gloves. At MOPP Level 3, servicemembers wear their overgarment, overboots, and mask with hood, but not the gloves. At MOPP Level 4, servicemembers wear all their MOPP gear. Commanders can raise or lower the amount of protection through five levels of MOPP. In addition, commanders, under certain situations, can exercise a mask-only option.[180]

Patriot Surface-to- Air Missile System

The Patriot is a long-range, all-weather, high and low altitude system designed to defeat advanced aircraft, tactical ballistic missiles, and cruise missiles. It can engage multiple, simultaneous targets. The Patriot Fire Unit consists of a radar, launchers, missiles, and battle management/command control and communications centers. The multifunction phased array radar provides surveillance, target detection and tracking, and missile guidance support. The trailer-mounted launcher holds four Patriot missiles in the configuration used most in Operation Desert Storm. The missile has a blast fragmentation warhead.[181] Each missile weighs 2,200 pounds and has a range of nearly 43 miles. When launched, the missile turns toward the target and enters the radar beam. A computer on the ground then directs the missile toward the target. In the terminal phase, the missile’s internal radar receiver guides it to interception.[182]


V-series nerve agent. Chemical Name: O-ethyl-S-(2-isopropylaminoethyl)methyl phosphonothiolate.[183]

Z time

Coordinated universal time (UTC), also called "zulu time," formally Greenwich Mean Time. The time in the time zone centered on the prime meridian and used by United States forces as a standard time in, for example, electronic messages because it puts global forces on the same clock.[184]

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