END NOTES

[1] The Ammunition Storage Point (ASP) located just to the northeast of Tallil Air Base is a separate installation known as the An Nasiriyah SW ASP (see Figure 3). Many of the individuals and units that were at Tallil also conducted similar activities at this nearby ASP. A case narrative on this ASP will be published in the future. Battle position 101 (BP101), which is mentioned in a study referred to as the MITRE report (Iraqi Chemical Warfare: Analysis of Information Available to DoD, Department of Defense Intelligence Oversight Committee Report, Classified Draft, June 1997), is a large area in the open desert located to the south of Tallil Air Base and the multi-lane highway known as Highway 8. BP101 is not part of this Tallil narrative, but may be considered for investigation in the future.

[2] An acronym listing/glossary is at Tab A.

[3] Message, Subject: Iraqi Air Force Capability to Deliver Chemical Weapons, December 1, 1990.

[4] Message, Subject: Iraqi Air Force Capability to Deliver Chemical Weapons, December 1, 1990.

[5] Message, Subject: Iraqi Chemical Warfare (CW) Facilities and Storage Areas, December 19, 1990.

[6] Message, Subject: Iraqi Chemical Warfare (CW) Facilities and Storage Areas, December 19, 1990.

[7] Message, Subject: Iraqi Chemical Warfare (CW) Facilities and Storage Areas, December 19, 1990.

[8] Intelligence Document, Subject: Iran-Iraq Frontline.

[9] Message, Subject: Iraqi Chemical Warfare (CW) Facilities and Storage Areas, December 19, 1990.

[10] DIA, Subject: Response to RII-2093, February 7, 1991.

[11] DIA, Subject: BW/CW bunkers, February 16, 1991.

[12] DIA, Subject: Response to RII-2093, February 7, 1991.

[13] ARCENT Daily Staff Journal or Duty Officers Log, Subject: Captured Chemical and Biological Munitions, February 27, 1991.

[14] 197th Infantry Brigade Desert Shield/Storm History, p.8.

[15] Interview with 2-69th Commander, May 19, 1997.

[16] 197th Infantry Brigade Desert Shield/Storm History, p. 14.

[17] 197th Infantry Brigade Desert Shield/Storm History, p. 8.

[18] Document, 505th Parachute Infantry Regimental History, Operation Desert Shield/Storm, p. K-5.

[19] Document, 505th Parachute Infantry Regimental History, Operation Desert Shield/Storm.

[20] 60th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Storm.

[21] Message, Commander 82nd Airborne Division, No Subject Given, March 23, 1991.

[22] Message, Commander 82nd Airborne Division, No Subject Given, March 23, 1991.

[23] Interviews with 82nd Airborne Division Chemical Officer, CMAT number: 1997109-024 and Interview Notes, June 17, 1996. Interview with 82nd Airborne Brigade level Chemical Officer is documented in Transcript of Proceedings, Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991, CMAT number 1997143-0000062, p. 9-29. Interview with Fox vehicle operator is documented in Callback Summary, CMAT number 1997013-053, May 15, 1997.

[24] Transcript of Interview with 60th EOD technician, April 10, 1997, Interview with USAF 4404th EOD member on October 13, 1997, CMAT number: 1997286-0000012, and DIA, Subject: Inspection of the S-shaped Bunker, May 28, 1993.

[25] Gulf Air War Debrief, Aerospace Publishing, London, 1991, p. 214-215.

[26] Transcript of Interview with 60th EOD technician, April 10, 1997, p. 5-11.

[27] Interview with senior 60th EOD technician May 23, 1997, CMAT number: 1997140-0000115.

[28] 60th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Storm. This journal the discovery of a single suspected chemical shell at coordinates several kilometers east of the An Nasiriyah SW ASP on March 7th, 1991. As indicated in the journal entry, Fox vehicles detected no chemical agents in the munitions or in the area at the coordinates given.

[29] Interview with USAF 4404th EOD member on October 13, 1997, CMAT number: 1997286-0000012.

[30] Interviews with C Company, 307th Engineering Battalion, 1st platoon leader, October 23, 1996, CMAT number: 1997162-0000175; 2nd platoon leader, April 29, 1997, CMAT number: 1997113-0000145; 3rd platoon leader, CMAT number 199710930; and Battalion XO, October 23, 1996, CMAT number: 1997162-0000168.

[31] Interview with 307th Engineering Battalion Commander, May 7, 1997.

[32] 60th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Storm, and 146th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Shield/Storm, May 15, 1991.

[33] 60th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Storm, and 146th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Shield/Storm, May 15, 1991.

[34] Message, 307th Engineering Battalion Operations Summary, March 23, 1991, p. 1-5. Note: this summary does not include aircraft destroyed by US Air Force munitions nor aircraft destroyed by other units.

[35] Document, Engineering and Services in the Gulf War.

[36] Interviews with 1703rd EOD members: May 27, 1997, CMAT number: 1997121-0000012, May 6, 1997, CMAT number: 1997118-0000043; March 3, 1997, CMAT number: 1997063-004; May 29, 1997, CMAT number: 1997141-0000081; May 14, 1997, CMAT number 1997121-0000014.

[37] Message, Commander 82nd Airborne Division, No Subject Given, March 23, 1991 and Interviews with 82nd Airborne Division Chemical Officer, CMAT number: 1997109-024.

[38] 146th EOD Incident Journal, Desert Shield/Storm, May 15, 1991. The investigation of the An Nasiriyah SW ASP by the Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illness (OSAGWI) is continuing as a separate case and a narrative on it will be published in the future.

[39] Interview with 146th EOD Commander, June 3, 1997, CMAT number 1997112-0000040, lead sheet 895.

[40] Transcript of Interview with 60th EOD technician, April 10, 1997, p. 5-11, Interview with USAF 4404th EOD member on October 13, 1997, CMAT number: 1997286-0000012, and DIA, Subject: Inspection of the S-shaped Bunker, May 28, 1993.

[41] Examples of Engineers who reported that they saw CW (based on color bands) include CMAT 1997162-0000837 and 1997162-0000255. The first reported that he destroyed six gray bombs with red and yellow strips painted on them, the second that 5 or 10 percent of the artillery shells he observed in bunkers had white or yellow markings on the nose of the projectiles. EOD interview CMAT #1997121-0000012 specifically mentioned finding gray munitions with red bands - and they were not CW. EOD interview CMAT #1997140-0000115 mentioned that CW could be recognized by filler plugs, color (two yellow bands), double walled construction, and thin skin. He also stated that it was taken for granted that CW may not be marked or marked inconsistently, making marking schemes an unreliable indicator of CW.

[42] 505th PIR interview CMAT #1997175-0000203.

[43] DIA, Subject: Inspection of the S-shaped Bunker, May 28, 1993.

[44] DIA, Subject: Inspection of the S-shaped Bunker, May 28, 1993.

[45] DIA, Subject: Inspection of the S-shaped Bunker, May 28, 1993.

[46] Testimony at the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veteran's Illnesses public hearing, Buffalo, NY, July 29, 1997 by Charles Duelfer and Igor A. Mitrokhin, United Nations Special Commission on Iraq.

[47] Testimony at the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veteran's Illnesses public hearing, Buffalo, NY, July 29, 1997 by Charles Duelfer and Igor A. Mitrokhin, United Nations Special Commission on Iraq.

[48] DOD, Subject: Iraqi Fallujah, Khamisiyah, and An Nasiriyah Chemical Warfare related sites, May 1996. There was one CW storage site listed that was close to Tallil. The An Nasiriyah SW ASP received approximately 6,240 155mm mustard (HD) artillery shells in the time period of January 10-15, 1991. These shells were later transferred during mid-February, 1991 to a depression located approximately 5 km to the west of Khamisiyah were they remained undisturbed until after US forces departed the area. [ Khamisiyah Narrative] Although approximately 22 bunkers in this ASP were struck by aerial munitions during the January 17 to February 28, 1991, air campaign, these munitions were stored in a bunker that was not struck by coalition air ordnance.

[49] Entire units or only some individuals from the unit may have been in the vicinity of Tallil.

[50] "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction," April 29, 1997. This Chemical Weapons Convention was opened for signature in Paris, France, on January 13, 1993. It has been signed by 165 States and ratified by 93 States (as of June 1997.) It was signed by the U.S. on Jan 13, 1993 and ratified on April 25, 1997. Part XI of the Convention, "Investigations in Cases of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons," details some of the procedures. [http://www.unog.ch/frames/disarm/distreat/chemical.htm]



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