END NOTES

[1] An acronym and abbreviation listing/glossary is at Tab A.

[2] Testimony of James J. Tuite before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, April 16, 1996.

[3] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "The Use of Modeling and Simulation in the Planning of Attacks on Iraqi Chemical and Biological Warfare Targets" (Information Paper), February 23, 2000, web site www.gulflink.health.mil/aircampaign/.

[4] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "An Nasiriyah Southwest Ammunition Storage Point" (Final Report), January 10, 2000, web site www.gulflink.health.mil/an_nasiriyah_ii/.

[5] Ukhaydir can also be spelled Al-Aukhader, Al Ukhaidar, Al Ukhaider, Al Ukhaydir, Aukhader, Aukhaider, Aukhaidir, and Ukhadir.

[6] Testimony of Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 30, 1997.

[7] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 8, 1996.

[8] The United Nations Blue Book Series, Volume IX, "The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict 1990-1996," United Nations, Department of Public Information, New York, 1996, p. 5.

[9] The United Nations Blue Book Series, Volume IX, "The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict 1990-1996," United Nations, Department of Public Information, New York, 1996, p. 31 and 83.

[10] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[11] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[12] The United Nations Blue Book Series, Volume IX, "The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict 1990-1996," United Nations, Department of Public Information, New York, 1996, p. 353 and 357.

[13] The United Nations Blue Book Series, Volume IX, "The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict 1990-1996," United Nations, Department of Public Information, New York, 1996, p. 357.

[14] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[15] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 8, 1996.

[16] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[17] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[18] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[19] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[20] The United Nations Blue Book Series, Volume IX, "The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict 1990-1996," United Nations, Department of Public Information, New York, 1996, p. 450.

[21] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[22] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[23] Unclassified United Nations Special Commission on Iraq Release, April 26, 1996.

[24] Statement for the Record by Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Subject: "Probable Release of Mustard Agent from the Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," July 29-30, 1997, p. 1 and 2.

[25] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[26] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[27] Statement for the Record by Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Subject: "Probable Release of Mustard Agent from the Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," July 29-30, 1997, p. 2.

[28] Testimony of UNSCOM representatives before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, July 29, 1997.

[29] Statement for the Record by Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Subject: "Probable Release of Mustard Agent from the Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," July 29-30, 1997, p. 2.

[30] Statement for the Record by Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Subject: "Probable Release of Mustard Agent from the Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," July 29-30, 1997, p. 2.

[31] Figures 9 through 12 are releasable drawings derived from classified documents.

[32] Statement for the Record by Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, to the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Subject: "Probable Release of Mustard Agent from the Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," July 29-30, 1997, p. 1 and 2.

[33] This air strike occurred just before midnight on the night of February 13, 1991, or very early in the morning on February 14, 1991. Therefore, this air strike and the subsequent damage will be referred to as occurring on February 13/14, 1991, throughout this narrative.

[34] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[35] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[36] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[37] Testimony of Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, September 4, 1997.

[38] Testimony of Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, September 4, 1997.

[39] Source characteristics discuss how much chemical agent may have been released, how it may have been released, and at what rate it was released.

[40] Testimony of Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, before the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, September 4, 1997.

[41] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[42] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[43] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[44] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[45] See Tab E for information on how to read the hazard area maps in this narrative.

[46] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[47] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[48] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[49] Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Update on Potential Mustard Agent Release at Ukhaydir Ammunition Storage Depot," September 4, 1997.

[50] Anthes, Richard, Steve Hanna, Bruce Hicks, and Will Pendergrass, Subject: "Comments by Peer Review Panel on Khamisiyah Modeling Report and Presentations on November 4-5, 1997," December 11, 1997, p. 7.

[51] See Tab G for a comparison of the preliminary and follow-on hazard areas for Day 1.

[52] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[53] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[54] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[55] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[56] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[57] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, February 17, 1999, Enclosure 2.

[58] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, October 14, 1999.

[59] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, October 14, 1999.

[60] Letter from Robert Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, October 14, 1999.

[61] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms," December 22, 1995.

[62] US Army Pamphlet 40-173, "Occupational Health Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Occupational Exposure to Mustard Agents H, HD, and HT," August 30, 1991.

[63] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, p. 30.

[64] "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction," April 29, 1997. This chemical weapons convention was opened for signature in Paris, France, on January 13, 1993. It has been signed by 165 states and ratified or acceded to by 106 states as of February 1998. It was signed by the United States on January 13, 1993, and ratified on April 25, 1997. Part XI of the convention, "Investigations in Cases of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons," details some of the procedures. Other protocols and guidelines were found in Methodology and Instrumentation for Sampling and Analysis in the Verification of Chemical Disarmament, The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Helsinki, Finland, 1985; Verification Methods, Handling, and Assessment Of Unusual Events In Relation To Allegations of the Use of Novel Chemical Warfare Agents, Consultant University of Saskatchewan in conjunction with the Verification Research Unit of External Affairs and International Trade Canada, March 1990; and Handbook for the Investigation of Allegations of the Use of Chemical or Biological Weapons, Department of External Affairs, Department of National Defence, Health and Welfare Canada, and Agriculture Canada, November 1985. US Army Field Manual 3-4, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-9, "NBC Protection," May 1992; US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy NAVMED P-5041, US Air Force Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11 (adopted as NATO Field Manual 8-285), "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995; US Army Field Manual 19-20, "Law Enforcement Investigations," November 25, 1985; and other DoD investigational procedures contributed ideas for developing this methodology.

[65] Global scale models usually have a spatial resolution in the order of one degree latitude/longitude, or roughly 100 kilometers, and the model domain covers the whole earth or at least one hemisphere. Because of limited spatial resolution, these models can only provide general descriptions of the weather affecting the area. As a result, the results from these global scale models are further blended with available local observations to drive regional scale models, whose spatial resolution, depending on the model and its configuration, can range from a few kilometers to tens of kilometers, to provide more detailed descriptions of local weather patterns.

[66] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit (U)," September 4, 1997.

[67] US Army Pamphlet 40-173, "Occupational Health Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Occupational Exposure to Mustard Agents H, HD, and HT," August 30, 1991.

[68] See Tab F for more information on how Gulf War unit locations are recorded.

 



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