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File: cia_70596_70596_01.txt
Page: 01
Total Pages: 2

Subject: IRAQI CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND DEFENSE CAPABILITIES  
Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence 
 
TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN 
REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN 
TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF 
THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON 
REQUEST. 
 
 
MORI ID 70596:70596 
 
SECTION 1 OF 2 
CITE CIA 369862 
 
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 
 
NOT FINALLY EVALUATED INTELLIGENCE. 
 
 
COUNTRY: IRAQ 
 
SUBJ: 1. IRAQI CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND DEFENSE CAPABILITIES 
AND ORGANIZATION 
 
SUMMARY- As OF 1989, IRAQ'S PRIMARY OFFENSIVE CHEMICAL 
WEAPONS MANUFACTURING CENTER WAS LOCATED IN SAMARRA 
CHEMICALS AVAILABLE FOR WEAPONS INCLUDE KHARDAL, CYANIDE, 
LUISIDE, AND PHOSGENE. IRAQI FORCES HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO 
DEPLOY THESE WEAPONS FROM MISSILES AIRCRAFT, AND ARTILLERY.  
THE AUTHORITY TO PRODUCE AND DEPLOY CHEMICAL WEAPONS HAS 
SHIFTED SEVERAL TIMES SINCE 1984 AND AS OF 1989 WAS BELIEVED 
TO BE HELD BY SADDAM HUSAYN'S SON-IN-LAW AND MINISTER OF 
INDUSTRY AND MILITARY INDUSTRIES, HUSAYN KAMIL AL-MAJID.  
THE ARMY'S STRATEGY FOR THE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN THE 
THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR WAS TO DETER AND REVERSE A DECISIVE AND 
STRONG GROUND OFFENSIVE BY THE  ENEMY. IRAQ'S HEAD OFFICE OF 
CHEMISTRY DEFENSE WAS LOCATED NEAR MINISTRY OF 
DEFENSE(MOD)HEADQUARTERS IN BAGHDAD AND WAS HEADED BY VICE 
MINISTER OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE, KANAN KRURSHAD WHO MANAGED 
EACH MILITARY SERVICE'S CHEMICAL DEFENSE HIERARCHY.  ALL OF 
IRAQ-S ARMY HAD SOME CHEMICAL DEFENSE CAPABILITY, INCLUDING 
SOVIET GAS MASKS, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT USED TO 
DETECT.  ANALYZE.  AND MEASURE THE SEVERITY OF CHEMICAL 
ATTACKS.  
 
TEXT: 1. AS OF 1989, IRAQ'S PRIMARY OFFENSIVE CHEMICAL 
WEAPONS MANUFACTURING CAPABILITY WAS LOCATED IN SAMARRA, 
IRAQ. CIVILIAN AND MILITARY PERSONNEL WERE SAID TO HAVE BEEN 
WORKING THERE DURING THE LATE 1980'S.  PROJECT NUMBER "922" 
(NFI) WAS ALSO KNOWN TO BE SOMEHOW ASSOCIATED WITH THE 
CHEMICAL WEAPONS ACTIVITY AT SAMARRA. ACCORDING TO IRAQI 
FORCES HAD THE FOLLOWING CHEMICALS IN ITS OFFENSIVE STOCKS: 
KHARDAL, CYANIDE LUISIDE, AND PHOSGENE. 
COMMENT: LUISIDE IS POSSIBLY IDENTICAL TO THE BLISTER AGENT 
LEWISITE) THE IRAQI MILITARY HAD THE CAPABILITY TO DEPLOY 
THESE CHEMICALS THROUGH SEVERAL DELIVERY SYSTEMS: VIA 
MISSILES, AIRCRAFT BOMBS, AND ARMY 155 MILLIMETER (MM) AND 
175 MM SHELLS. 
2. BEFORE 1984 THE HEAD MANAGER OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE, HANI 
MUHAMMAD ((SHAYIB)), HAD AUTHORITY OVER THE PRODUCTION OF 
IRAQI CHEMICAL WEAPONS.  IN 1984 PRODUCTION AND DEPLOYMENT 
AUTHORITY WAS SHIFTED TO THE MOD AND IN 1985 IT WAS SHIFTED 
AGAIN TO THE OFFICE OF IRAQI PRESIDENT ((SADDAM) HUSAYN. 
SOMETIME BETWEEN 1985 AND 1989, PRODUCTION AUTHORITY WAS 
SHIFTED TO MINISTER OF INDUSTRY AND MILITARY INDUSTRIES 
HUSAYN KAMIL AL.((MAJID))- IN AT LEAST ONE INSTANCE DURING 
THE PERIOD 1986-1987, AFTER ONE OF IRAN'S MAJOR OFFENSIVES 
IN 
THE SHATT AL-ARAB- THE DECISION TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS WAS 
MADE AT THE BATTLEFIELD COMMAND LEVEL THE ARMY'S GENERAL 
STRATEGY FOR CHEMICAL WEAPONS USE IN THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR WAS 
TO DETER AND REVERSE A DECISIVE AND STRONG GROUND OFFENSIVE 
BY THE ENEMY. 


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