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File: 062596_cia_66846_61709_01.txt
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Subject: CW USE IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR

Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence







TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN

REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN

TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF

THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON

REQUEST.







COUNTRY:  IRAQ/IRAN

SUBJ:  1. IRAQI STRATEGY AND TACTICS IN THE USE OF CHEMICAL

WEAPONS DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR

2. WEAPONS SYSTEMS USED BY IRAQI FORCES TO DELIVER

CHEMICAL WEAPONS DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR

DOI:  1986-1988







DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, IRAQI FORCES

APPEARED TO HAVE NO SOPHISTICATED STRATEGIC OR TACTICAL PLAN FOR

THE EMPLOYMENT OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS SYSTEMS.







2. IRAQI FORCES USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS UNDER TWO TYPES OF

CIRCUMSTANCES: AS PART OF A SPOILING ATTACK TO REPEL IRANIAN

FORCES AFTER IRGC UNITS HAD MADE IMPORTANT ADVANCES AGAINST

IRAQI POSITIONS, AND AS PREPARATION FIRING IN ADVANCE OF AN

IRAQI ASSAULT. BY THE END OF THE WAR, IRAQI FORCES USED

CHEMICAL WEAPONS FREQUENTLY, AND IRAQ'S USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS

WAS LIMITED ONLY BY WIND AND WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THEIR

ABILITY TO DELIVER CHEMICAL MUNITIONS ON TARGET.

3. FOLLOWING A SIGNIFICANT IRGC ADVANCE AGAINST IRAQI

POSITIONS; IRAQ WOULD SATURATE THE AREA WITH CHEMICAL MUNITIONS

TO PREVENT IRAN FROM CONSOLIDATING ITS POSITION. THIS WAS DONE

WITH RELATIVELY LITTLE REGARD FOR THE SAFETY OF IRAQ'S OWN

TROOPS WHO WERE IN OR NEAR THE CHEMICALLY CONTAMINATED AREA.

DESPITE ITS RELATIVE LACK OF CONCERN FOR ITS OWN FORCES, IRAQ

APPARENTLY DID CONSIDER THE DOWNWIND HAZARD AREA OF THE CHEMICAL

ATTACK IN ITS PLANNING. IRAQ WAS MOST LIKELY TO USE CHEMICAL

WEAPONS NEAR ITS OWN POSITIONS WHEN ITS TROOPS WERE PROTECTED

AND WARNED. IRAQ'S WILLINGNESS TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS ON OR

NEAR ITS OWN TROOPS APPARENTLY VARIED DEPENDED TO AN EXTENT UPON

HOW WELL PREPARED A GIVEN GROUP OF SOLDIERS WAS TO SURVIVE A

CHEMICAL ATTACK. THIS RETICENCE DID NOT PRECLUDE IRAQ FROM

USING CHEMICAL WEAPONS ON COMBAT ZONES WHERE ITS OWN EXPOSED

SOLDIERS WERE FIGHTING ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS.

FOLLOWING A CHEMICAL ATTACK, IRAQ NORMALLY

INITIATED IMMEDIATE CONVENTIONAL OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS TO RETAKE

CAPTURED AREAS.

 4. SIMILARLY, IRAQI CONVENTIONAL OFFENSIVES WERE

FREQUENTLY PRECEEDED BY AN IRAQI CHEMICAL ATTACK AS PREPARATION

FIRING FOR THE AREA TO BE ASSAULTED BY IRAQI FORCES. A

CONVENTIONAL ATTACK WHICH WOULD SHORTLY FOLLOW THE INITIAL

CHEMICAL ATTACK. IRAQI FORCES WOULD WAIT FOR FAVORABLE WIND

CONDITIONS AND FOR THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AGENTS TO DIMINISH

BEFORE MOVING INTO A CHEMICAL CONTAMINATED AREA. USUALLY A

PERIOD OF BETWEEN 30 MINUTES AND ONE HOUR WAS NEEDED BEFORE A

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATED AREA BECAME SAFE FOR IRAQI FORCES TO

ENTER. IRAQI FORCES WERE WELL EQUIPPED WITH BOTH PROTECTIVE

MASKS AND CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE OVERGARMENTS.







IRAQ'S RELATIVE

DISREGARD FOR THE SAFETY OF ITS OWN TROOPS IN THE USE OF

CHEMICAL MUNITIONS MAY HAVE BEEN PARTLY BASED ON IRAQ'S

ASSUMPTION THAT ITS OWN UNITS WOULD BE ABLE TO DON PROTECTIVE

EQUIPMENT WHICH WOULD PROTECT THEM FROM THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC

CHEMICAL AGENTS. REGARDLESS OF IRAQ'S RATIONALE, LARGE NUMBERS

OF IRAQ'S OWN TROOPS WERE KILLED OR INJURED DURING IRAQI

CHEMICAL ATTACKS.

5. THE PRINCIPAL LIMITATIONS TO IRAQ'S USE OF CHEMICAL

WEAPONS SYSTEMS IN A GIVEN BATTLEFIELD WERE UNFAVORABLE WIND AND

WEATHER CONDITIONS AND IRAQ'S ABILITY TO DELIVER CHEMICAL

MUNITIONS ON TARGET. IRAQ USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS DURING ALL

SEASONS OF THE YEAR. THE ONLY WEATHER CONDITION WHICH PREVENTED

IRAQ FROM USING CHEMICAL WEAPONS WAS RAIN. RAIN DISSIPATED THE

EFFECT OF THE CHEMICAL AGENTS, BUT WAS UNUSUAL IN THE ARID

REGION WHERE MUCH OF THE WAR WAS FOUGHT. IF IRAQI VILLAGES OR

FORCES LAY IN DOWNWIND HAZARD AREA AND COULD BE EFFECTED BY AN

IRAQI ATTACK ON A NEARBY AREA, IRAQI FORCES WOULD NORMALLY WAIT

FOR THE WIND TO DIMINISH OR CHANGE DIRECTION BEFORE LAUNCHING A

CHEMICAL ATTACK.

6. IRAQ USED MORTARS, ARTILLERY, HELICOPTERS AND

FlXED-WING AIRCRAFT TO DELIVER CHEMICAL MUNITIONS. ONE

LIMITATION ON IRAQ'S USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS WAS THE DISTANCE OF

ATTACKING IRAQI FORCES FROM AREAS TO BE ATTACKED AND WHETHER

THOSE UNITS POSSESSED THE EQUIPMENT NECESSARY TO DELIVER

CHEMICAL MUNITIONS. IF IRANIAN POSITIONS WERE OUT OF MORTAR OR

ARTILLERY RANGE, IRAQI FORCES WERE UNABLE TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS.

7.          WHEN IRAQ FIRST BEGAN

USING CHEMICAL WEAPONS SYSTEMS CIRCA 1985-1986, THEIR USE WAS

UNUSUAL AND SPORADIC. GRADUALLY, CHEMICAL WEAPONS WERE USED

MORE OFTEN AND BY THE END OF THE WAR CHEMICAL WEAPONS WERE USED

COMMONLY. DURING THE LATTER STAGES OF THE WAR, IRAQ APPARENTLY

USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS WHENEVER IT WAS CONSIDERED TACTICALLY

APPROPRIATE.          IRAQ WAS NOT AT ALL

CONSTRAINED IN ITS USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS, AND THE FACT THAT

THE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS VIOLATED INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL

WEAPONS DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR DID NOT SEEM TO ENTER THE IRAQI

DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN DECIDING TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS.

8. FOR MORTARS AND ARTILLERY, IRAQI FORCES ACHIEVED

SOMETHING OF A MULTIPLIER EFFECT BY USING MANY MORTAR TUBES OR

ARTILLERY PIECES SIMULTANEOUSLY TO SATURATE AN AREA. THIS

RESULTED IN THE CONTAMINATION OF A GREATER AREA THAN COULD HAVE

BEEN ACHIEVED BY THE SAME NUMBER OF MORTAR TUBES OR ARTILLERY

PIECES USED INDEPENDENTLY. FOLLOWING IS THE VOLUME CONTAMINATED

BY FIRING ONE ROUND OF VARIOUS SIZE MORTARS USING CHEMICAL

MUNITIONS:

A. 60 MM MORTAR - 50 CUBIC METERS

B. 80 MM MORTAR - 200 CUBIC METERS

C. 81 MM MORTAR - SLIGHTLY MORE THAN 200 CUBIC METERS

D. 120 MM MORTAR - 1000 CUBIC METERS

9. THE AREA CONTAMINATED BY IRAQI ARTILLERY USING

CHEMICAL MUNITIONS DEPENDED ON THE SIZE OF THE WEAPONS SYSTEM.

THE LARGER THE WEAPONS SYSTEM, THE GREATER THE AREA

CONTAMINATED. THE AREA EFFECTED BY THE LARGEST OF IRAQ'S

ARTILLERY PIECES IS 3000-4000 CUBIC METERS. WHEN

IRAQI GROUND FORCES COULD NOT BE USED TO BLUNT A PENETRATING

IRANIAN ADVANCE, IRAQ SOMETIMES USED HELICOPTERS TO DELIVER

CHEMICAL MUNITIONS. IRAQ NORMALLY USED TWO TO THREE HELICOPTERS

IN SUCH ATTACKS. THE HELICOPTERS CARRIED BOMBS CONFIGURED IN

220 LITER CONTAINERS WHICH DETONATED UPON CONTACT WITH THE GROUND.

10. IRAQI CHEMICAL ATTACKS USING FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT

OCCURRED QUICKLY AND WERE USED IN SITUATIONS IN WHICH IRAQ

WANTED TO CONTAMINATE A LARGE AREA WITH CHEMICAL MUNITIONS SOME

DISTANCE FROM IRAQI GROUND FORCES.

IRAQ ATTACKED

WITH FIVE PLANES. THE IRAQIS USED MIG-23 AND MIG-27 AIRCRAFT TO

DELIVER 500-POUND CHEMICAL BOMBS. EACH AIRCRAFT CARRIED FOUR TO

SIX BOMBS AND USING THIS CONFIGURATION COULD EASILY CONTAMINATE

AN ENTIRE CITY WITH CHEMICAL MUNITIONS.

COMMENTED THAT THE IRAQI CHEMICAL BOMBS WERE UNRELIABLE AND UP

TO 50 PERCENT OF THE BOMBS FAILED TO DETONATE.







END OF MESSAGE







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