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File: 062596_cia_67041_64153_01.txt
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Subject: CW USE IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR

Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence







TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN

REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN

TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF

THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON

REQUEST.







COUNTRY:  IRAQ/IRAN

 SUBJ:          TYPES OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS

USED BY IRAQ AND SIMPLE DEFENSIVE MEASURES TAKEN BY

IRGC FORCES AGAINST CHEMICAL WEAPONS DURING THE

IRAN-IRAQ WAR

 DOI:  1986-1988







SUMMARY:







IRAQ USED SEVERAL TYPES OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS

AGAINST IRANIAN FORCES DURING THE WAR. IRANIAN FORCES USED

VARIOUS TYPES OF PROTECTIVE MASKS AND CLOTHING AND TOOK OTHER

MEASURES TO PREVENT THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS FROM BECOMING

EFFECTIVE. TOWARDS THE END OF THE WAR ONLY ONE TYPE OF AGENT,

CYANIDE GAS, WAS BEING USED BY THE IRAQI TROOPS.

TEXT:  1.







IRAQ USED

SEVERAL TYPES OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST IRANIAN FORCES DURING

THE WAR.







NERVE GAS CAUSED SOLDIERS THAT WERE AFFLICTED TO

BECOME HYSTERICAL AND SHIVER. THEY WENT INTO CONVULSIONS AND

UNCONTROLLABLY SHOUTED OR LAUGHED UNTIL THEY LOST CONSIOUSNESS

AND DIED. WEARING A GAS MASK WAS THE ONLY EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE

MEASURE.

2. ANOTHER TYPE OF GAS CAUSED SEVERE BLISTERING ALL OVER

THE BODY. LIQUID COLLECTED IN THE BLISTERS UNTIL THE SUBJECT'S

BODY ESSENTIALLY DISINTEGRATED. TO PREVENT THE EFFECT OF THIS

TYPE OF GAS, IRGC TROOPS WORE GAS MASKS AND FINELY-KNIT

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO STOP ITS PENETRATION. WHEN A SOLDIER WAS

AFFLICTED BY THIS TYPE OF GAS, HE WAS TREATED IN THE FIELD BY

OPENING THE BLISTERS, REMOVING THE DEAD SKIN AND COVERING THE

WOUNDS WITH GAUZE SOAKED IN IODINE POWDER. AFTERWARDS, THE

SOLDIER WAS TAKEN TO A HOSPITAL AND THE DRESSINGS WHICH HAD BEEN

USED ON HIM WERE BURIED.

3. THE MOST DANGEROUS TYPE OF GAS WAS CYANIDE GAS WHICH

BROUGHT ABOUT SUFFOCATION, THE SUBJECT NORMALLY DIED

IMMEDIATELY AFTER INHALING TWO OR THREE BREATHS OF THE GAS. AT

TIMES, THIS TYPE OF GAS EVEN PENETRATED THE GAS MASKS. WHILE IT

WOULD NOT NECESSARILY CAUSE DEATH IF A SMALL AMOUNT OF GAS

PENETRATED A GAS MASK, IT WOULD AT A MINIMUM CAUSE EXTREME

DISCOMFORT. DUE TO ITS DEADLY EFFECTIVENESS, THIS WAS THE ONLY

TYPE OF GAS THAT IRAQ WAS USING AT THE END OF THE WAR.







4. THE EFFECT OF GAS ON A SOLDIER DEPENDED UPON HOW MUCH

EXPOSURE AN INDIVIDUAL HAD TO THE GAS. FOR EXAMPLE, AS

MENTIONED ABOVE, THE INHALATION OF ONLY A FEW BREATHS OF CYANIDE

GAS WAS SUFFICIENT TO KILL AN INDIVIDUAL. WITH OTHER TYPES OF

GAS, A SOLDIER COULD BE EXPOSED TO THE CHEMICAL AND STILL

SURVIVE. THE ADDITION OF SIMPLE DEFENSIVE MEASURES FURTHER

ENHANCED THE CHANCES OF SURVIVING A CHEMICAL ATTACK. INDEED,

LARGE NUMBERS OF IRGC PERSONNEL DURING THE WAR WERE EXPOSED TO

CHEMICAL ATTACKS AND SURVIVED.

5. THE AMOUNT OF TIME REQUIRED FOR AN AREA CONTAMINATED

BY CHEMICAL WEAPONS TO BE RENDERED SAFE DEPENDED UPON TIME AND

ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS. IF IT WAS WINDY, THE CHEMICAL WOULD

MORE QUICKLY DISSIPATE, AND THE AREA WOULD BE DANGEROUS FOR AS

LITTLE AS 10-15 MINUTES DEPENDING UPON THE AMOUNT OF THE

CHEMICAL IN THE AREA AND STRENGTH OF THE WIND. WITHOUT WIND, IT

WOULD TAKE ABOUT 20-30 MINUTES FOR THE AIR TO CLEAR. SIMILARLY,

RAIN WOULD WASH AWAY THE CHEMICALS AND CLEAR THE AIR. THE

GROUND AND PHYSICAL OBJECTS COVERED BY THE CHEMICAL DID NOT

BECOME SAFE FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME. FOR EXAMPLE IF THE AIR

IN AN AREA WAS SUFFICIENTLY SAFE TO ENTER, A SOLDIER COULD

RECEIVE A LETHAL EFFECT SIMILAR TO THE INITIAL CHEMICAL ATTACK

IF THE WIND BLEW AND THE CHEMICAL DUST ON THE GROUND HAPPENED TO

HIT THE SOLDLER'S EYES OR SKIN.

THE IRGC'S BATTLEFIELD DEFINITION OF A SAFE AREA WAS ONE WHICH

TROOPS COULD MOVE THROUGH WITHOUT ENCOUNTERING TOO MANY PROBLEMS

RELATED TO THE PREVIOUS CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION







6. FREQUENTLY FOLLOWING A CHEMICAL ATTACK, THE GROUND IN

A CONTAMINATED AREA TURNED WHITE AND WAS COVERED BY A FINE,

DUST-LIKE POWDER. SOMETIMES IT SMELLED LIKE CHOCOLATE, BUT AT

OTHER TIMES, THE CHEMICAL HAD THE ODOR OF SPOILED VEGETABLES OR

ROTTEN EGGS. THE CYANIDE GAS, WHICH WAS USED HEAVILY DURING THE

LAST YEARS OF THE WAR, ALSO HAD A DISTINCTLY PUNGENT ODOR.

7. IN ADDITION TO PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, IRGC FORCES USED

OTHER SIMPLE DEFENSES AGAINST THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS. AGAINST

CYANIDE GAS, THE TYPE OF DEFENSE FREQUENTLY USED AGAINST THIS

CHEMICAL ATTACK WAS BURNING TIRES, WOOD OR PAPER. THE SMOKE

FROM THE BURNING MATERIALS MIXED WITH THE SMOKE OF THE CHEMICAL

GAS, DILUTING IT AND RENDERING IT LESS DANGEROUS. GAS MASKS

WERE NORMALLY EFFECTIVE, BUT DURING THE LAST YEARS OF THE WAR,

PARTICULARLY WITH THE CYANIDE GAS, THE GAS SOMETIMES EVEN

PENETRATED THE MASKS. SINCE THE CHEMICAL GAS IS NORMALLY

HEAVIER THAN AIR, IT QUICKLY SETTLED AT A LOW LEVEL, ABOUT 10-15

METERS ABOVE THE GROUND. THUS, IF SUFFICIENTLY HIGH TERRAIN

WERE AVAILABLE, ANOTHER SIMPLE DEFENSE WAS TO MOVE UP TO PLACES

THAT WERE ABOUT 20 METERS OR MORE ABOVE GROUND LEVEL. LIKEWISE

UNDER CERTAIN WINDY CONDITIONS, THE TROOPS SOMETIMES DID NOT

MOVE OUT OF THE CONTAMINATED AREA AFTER A CHEMICAL ATTACK,

INSTEAD THEY REMAINED IN ONE PLACE AND WAITED FOR THE WIND TO

BLOW THE CHEMICALS AWAY FROM THEM.







END OF MESSAGE







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67041:64153

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