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File: 062596_cia_67222_67222_01.txt
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Subject: CW USE IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR

Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence







TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN

REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN

TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF

THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON

REQUEST.







COUNTRY:  IRAN/IRAO

SUBJ:  1. IRGC CMEMICAL WEAPONS DECONTAMINATION AND

TREATMENT MEASURES USED DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR

2. USE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WORN

BY IRGC TROOPS AGAINST CHEMICAL ATTACKS

DOI:  1986-1988







THE JIHAD-E

SAZANDEGI (MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION JIHAD) NORMALLY CARRIED OUT

DECONTAMINATION WORK FOLLOWING A CHEMICAL ATTACK BY IRAQI

FORCES. THE MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION BUILT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

FOR THE PURPOSE OF CLEANING THE TRENCHES AND THE AREAS AFFECTED

BY CHEMICAL WEAPONS. THIS EQUIPMENT CONSISTED OF AN APPARATUS

MADE UP OF TWO TANKS MOUNTED ON A TOYOTA TRUCK. ONE OF THE

TANKS CONTAINED POWDER AND THE OTHER CONTAINED GAS. THE POWDER

WAS SPRAYED ON EFFECTED AREAS OF THE GROUND WHILE A GAS FROM THE

OTHER TANK WOULD BE USED TO SPRAY AND CLEAN CONTAMINATED AIR IN

THE TRENCHES. IN ADDITION TO MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION

PERSONNEL, CERTAIN IRGC UNITS HAD PERSONNEL WHO RECEIVED LIMITED

TRAINING IN CLEANING UP CHEMICALLY-CONTAMINATED AREAS. WHEN AN

AREA WAS CONTAMINATED BY CHEMICAL WEAPONS, THESE UNITS WOULD

QUICKLY DEPLOY TO THE SITE AND BEGIN DECONTAMINATION EFFORTS.

2. BATTLEFIELD TREATMENT FOR IRGC TROOPS AFFLICTED BY

CHEMICAL WEAPONS WAS LARGELY INEFFECTIVE. THE CYANIDE GAS WAS

SO LETHAL, THERE WAS LITTLE REMEDY AVAILABLE EITHER ON THE

BATTLEFIELD OR IN HOSPITALS. WITH BLISTER AGENT VICTIMS,

HOWEVER, MEDICS IN THE FIELD WERE ABLE TO RENDER EFFECTIVE AID.

THEY PUNCTURED AND DRAINED THE BLISTERS, THEN CLEANED THEM WITH

IODINE POWDER-COVERED GAUZE BEFORE TRANSPORTING THE SOLDIER TO

THE REAR FOR TREATMENT AT A MEDICAL FACILITY. EACH IRGC SOLDIER

WAS GIVEN A GAS MASK AND A FIRST AID KIT CONTAINING SEVERAL

INSULIN AMPOULES WHICH WERE TO BE INJECTED AFTER A SOLDIER HAD

BEEN AFFLICTED BY CHEMICAL WEAPONS.

THESE INJECTIONS WERE SELDOM EFFECTIVE SINCE THERE NORMALLY WAS

NO TIME AVAILABLE ON THE BATTLEFIELD TO ADMINISTER THE

INJECTIONS BEFORE A SOLDIER BECAME CONTAMINATED.

3. GAS MASKS AND SOME PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WERE AVAILABLE

TO IRGC PERSONNEL. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SUCH EQUIPMENT VARIED,

AND IT HAD A STRONGLY DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON A SOLDIER'S ABILITY

TO OPERATE IN COMBAT. THE BASIC PROCEDURE WAS FOR IRGC SOLDIERS

TO DON GAS MASKS IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE CHEMICAL ATTACK. IN

AREAS LIKE KHUZESTAN WHERE THE TEMPERATURE WAS EXTREMELY HIGH,

OR IN KURDESTAN AREA WHICH IS VERY HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS, IT WAS

DIFFICULT TO MOVE FORWARD WEARING THE EQUIPMENT. THE GAS MASKS

AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WERE AWKWARD AND HEAVY. MOVING IN THE

EQUIPMENT CAUSED A SOLDIER TO USE UP HIS BODY ENERGY FASTER AND

TIRE QUICKLY. BECAUSE THEY COULD NOT BREATHE WITH EASE AND WERE

ENGAGED IN PHYSICALLY DEMANDING ACTIVITY REQUIRING GREATER THAN

NORMAL AMOUNTS OF OXYGEN FOR THE BODY, THE USE OF THE EQUIPMENT

MADE BREATHING DIFFICULT, INDUCING A STATE OF SUFFOCATION IN

EXTREME CASES. AS A RESULT, THE SOLDIER WAS BE FORCED TO SLOW

DOWN OR REST IN ORDER TO BREATHE MORE EASILY. BECAUSE THE MASK

AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WERE HEAVY AND HOT, THE SOLDIERS ALSO

DEHYDRATED QUICKLY AND BECAME THIRSTY. ALTHOUGH THE MASKS HAD A

MEANS FOR WATER INTAKE, THIS WAS A CUMBERSOME PROCESS, AND THE

SOLDIERS DID NOT USE IT REGULARLY. PERSPIRATION USUALLY COVERED

THE SOLIDIERS' FACES INSIDE THE MASKS. AFTER A PERIOD OF TIME,

THE PERSPIRATION BEGAN TO EVAPORATE, CREATING FOG AND MIST OVER

THE TWO GLASS-COVERED EYESIGHT OPENINGS INSIDE THE MASK. THIS

GREATLY IMPAIRED VISION AND A SOLDIER'S ABILITY TO OPERATE. TO

FUNCTION PROPERLY, THE GAS MASKS NEEDED TO FIT TIGHTLY. THIS

POSED A PROBLEM FOR SOLDIERS WITH LONG HAIR OR BEARDS BECAUSE

THE MASK WOULD NOT FIT PROPERLY. THIS RESULTED IN GAS

PENETRATION OF THE MASK THROUGH LOOSE AREAS AROUND THE NECK AND

FACE AND TOXIC AFFLICTION TO THE SUBJECT.

4. THESE PROBLEMS CREATED GREAT OBSTACLES TO OPERATING IN

A CHEMICALLY CONTAMINATED BATTLEFIELD. CONSEQUENTLY, A CHEMICAL

ATTACK NORMALLY FORCED IRGC SOLDIERS WHO HAD SURVIVED THE ATTACK

TO RETREAT.          THE BASIC IRGC

PHILOSOPHY RELATED TO THE USE OF THE EQUIPMENT WAS THAT IT GAVE

ONE A CHANCE TO SURVIVE A CHEMICAL ATTACK. THEY DID NOT VIEW

THE USE OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND OTHER EQUIPMENT AS A MEANS TO

ALLOW THEM TO CONTINUE NORMAL COMBAT OPERATIONS IN CHEMICALLY

CONTAMINATED BATTLEFIELD.







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