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Subject: IRAQ'S CBW CAPABILITY IN THE KTO

Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence







TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN

REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN

TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF

THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON

REQUEST.







DIRECTOR OF

CENTRAL

INTELLIGENCE







CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

IN THE KUWAIT THEATER OF OPERATIONS:

IRAQ'S CAPABILITY



COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE REPORT







CONTENTS







                                                                                         PAGE



KEY  JUDGMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           1



IRAQ'S CBW CAPABILITIES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1



DELIVERY SYSTEMS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         4



TACTICS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          7



LOGISTICS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            8



PREPAREDNESS AND CURRENT DEPLOYMENT   . . . . . . . . . . .  11



LIKELIHOOD OF CW OR BW USE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13



OUTLOOK   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16



APPENDIX A: DEFINITIONS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17



APPENDIX B: CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN

AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18



APPENDIX C: CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS PRODUCING CHEMICAL

WARFARE AGENT-LIKE INJURIES   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21



APPENDIX D: CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND

FIELD EMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22



APPENDIX E: REFERENCES ON CHEMICAL AGENTS

CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26







KEY JUDGMENTS



IRAQ MAINTAINS THE MOST EXTENSIVE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL

WARFARE (CW AND BW) CAPABILITY IN THE THIRD WORLD. BAGHDAD'S

FORCES HAVE A RANGE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS AND DELIVERY MEANS, AS

WELL AS THE EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING NEEDED TO USE CHEMICAL

WEAPONS EFFECTIVELY. BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS HAVE ONLY BEEN

DEVELOPED RECENTLY.



IRAQ IS LIKELY TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS AS AN INTEGRAL PART

OF ITS TACTICAL OPERATIONS.



AT PRESENT, IRAQI FORCES IN THE KUWAIT THEATER OF

OPERATIONS (KTO) ARE IN A DEFENSIVE POSTURE.

THEY ARE NOT POSITIONED TO LAUNCH AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST ALLIED

FORCES IN SAUDI ARABIA SUPPORTED BY CHEMICAL WEAPONS. THIS

DEFENSIVE POSTURE DOES NOT PRECLUDE OR NEGATE A SHIFT TO AN

OFFENSIVE MODE OR THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN ATTACKS AGAINST

COALITION FORCES.



IRAQ CAN DELIVER CHEMICAL WEAPONS TO DEEPER TARGETS USING

EITHER AIRCRAFT OR BALLISTIC MISSILES. THE SUCCESS OF AIRCRAFT

ATTACKS IS DEPENDENT ON IRAQRS CAPABILITY TO PENETRATE AIR

DEFENSES.



IRAQ HAS SOME CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR ITS BALLISTIC MISSILES,

BUT THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IS LIMITED BY POOR ACCURACY AND

RELATIVELY SMALL CHEMICAL PAYLOADS.



WE BELIEVE IRAQ HAS SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENT DELIVERY

CAPABILITY. THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS BY IRAQ WOULD

PROBABLY BE FOR LARGE AREA COVERAGE IF SADDAM HUSAYN BELIEVES

HIS REGIME IS THREATENED. HOWEVER, THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL

AGENTS AGAINST MILITARY TARGETS (TO INCLUDE SHIPS) PRIOR TO THE

INITIATION OF HOSTILITIES CANNOT BE EXCLUDED. BIOLOGICAL

ATTACKS COULD BE LAUNCHED CLANDESTINELY.



IRAQ'S CBW CAPABILITIES



CHEMICAL AGENTS (SEE TABLE 1)



IRAQ'S CW AGENTS USED IN THE WAR WITH IRAN INCLUDE THE

PERSISTENT BLISTER AGENT MUSTARD, THE SEMIPERSISTENT NERVE

AGENTS TABUN (GA) AND GF, AND THE NONPERSISTENT NERVE AGENT

SARIN (GB). THE RIOT CONTROL AGENT CS WAS ALSO USED ON THE

BATTLEFIELD. AFTER THE WAR, IRAQ INVESTIGATED, AND MAY HAVE







TABLE 1



IRAQI CHEMICAL AGENTS







AGENT                                                        RELATIVE TYPE                         PERSISTENCE1



MUSTARD (HD)                                          VESICANT                                   PERSISTENT



SARIN (GB)                                                 NERVE                                        NONPERSISTENT



TABUN2 (GA)                                              NERVE                                        SEMIPERSISTENT



GF                                                               NERVE                                        SEMIPERSISTENT



DUSTY MUSTARD2,3                                VESICANT                                  NONPERSISTENT



VX                                                              NERVE                                       PERSISTENT



SOMAN (GD)                                             NERVE                                       SEMIPERSISTENT



BZ                                                              PSYCHOCHEMICAL                  PERSISTENT







1 RELATIVE PERSISTENCE IS AFFECTED BY A NUMBER OF FACTORS

INCLUDING TEMPERATURE, WIND SPEED, HUMIDITY, ENVIRONMENT 

AND TOPOGRAPHY.

2 TABUN WAS USED EXTENSIVELY IN THE WAR WITH IRAN, WHILE

DUSTY MUSTARD WAS USED          HOWEVER, THESE

AGENTS MAY NOT CURRENTLY BE  IN THE IRAQI ARSENAL.

3 DUSTY MUSTARD IS A DISSEMINATION MEANS, NOT A DIFFERENT

AGENT. THIS MATERIAL IS A CHEMICAL AGENT IMPREGNATED ON

A CARRIER  MATERIAL. THE PERSISTENCE OF DUSTY MUSTARD

DEPENDS ON THE CARRIER'S PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, WHILE

ITS TOXICITY IS A RESULT OF THE MUSTARD AGENT ON THE DUST





SUBSEQUENTLY PRODUCED, LIMITED AMOUNTS OF THE PERSISTENT NERVE

AGENT VX. THE NERVE AGENT SOMAN (GD) AND THE PSYCHOCHEMICAL

BZ MAY ALSO BE UNDER DEVELOPMENT. IRAQ MAY HAVE AN INTEREST IN

CYANIDE AGENTS AND PHOSGENE OXIME, AND MAY ALSO HAVE INVESTI-

GATED OTHER AGENTS OR MODIFICATIONS TO THE ABOVE-NAMED



IRAQ HAS PRODUCED AN AGENT REFERRED TO AS DUSTY MUSTARD.

A DUSTY AGENT IS A CHEMICAL AGENT IMPREGNATED ON A CARRIER

MATERIAL, USUALLY A FINE DUST.







IN 1984-1985, IRAQ USED WEAPONS CONTAINING

A DUST IMPREGNATED WITH MUSTARD AGAINST IRAN. IRAQ HAS THE

TECHNOLOGY TO DEVELOP DUSTY FORMS OF NERVE AGENTS AND POSSIBLY

OTHER TOXIC MATERIALS,







BIOLOGICAL AGENTS



IRAQ HAS DEVELOPED ANTHRAX SPORES AND BOTULINUM TOXIN AS

AGENTS. WE JUDGE THAT THE IRAQIS ARE LIKELY INVESTIGATING A

RANGE OF OTHER TOXINS AND LIVE AGENTS. THE IRAQIS HAVE SHOWN

AN INTEREST IN DEVELOPING CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, STAPHYLO-

COCCUS ENTEROTOXIN B (SEB), AND MYCOTOXINS,







DELIVERY SYSTEMS



CHEMICAL WEAPONS



IRAQ HAS A VARIETY OF CHEMICAL WEAPON DELIVERY SYSTEMS

AVAILABLE TO DELIVER CHEMICAL AGENTS. IRAQ USED SEVERAL MEANS

OF CHEMICAL DELIVERY IN THE WAR WITH IRAN: AERIAL BOMBS,

ARTILLERY AND MORTAR ROUNDS, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS (MRLS),

AND AIR-TO-SURFACE ROCKETS.







MISSILES



IRAQ HAS SOME CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR SCUD B/MODIFIED SCUD B

SHORT-RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILES. DUE TO THE POOR ACCURACY AND

RELATIVELY SMALL CHEMICAL PAYLOADS OF THESE MISSILES, THEY HAVE

ONLY LIMITED EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST MILITARY POINT TARGETS.

HOWEVER, THEY COULD BE USED AS TERROR WEAPONS AGAINST CIVILIAN

POPULATION CENTERS.







BINARY WEAPONS



IN APRIL 1990, SADDAM HUSAYN ANNOUNCED THAT IRAQ HAD

BINARY CHEMICAL WEAPONS.          IRAQ HAS PRODUCED AT

LEAST SOME BINARY WEAPONS, MOST LIKELY CONTAINING THE NERVE

AGENTS SARIN AND GF.







TABLE 2



IRAQI CHEMICAL MUNITIONS AND DELIVERY SYSTEMS





ARTILLERY



155 MM

152 MM

130 MM

122 MM ROCKETS





MORTARS



82 MM

120 MM





AERIAL



250 KG BOMBS

500 KG BOMBS

CLUSTER BOMBS (REPORTED)

90 MM AIR-TO-GROUND ROCKETS HELICOPTERBORNE





MISSILES1



SCUD

AL-HUSAYN

AL-ABBAS







1          IRAQ HAS CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR ITS

SCUD-TYPE MISSILES,







BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS



IRAQ HAS THE TECHNICAL CAPABILITY TO INCORPORATE ITS BW

AGENTS INTO A VARIETY OF WEAPONS.







CANDIDATE SYSTEMS INCLUDE CLUSTER AND AERIAL

BOMBS, MISSILE WARHEADS, AND SPRAY SYSTEMS. WE BELIEVE THAT

IRAQ PLANS TO DEVELOP A BIOLOGICAL WARHEAD FOR ITS SCUD-TYPE

MISSILES,

WE BELIEVE IRAQ HAS THE NECESSARY TECHNICAL EXPERTISE

TO PUT ITS BIOLOGICAL AGENTS INTO A MISSILE WARHEAD. THE

MISSILE'S POOR ACCURACY AND SMALL PAYLOAD LIMIT ITS EFFECT

TIVENESS FOR DELIVERING CHEMICAL AGENTS. CHEMICAL AGENTS, EVEN

UNDER OPTIMAL CONDITIONS, ARE SIGNIFICANTLY LESS EFFECTIVE THAN

AN EQUIVALENT AMOUNT OF BIOLOGICAL AGENT. FOR EXAMPLE, ONE

WARHEAD FILLED WITH ANTHRAX SPORES COULD LETHALLY CONTAMINATE

LARGE AREAS. EFFECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF SUCH AN AGENT WOULD

NOT EVEN BE NECESSARY IF IT WERE TO BE USED AS A TERROR

AGAINST A CIVILIAN POPULATION.





TACTICS



CHEMICAL



IRAQI FORCES MADE EFFECTIVE USE OF THEIR CHEMICAL SUPERI-

ORITY IN THE FINAL OFFENSIVES IN THE WAR WITH IRAN. THE

CAREFULLY REHEARSED IRAQI BATTLE PLANS FOR THE 1988 SPRING

AND SUMMER CAMPAIGNS CALLED FOR THE USE OF CHEMICALS AGAINST

SELECTED TARGETS. BY USING CHEMICALS AT ADVANTAGEOUS TIMES,

THE IRAQIS NEUTRALIZED FORWARD TARGETS USING NONPERSISTENT

NERVE AGENTS WHILE DEEPER TARGETS WERE ATTACKED WITH BOTH

PERSISTENT AND NONPERSISTENT AGENTS. SINCE IRAN HAD ONLY

LIMITED PROTECTION CAPABILITIES, THESE ATTACKS WERE OFTEN

EFFECTIVE. ALSO, THERE WAS NO CREDIBLE THREAT OF IRANIAN

RETALIATION WITH CHEMICAL WEAPONS.



PRIOR TO 1988, IRAQ'S OFFENSIVE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS

AGAINST IRAN WAS INFREQUENT. ATTACKS DURING THIS PERIOD

WERE NOT AS EFFECTIVE AS THOSE LATER ON BECAUSE THE CHEMICAL

WEAPONS WERE USED DURING UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS OR WERE

IMPROPERLY DELIVERED. CHEMICAL WEAPON EFFECTIVENESS PROBABLY

WAS LIMITED INITIALLY DUE TO IRAQI INEXPERIENCE. IT WAS ALSO

REDUCED BY HIGH LEVEL AUTHORITIES EXERCISING RESTRICTIVE

CONTROL OF THE WEAPONS. WHEN CHEMICAL ARTILLERY RELEASE

AUTHORITY WAS DELEGATED TO FIELD COMMANDERS LATER IN THE WAR,

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHEMICAL ATTACKS IMPROVED.



BIOLOGICAL







BIOLOGICAL AGENTS CAN BE USED AGAINST TACTICAL OR

STRATEGIC TARGETS.







PREPAREDNESS AND CURRENT DEPLOYMENT



GROUND



IRAQI FORCES IN THE KTO ARE CURRENTLY IN A DEFENSIVE

POSTURE. BAGHDAD'S FORCES ARE PREPARED TO USE GROUND-FORCE,

FIRE-SUPPORT WEAPONS WITH CHEMICAL FIRES







THIS DEFENSIVE POSTURE DOES NOT PRECLUDE

OR NEGATE A SHIFT TO AN OFFENSIVE MODE OR THE USE OF CHEMICALS

IN ATTACKS AGAINST COALITION FORCES. UNLESS US FORCES ARE

MOVED CLOSER TO THE KUWAIT-SAUDI ARABIA BORDER, CHEMICAL AGENT

DELIVERY WOULD BE LIMITED TO AIRCRAFT OR MISSILES.







LIKELIHOOD OF CW OR BW USE



AUTHORITY FOR THE USE OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

ALMOST CERTAINLY RESTS WITH SADDAM HUSAYN. HOWEVER, AS NOTED

EARLIER, DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, AUTHORITY FOR GROUND FORCE

EMPLOYMENT OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS WAS SUBSEQUENTLY DELEGATED TO

INDIVIDUAL CORPS COMMANDERS. THE REPUBLICAN GUARD FORCES

COMMAND (RGFC) WOULD PROBABLY BE THE FIRST CORPS LEVEL

ORGANIZATION TO RECEIVE THIS AUTHORITY. IT IS LIKELY THAT

CHEMICAL WEAPONS USE IS ALREADY INTEGRATED INTO RGFC

OPERATIONAL PLANS.



BEFORE INITIATING CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WARFARE OPERA-

TIONS, SADDAM AND HIS STAFF WILL LIKELY CONSIDER SEVERAL

FACTORS SUCH AS THE PREPAREDNESS OF OPPOSING FORCES,

UNCERTAINTY OF RESULTS, RELIABILITY OF SUPPLY, AND POSSIBLE

RETALIATION, SPECIFICALLY, THE FOLLOWING WILL ALMOST CERTAINLY

BE CONSIDERED:



DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, IRAQI AIRCRAFT WERE

GENERALLY UNCHALLENGED AND COULD DELIVER BOMBS TO

VIRTUALLY ANY TARGET. IN THE CURRENT SITUATION,

COALITION AIR DEFENSES AND AIR SUPERIORITY WOULD

MAKE DELIVERY BY IRAQI AIRCRAFT DIFFICULT AT BEST.

IRAQ COULD ATTACK DEEP TARGETS WITH MISSILES, BUT

SUCH ATTACKS WOULD BE OF QUESTIONABLE EFFECTIVENESS.



COALITION FORCES HAVE EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE

EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING WHEN COMPARED WITH THE

POORLY TRAINED AND EQUIPPED IRANIAN TROOPS.



THE GENERALLY POOR QUALITY OF CHEMICAL AGENTS IN

IRAQ'S ARSENAL MAY REDUCE THE RELIABILITY OF ITS

CHEMICAL ATTACKS. IRAQ IS TRYING TO IMPROVE AGENT







QUALITY BY INTRODUCING BINARY WEAPONS INTO ITS

INVENTORY.







THE UNITED STATES HAVE CHEMICAL

ARSENALS WHICH COULD ACT AS A DETERRENT.







OUTLOOK



IRAQ WILL ATTEMPT TO IMPROVE ITS CAPABILITY TO DELIVER

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS. AS A RESULT OF IRAQ'S USE

OF CHEMICALS IN THE WAR WITH IRAN, THE IRAQIS RECOGNIZE THE

UTILITY OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN WAR AND HAVE CONFIDENCE IN

THEIR ABILITY TO USE THEIR CHEMICAL ARSENAL.







BASED ON THE DISPOSITION OF FORCES DURING THE AUGUST

THROUGH EARLY NOVEMBER 1990 PERIOD, IRAQ IS NOT CURRENTLY

POSITIONED TO LAUNCH AN OFFENSIVE SUPPORTED BY GROUND FORCE

CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST COALITION FORCES

ITS FORCE DISPOSITION AND DEPLOYMENT WILL HAVE TO BE CHANGER

SIGNIFICANTLY TO SUPPORT SUCH A COURSE. THIS CHANGE COULD

OCCUR RAPIDLY.



WE BELIEVE THAT CHEMICAL ATTACKS USING AIRCRAFT AGAINST

DEEP TARGETS HAVE ONLY LIMITED CHANCES OF

SUCCESS AS LONG AS AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS, PROTECTIVE TRAINING,

AND DISCIPLINE OF COALITION FORCES ARE MAINTAINED IN A HIGH

STATE OF READINESS.







APPENDIX A





DEFINITIONS





CHEMICAL WARFARE (CW) IS THE USE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS TO

ACHIEVE A RESULT IN WARFARE. THE TOXIC EFFECT OF THE CHEMICAL

CAN BE TO INCAPACITATE, INJURE, OR KILL, AND IS USUALLY

INTENDED FOR USE AGAINST PERSONNEL. THE US DOES NOT CONSIDER

RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, HERBICIDES, SMOKES AND OBSCURANTS, FLAME,

AND INCENDIARIES TO BE CHEMICAL AGENTS. THIS DEFINITION IS NOT

SHARED BY EVERY OTHER COUNTRY.



BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) IS THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO

CAUSE DISEASE IN MEN, ANIMALS, OR PLANTS. BW MAY ALSO CAUSE

DETERIORATION OF MILITARY OR STRATEGIC MATERIEL. IN THIS

PAPER, TOXINS WILL BE TREATED TOGETHER WITH BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.







APPENDIX B





CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA





BOTULINUM TOXIN



BOTULINUM TOXIN IS PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM.

THIS BACTERIUM GROWS ANAEROBICALLY, THAT IS, WITHOUT THE

PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. THE TOXIN PRODUCES ITS EFFECTS WHEN IT

IS EITHER INGESTED OR INHALED. BOTULINUM TOXIN POISONING IS

ALMOST ALWAYS FATAL.







BOTULINUM TOXIN AFFECTS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, WITH DEATH

RESULTING FROM PARALYSIS OF THE NERVES THAT CONTROL BREATHING.

WHEN EXPOSURE TAKES PLACE THROUGH INGESTION, GASTROINTESTINAL

SYMPTOMS ARE OBSERVED BEFORE THE ONSET OF NEUROLOGICAL

SYMPTOMS. ONCE THESE SYMPTOMS BEGIN, THEY INCLUDE WEAKNESS,

DIZZINESS, BLURRED OR DOUBLE VISION, FIXED AND DILATED PUPILS,

IMPAIRED REACTION TO LIGHT, DROOPING EYELIDS, FACIAL MUSCLE

WEAKNESS, AND SPEECH DIFFICULTIES. WHEN EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM

TAKES PLACE THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE, GASTROINTESTINAL

SYMPTOMS ARE ABSENT.







THERE ARE ANTISERA TO BOTULINUM TOXINS, BUT THEY ARE ONLY

EFFECTIVE IF ADMINISTERED BEFORE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS.

IT IS HIGHLY UNLIKELY

THAT EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM WOULD BE DIAGNOSED UNTIL CLINICAL

SYMPTOMS APPEARED, AND TREATMENT AT THAT TIME WOULD BE TOO

LATE. CONVERSELY, IMMUNIZATION TO BOTULINUM IS POSSIBLE, BUT

REQUIRES MULTIPLE INJECTIONS OF INACTIVATED TOXINS OVER A

PERIOD OF SEVERAL MONTHS. THUS, A COUNTRY THAT HAD DEVELOPED

BOTULINUM TOXIN AS A BW AGENT COULD PROTECT ITS TROOPS FROM

EXPOSURE TO THE TOXIN.



ANTHRAX



ANTHRAX IS PRODUCED BY THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS.

UNLIKE BOTULINUM TOXIN, ANTHRAX SYMPTOMS RESULT WHEN THE

BACTERIA MULTIPLY IN THE BODY, PRODUCING TOXINS. EACH

BACTERIUM PRODUCES AND RELEASES ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF ANTHRAX

TOXIN AS IT GROWS; HOWEVER, AS THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY, MORE

TOXIN IS PRODUCED. ANTHRAX IS CONSIDERED A LIVING BW AGENT

BECAUSE IT MUST REPRODUCE IN THE BODY TO CAUSE AN EFFECT.



THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF ANTHRAX, CHARACTERIZED BY THE MODE

OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY: THROUGH CUTS IN THE SKIN (CUTANEOUS),

THROUGH INGESTION (GASTROINTESTINAL), OR THROUGH INHALATION

(PULMONARY). ANTHRAX IS A NATURALLY-OCCURRING DISEASE IN LIVE-

STOCK. HUMANS MOST FREQUENTLY CONTRACT THE CUTANEOUS FORM OF

THE DISEASE WHEN THEY COME IN CONTACT WITH INFECTED ANIMALS.

THE GASTROINTESTINAL FORM OF THE DISEASE RESULTS FROM INGESTING

CONTAMINATED MEAT. OF THESE THREE FORMS, PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS

FATAL MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF THE TIME AND OCCURS ONLY VERY

RARELY. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX IS FATAL ABOUT 75 PERCENT OF

THE TIME, AND CUTANEOUS ANTHRA. FATAL LESS THAN TEN PERCENT

OF THE TIME, AND THEN ONLY IF UNTREATED. ALL FORMS OF THE

DISEASE RESPOND WELL TO ANTIBIOTICS IF THE DRUG IS GIVEN

SHORTLY AFTER THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THE DISEASE IS FAIRLY

UNCOMMON, HOWEVER, AND THE DIAGNOSIS OF EITHER GASTROINTESTI-

NAL OR PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS OFTEN MADE ONLY AFTER DEATH.



ANTHRAX WOULD MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL SUSPEN-

SION OF SPORES FOR BW PURPOSES. AFTER ANTHRAX SPORES ARE

INHALED, THERE IS AN INCUBATION PERIOD FROM ONE TO SEVERAL

DAYS BEFORE NON-SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS--SUCH AS FATIGUE AND MILD

FEVER--APPEAR. AT THIS POINT, THE ILLNESS IS FREQUENTLY

DIAGNOSED AS A RESPIRATORY INFECTION. THESE INITIAL SYMPTOMS

USUALLY IMPROVE TWO TO FOUR DAYS LATER, FOLLOWED BY A SUDDEN

ONSET OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. PULSE, TEMPERATURE, AND

RESPIRATORY RATE BECOME ELEVATED, AND THE VICTIM BECOMES

CYANOTIC--BLUE-BLACK COLORED. DEATH USUALLY OCCURS WITHIN 24

HOURS AFTER ONSET OF THE SECOND PHASE OF SYMPTOMS.



ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY HARDY IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND IN

STORAGE. IT IS THIS SPECIALIZED FORM OF THE BACTERIUM THAT

INFECTS HUMANS. GROWING BACTERIA, WHEN,EXPOSED TO ADVERSE

CONDITIONS--EXTREME HEAT OR COLD, LACK OF NUTRIENTS--PRODUCE

SPORES. THE SPORES, WHICH CAN BE THOUGHT OF AS SEEDS, REMAIN

IN AN INERT STATE UNTIL THEY ENTER THE BODY AND ENCOUNTER

CONDITIONS SUITABLE FOR THEM TO BEGIN MULTIPLYING.







APPENDIX C



CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS PRODUCING

CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT-LIKE INJURIES



MANY CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS MAY PRODUCE CHEMICAL WARFARE

AGENT-LIKE INJURIES. EVEN OBSERVERS WHO ARE KNOWLEDGEABLE

OF THE EFFECTS OF CW AGENTS MAY MISTAKENLY USE THE EFFECTS

OF NONCHEMICAL WEAPONS TO REPORT CHEMICAL WEAPONS USE. THE

CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS MOST LIKELY TO PRODUCE CW-AGENT-LIKE

INJURIES INCLUDE FLAME (NAPALM), INCENDIARIES, OBSCURANTS,

SMOKES, RIOT-CONTROL AGENTS, FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES, AND SPECIAL

MILITARY EXPLOSIVE MIXTURES:



INCENDIARY WEAPONS CAUSE BURNS AND OTHER EFFECTS THAT

MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE USE OF CW AGENTS. THEY MAY

ALSO PRODUCE FUMES THAT CAUSE TRUE, TOXIC CHEMICAL

INJURIES UNRELATED TO THE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS. AN

UNUSUAL CASE FOR CONFUSING CONVENTIONAL AND CW-AGENT

INJURIES OCCURS WHEN THE USE OF INCENDIARIES RESULTS IN

DEATH BECAUSE OF A LACK OF OXYGEN. THESE CASUALTIES

APPEAR THE SAME AS THOSE WHOSE DEATH RESULTED FROM

RAPIDLY ACTING CW AGENTS SUCH AS BLOOD OR NERVE AGENTS.



RIOT-CONTROL AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVE CHEMICALS IN FUEL-AIR

MUNITIONS CAN CAUSE CHEMICAL BURNS TO THE SKIN (IF DOSES

ARE SUFFICIENTLY HIGH) SIMILAR TO THOSE PRODUCED BY

BLISTER AGENTS.



TACTICAL SMOKES AND RIOT-CONTROL AGENTS WILL CAUSE

SYMPTOMS SUCH AS NAUSEA, COUGHING, AND DIFFICULTY IN

BREATHING, ALL OF WHICH ARE OFTEN CONFUSED WITH THE

EFFECTS OF CW CHOKING AGENTS.



INJURIES AND DEATHS PRODUCED BY BLAST EFFECTS OF

FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES OFTEN ARE CONFUSED WITH THOSE CAUSED

BY NERVE AGENTS BECAUSE OF THE VIRTUAL ABSENCE OF

VISIBLE PHYSICAL DAMAGE. INJURIES OCCURRING WHEN A FUEL

AND DUST-AIR EXPLOSIVE FAILS TO DETONATE ARE TRUE

CHEMICAL INJURIES AND ARE NOT A RESULT OF CW AGENTS.

DIRECT CONTACT WITH THESE COMPOUNDS CAUSES IRRITATION,

SKIN CORROSION, BURNS, AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ALL OF

WHICH CAN BE CONFUSED WITH CHEMICAL WEAPON INJURIES.

PENETRATION OF THESE COMPOUNDS INTO THE SKIN OR

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM COULD LEAD TO TOXIC EFFECTS-IN THE

BODY. INJURIES FROM FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES CAN ALSO EASILY

BE MISIDENTIFIED AS BEING CAUSED BY CW AGENTS.







APPENDIX D





CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND FIELD EMPLOYMENT





IN GENERAL, THE AMOUNT OF CW AGENT DELIVERED DETERMINES

THE EXTENT OF CONTAMINATION AND THE NUMBER OF CASUALTIES. A

ROUGH RULE OF THUMB IS THAT ONE TON (OR ABOUT FOUR 55-GALLON

DRUMS) OF AGENT IS ENOUGH TO EFFECTIVELY CONTAMINATE ONE SQUARE

MILE OF TERRITORY IF PROPERLY DISSEMINATED. THE NUMBER OF

RESULTANT CASUALTIES DEPENDS ON THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE

CONTAMINATED AREA, LENGTH OF WARNING, DEGREE OF PROTECTION,

AND THE PERSISTENCY AND TOXICITY OF THE AGENT USED. THE PER-

SISTENCY OF A SPECIFIC AGENT (LENGTH OF TIME IT REMAINS

EFFECTIVE) VARIES, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF MUNITION USED AND

THE WEATHER CONDITIONS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE PERSISTENCY OF SARIN

UNDER HOT, WINDY CONDITIONS IS MUCH LESS THAN ONE HOUR. THE

PERSISTENCY OF MUSTARD OR VX MAY BE SEVERAL DAYS TO WEEKS UNDER

COOL, CALM CONDITIONS. IN ALL CASES, GIVEN SUBLETHAL DOSES OF

AN AGENT, INCAPACITATION WILL OCCUR TO VARYING DEGREES.



BLISTER AGENTS



BLISTER AGENTS ARE PRIMARILY USED TO CAUSE MEDICAL

CASUALTIES. THESE AGENTS MAY ALSO BE USED TO RESTRICT USE OF

TERRAIN, TO SLOW MOVEMENTS, AND TO HAMPER USE OF MATERIEL AND

INSTALLATIONS. BLISTER AGENTS AFFECT THE EYES AND LUNGS AND

BLISTER THE SKIN. SULFUR MUSTARD, NITROGEN MUSTARD, AND

LEWISITE ARE EXAMPLES OF BLISTER AGENTS. MOST BLISTER AGENTS

ARE INSIDIOUS IN ACTION; THERE IS LITTLE OR NO PAIN AT THE

TIME OF EXPOSURE EXCEPT WITH LEWISITE, WHICH CAUSES IMMEDIATE

PAIN ON CONTACT.



MUSTARD IS PREFERRED OVER LEWISITE BECAUSE LEWISITE

HYDROLYZES VERY RAPIDLY UPON EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

TO FORM A NONVOLATILE SOLID. THIS CONVERSION LOWERS THE VAPOR

HAZARD FROM CONTAMINATED TERRAIN AND DECREASES THE PENETRATION

OF THE AGENT THROUGH CLOTHING. LEWISITE IS LESS PERSISTENT

THAN IS MUSTARD; HOWEVER, THE PERSISTENCY OF BOTH IS LIMITED

UNDER HUMID CONDITIONS.



BLOOD AGENTS



BLOOD AGENTS ARE ABSORBED INTO THE BODY PRIMARILY BY

BREATHING. THEY PREVENT THE NORMAL UTILIZATION OF OXYGEN BY

THE CELLS AND CAUSE RAPID DAMAGE TO BODY TISSUES. BLOOD AGENTS

SUCH AS HYDROGEN CYANIDE (AC) AND CYANOGEN CHLORIDE (CK) ARE

HIGHLY VOLATILE AND, IN THE GASEOUS STATE, DISSIPATE RAPIDLY

IN AIR--GENERALLY WITHIN MINUTES. BECAUSE OF THEIR HIGH

VOLATILITY, THESE AGENTS ARE MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN SURPRISE CAN

BE ACHIEVED AGAINST TROOPS WHO DO NOT HAVE MASKS OR WHO ARE

POORLY TRAINED IN MASK DISCIPLINE. IN ADDITION, BLOOD AGENTS

ARE IDEALLY SUITED FOR USE ON TERRAIN THAT THE USER HOPES TO

OCCUPY WITHIN A SHORT TIME.



CHOKING AGENTS



CHOKING AGENTS ARE THE OLDEST CW AGENTS. THIS CLASS OF

AGENTS INCLUDES CHLORINE AND PHOSGENE, BOTH OF WHICH WERE USED

IN WORLD WAR I. IN SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATIONS, THEIR CORROSIVE

EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESULTS IN  PULMONARY  EDEMA,

FILLING THE LUNGS WITH FLUID AND CHOKING THE VICTIM. PHOSGENE

IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN CHLORINE BECAUSE IT IS SLOWLY HYDROLYZED

BY THE WATER IN THE LINING OF THE LUNGS, FORMING HYDROCHLORIC

ACID, WHICH READILY DESTROYS THE TISSUE.

THESE AGENTS ARE HEAVY GASES THAT REMAIN NEAR GROUND LEVEL

AND TEND TO FILL DEPRESSIONS SUCH AS FOXHOLES AND TRENCHES.

BECAUSE THEY ARE GASES, THEY ARE NONPERSISTENT AND DISSIPATE

RAPIDLY, EVEN IN A SLIGHT BREEZE. AS A RESULT, THESE ARE AMONG

THE LEAST EFFECTIVE TRADITIONAL CW AGENTS. THEY ARE USEFUL FOR

CREATING A SHORT-TERM RESPIRATORY HAZARD ON TERRAIN THAT IS TO

BE QUICKLY OCCUPIED.



NERVE AGENTS



 NERVE AGENTS, INCLUDING TABUN (GA), SARIN (GB), SOMAN (GD),

AND VX, ARE MEMBERS OF A CLASS OF COMPOUNDS THAT ARE MORE TOXIC

AND QUICKER ACTING THAN MUSTARD. THEY ARE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS

COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT ACTION OF THE ENZYME CHOLINESTERASE. IN

SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATION, THE ULTIMATE EFFECT OF THESE AGENTS

IS PARALYSIS OF THE RESPIRATORY MUSCULATURE AND SUBSEQUENT

DEATH.



NERVE AGENTS ACT RAPIDLY (WITHIN SECONDS OF EXPOSURE) AND

MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN OR THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY

TRACT. EXPOSURE TO A LETHAL DOSE MAY CAUSE DEATH IN LESS THAN

15 MINUTES. THEY ARE STORED IN MUNITIONS AS LIQUIDS AND ARE

GENERALLY DISSEMINATED AS AEROSOLS.



TRADITIONAL NERVE AGENTS FALL INTO TWO MAIN CLASSES:

G-SERIES AND V-SERIES. THE G-SERIES CONSISTS OF GA, GB, GD,

GE, GF, GH, AND A NUMBER OF SIMILAR EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS. THESE

AGENTS, PARTICULARLY GA AND GB, TEND TO BE LESS PERSISTENT THAN

THEIR V-SERIES COUNTERPARTS AND CONSEQUENTLY PRESENT LESS OF A

SKIN HAZARD. THESE LESS PERSISTENT AGENTS ARE USED TO CAUSE

IMMEDIATE CASUALTIES AND TO CREATE A SHORT-TERM RESPIRATORY

HAZARD ON THE BATTLEFIELD. THE MORE PERSISTENT AND GENERALLY

MORE TOXIC V-AGENTS, INCLUDING VE, VG, VM, VS, VX, AND RELATED

EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS, PRESENT A GREATER SKIN HAZARD AND ARE USED

TO CREATE LONG-TERM CONTAMINATION OF TERRITORY.



PSYCHOCHEMICALS



PSYCHOCHEMICALS, ALSO CONSIDERED AS INCAPACITANTS, INCLUDE

HALLUCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS SUCH AS LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE

(LSD), 3-QUINUCLIDINYL BENZILATE (BZ), AND BENACTYZINE. THESE

AGENTS ALTER THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, THEREBY CAUSING VISUAL AND

AURAL HALLUCINATIONS, A SENSE OF UNREALITY, AND CHANGES IN THE

THOUGHT PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR. PSYCHOCHEMICALS ARE GENERALLY

CHARACTERIZED BY A SLIGHTLY DELAYED ONSET OF SYMPTOMS AND BY

PERSISTENCE OF SYMPTOMS FOR A PERIOD GREATLY EXCEEDING EXPOSURE

TIME.



THE ADVANTAGE OF PSYCHOCHEMICAL IS THEIR ABILITY TO IN-

ACTIVATE BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY PERSONNEL FOR A RELATIVELY

SHORT PERIOD WITH ESSENTIALLY NO FATALITIES. THUS, THEIR USE

MAY PROVE ADVANTAGEOUS IN AREAS WITH FRIENDLY POPULATIONS. ONE

DRAWBACK, HOWEVER, IS THAT THE EFFECTS OF MANY OF THESE AGENTS

ARE UNPREDICTABLE, RANGING FROM OVERWHELMING FEAR AND PANIC TO

EXTREME BELLIGERENCE IN WHICH EXPOSED PERSONNEL ATTACK WITH,

LITTLE REGARD FOR PERSONAL SAFETY.



TEAR GAS AGENTS



TEAR GAS AGENTS FALL UNDER THE BROADER CATEGORY OF RIOT

CONTROL AGENTS. THEY ARE NOT CONSIDERED BY THE US GOVERNMENT

TO BE CW AGENTS BECAUSE THEY ARE NONLETHAL IN ALL BUT THE

HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS. EXAMPLES OF THIS TYPE OF AGENT INCLUDE

ORTHOCHLOROBENZYLIDENE MALONONITRILE (CS), CHLOROACETOPHENONE

(CN) , CHLOROPICRIN (PS) , AND BROMOBENZYL CYANIDE (BBC). THESE

AGENTS ARE HIGHLY IRRITATING, PARTICULARLY TO THE EYES AND

RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND CAUSE EXTREME DISCOMFORT. SYMPTOMS

OCCUR ALMOST IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE AND GENERALLY DISAPPEAR

SHORTLY AFTER EXPOSURE CEASES.



IN MILITARY SITUATIONS, TEAR GAS AGENTS ARE USED TO

TEMPORARILY REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENEMY PERSONNEL. IN

TACTICAL OPERATIONS, THEY CAN BE USED TO PENETRATE FORTIFIED

POSITIONS AND FLUSH OUT THE ENEMY. ALSO, THESE AGENTS ARE

USEFUL FOR DISRUPTING HUMAN WAVE ASSAULTS BY BREAKING UP

FORMATION AND DESTROYING THE MOMENTUM OF THE ATTACK. BECAUSE

TEAR GAS AGENTS ARE NONLETHAL, THEY CAN BE USED NEAR FRIENDLY

TROOPS WITHOUT RISKING CASUALTIES; THUS, THEIR USE IS MORE

FLEXIBLE THAN WITH CONVENTIONAL CW AGENTS.



VOMITING AGENTS



VOMITING AGENTS ARE OFTEN CONSIDERED TO BE RIOT CONTROL

AGENTS BECAUSE, UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, THEY CAUSE GREAT

DISCOMFORT BUT RARELY SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. CHARACTERISTIC

AGENTS INCLUDE ADAMSITE (DM) AND DIPHENYL CHLOROARSINE (DA)

IN ADDITION TO CAUSING VOMITING, THESE ARSENIC-BASED AGENT MAY

ALSO IRRITATE THE EYES AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.



THE ACTION OF VOMITING AGENTS MAY MAKE IT IMPOSSIBLE TO PUT

ON, OR CONTINUE WEARING, A PROTECTIVE MASK.







THEY MAY ALSO BE

USED BY THEMSELVES IN PROXIMITY TO FRIENDLY TROOPS AND IN OTHER

SITUATIONS WELL-SUITED FOR TEAR GAS AGENTS.







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