Document Page: First | Prev | Next | All | Image | This Release | Search

File: 062596_cia_73926_73926_01.txt
Page: 01
Total Pages: 1

Subject: CBW PROGRAMS

Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence







TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN

REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN

TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF

THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON

REQUEST.







DIRECTOR OF

CENTRAL

INTELLIGENCE







AN ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL CONFIRMED

AND SUSPECT CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL

WARFARE PROGRAMS







COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE REPORT







DIRECTOR OF

CENTRAL

INTELLIGENCE







AN ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL CONFIRMED

AND SUSPECT CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL

WARFARE PROGRAMS







COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE REPORT







IRAQ



PRIOR TO OPERATION DESERT STORM, IRAQ HAD THE MOST

EXTENSIVE OFFENSIVE CW PROGRAM AND THE LARGEST OVERALL AGENT

PRODUCTION CAPABILITY IN THE ARAB WORLD. ALLIED BOMBING DURING

DESERT STORM DESTROYED MUCH OF IRAQ'S CW AGENT AND PRECURSOR

PRODUCTION CAPABILITY.







BEGINNING IN 1983, IRAQ USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS EXTENSIVELY

--AND SUCCESSFULLY--IN ITS WAR WITH IRAN. EARLY USE OCCURRED

DURING DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS AND WAS CHARACTERIZED BY POOR

RESULTS. SUBSEQUENTLY, THE IRAQIS INTEGRATED CHEMICAL WEAPONS

INTO THEIR MILITARY TACTICS AND TURNED TO OFFENSIVE USE IN THE

FINAL YEAR OF THE WAR. DURING AND AFTER THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, THE

IRAQIS RECEIVED CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY AND SUPPLIES.

SINCE THE MID-1980'S, IRAQ PURCHASED LARGE AMOUNTS OF

PRECUSORS







IRAQ



IRAQ MAINTAINED A MATURE AND AGGRESSIVE BW PROGRAM

PRIOR TO OPERATION DESERT STORM. ALL OF THE FACILITIES

SUSPECTED OF ASSOCIATION WITH IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM

WERE DESTROYED OR DAMAGED BY COALITION AIRSTRIKES.







US DEFINITIONS







CHEMICAL WARFARE (CW) IS THE USE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS TO

ACHIEVE A RESULT IN WARFARE. THE TOXIC EFFECT OF THE CHEMICAL

CAN BE TO INCAPACITATE, INJURE, OR KILL, AND IS USUALLY

INTENDED FOR USE AGAINST PERSONNEL. THE US DOES NOT CONSIDER

RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, HERBICIDES, SMOKES AND OBSCURANTS, FLAME,

AND INCENDIARIES TO BE CHEMICAL AGENTS. THIS DEFINITION IS

NOT SHARED BY EVERY OTHER COUNTRY.



BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) IS THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO

CAUSE DISEASE IN MEN, ANIMALS, OR PLANTS. BW MAY ALSO CAUSE

DETERIORATION OF MILITARY OR STRATEGIC MATERIEL. IN THIS

PAPER, TOXINS WILL BE TREATED TOGETHER WITH BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.







CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND FIELD EMPLOYMENT





A ROUGH RULE-OF-THUMB IS THAT ONE SHORT TON (OR ABOUT

FOUR 55-GALLON DRUMS) OF CW AGENT IS ENOUGH TO EFFECTIVELY

CONTAMINATE 2.6 SQUARE KILOMETERS OF TERRITORY IF PROPERLY

DISSEMINATED. THE NUMBER OF RESULTANT CASUALTIES DEPENDS ON

THE LENGTH OF WARNING AND DEGREE OF PROTECTION, AS WELL AS

THE PERSISTENCY AND LETHALITY OF THE AGENT USED. THE

PERSISTENCY OF A SPECIFIC AGENT VARIES DEPENDING ON THE TYPE

OF MUNITION USED AND THE WEATHER CONDITIONS. ANY OF THE

FOLLOWING AGENTS GIVEN IN NONLETHAL DOSES WILL PRODUCE VARY-

ING DEGREES OF INCAPACITATION.



BLISTER AGENTS



BLISTER AGENTS ARE USED PRIMARILY TO CAUSE MEDICAL

CASUALTIES. THESE AGENTS MAY ALSO BE USED TO RESTRICT USE

OF TERRAIN, TO SLOW MOVEMENTS, AND TO HAMPER USE OF MATERIALS

AND INSTALLATIONS. BLISTER AGENTS AFFECT THE EYES AND LUNGS

AND BLISTER THE SKIN. SULFUR MUSTARD, NITROGEN MUSTARD, AND

LEWISITE ARE EXAMPLES OF BLISTER AGENTS. MOST BLISTER AGENTS

ARE INSIDIOUS IN ACTION; THERE IS LITTLE OR NO PAIN AT THE

TIME OF EXPOSURE EXCEPT WITH LEWISITE, WHICH CAUSES IMMEDIATE

PAIN ON CONTACT.



MUSTARD IS PREFERRED OVER LEWISITE BECAUSE LEWISITE

HYDROLYZES VERY RAPIDLY UPON EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

TO FORM A NONVOLATILE SOLID. THIS CONVERSION LOWERS THE VAPOR

HAZARD FROM CONTAMINATED TERRAIN AND DECREASES THE PENETRATION

OF THE AGENT THROUGH CLOTHING. LEWISITE IS LESS PERSISTENT

THAN MUSTARD; THE PERSISTENCY OF BOTH IS LIMITED UNDER HUMID

CONDITIONS.



BLOOD AGENTS



BLOOD AGENTS ARE ABSORSBED INTO THE BODY PRIMARILY BY

BREATHING. THEY PREVENT THE NORMAL UTILIZATION OF OXYGEN BY

THE CELLS AND CAUSE RAPID DAMAGE TO BODY TISSUES. BLOOD AGENTS

SUCH AS HYDROGEN CYANIDE (AC) AND CYANOGEN CHLORIDE (CK) ARE

HIGHLY VOLATILE AND, IN THE GASEOUS STATE, DISSIPATE RAPIDLY

IN AIR. BECAUSE OF THEIR HIGH VOLATILITY, THESE AGENTS ARE

MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN SURPRISE CAN BE ACHIEVED AGAINST TROOPS

WHO DO NOT HAVE MASKS OR WHO ARE POORLY TRAINED IN MASK

DISCIPLINE. IN ADDITION, BLOOD AGENTS ARE IDEALLY SUITED

FOR USE ON TERRAIN THAT THE USER HOPES TO OCCUPY WITHIN A

SHORT TIME.







CHOKING AGENTS



CHOKING AGENTS ARE THE OLDEST CW AGENTS. THIS CLASS OF

AGENTS INCLUDES CHLORINE AND PHOSGENE, BOTH OF WHICH WERE

USED IN WORLD WAR I. IN SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATIONS, THEIR

CORROSIVE EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESULTS IN PULMONARY

EDEMA, FILLING THE LUNGS WITH FLUID AND CHOKING THE VICTIM.

PHOSGENE IS A MORE DAMAGING AND EFFECTIVE INCAPACITANT THAN

CHLORINE BECAUSE IT IS SLOWLY HYDROLYZED BY THE WATER IN THE

LINING OF THE LUNGS, FORMING HYDROCHLORIC ACID, WHICH DESTROYS

THE TISSUE.



THESE AGENTS ARE HEAVY GASES THAT REMAIN, NEAR GROUND LEVEL

AND TEND TO FILL DEPRESSIONS SUCH AS FOXHOLES AND TRENCHES.

BECAUSE THEY ARE GASES, THEY ARE NONPERSISTENT AND DISSIPATE

RAPIDLY, EVEN IN A SLIGHT BREEZE. AS A RESULT, THESE ARE AMONG

THE LEAST EFFECTIVE TRADITIONAL CW AGENTS. THEY ARE USEFUL FOR

CREATING A. SHORT-TERM RESPIRATORY HAZARD ON TERRAIN THAT IS TO

BE QUICKLY OCCUPIED.



NERVE AGENTS



NERVE AGENTS SUCH AS TABUN (GA), SARIN (GB), AND VX ARE

MEMBERS OF A CLASS OF COMPOUNDS THAT ARE MORE LETHAL AND

QUICKER ACTING THAN MUSTARD. THEY ARE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COM-

POUNDS THAT INHIBIT ACTION OF THE ENZYME CHOLINESTERASE. IN

SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATION, THE ULTIMATE EFFECT OF THESE AGENTS

IS PARALYSIS OF THE RESPIRATORY MUSCULATURE AND SUBSEQUENT

DEATH.



NERVE AGENTS ACT RAPIDLY (WITHIN SECONDS OF EXPOSURE) AND

MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN OR THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY

TRACT. EXPOSURE TO A LETHAL DOSE MAY CAUSE DEATH IN LESS THAN

15 MINUTES. THESE AGENTS ARE STORED IN MUNITIONS AS LIQUIDS

AND ARE GENERALLY DISSEMINATED AS AEROSOLS.



TRADITIONAL NERVE AGENTS FALL INTO TWO MAIN CLASSES:

G-SERIES AND V-SERIES. THE G-SERIES CONSISTS OF GA, GB, GD,

GE, GF, AND A NUMBER OF SIMILAR EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS. THESE

AGENTS, PARTICULARLY GA AND GB, TEND TO BE LESS PERSISTENT

THAN THEIR V-SERIES COUNTERPARTS AND CONSEQUENTLY PRESENT LESS

OF A SKIN HAZARD. THESE LESS PERSISTENT AGENTS ARE USED TO

CAUSE IMMEDIATE CASUALTIES AND TO CREATE A SHORT-TERM

RESPIRATORY HAZARD ON THE BATTLEFIELD. THE MORE PERSISTENT

AND GENERALLY MORE TOXIC V-AGENTS--INCLUDING VE, VG, VM, VS,

VX, AND RELATED EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS--PRESENT A GREATER SKIN

HAZARD AND ARE USED TO CREATE LONG-TERM CONTAMINATION OF

TERRITORY.



PSYCHOCHEMICALS



PSYCHOCHEMICALS, ALSO CONSIDERED INCAPACITANTS, INCLUDE

HALLUCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS SUCH AS LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE

(LSD), 3-QUINUCLIDINYL BENZILATE (BZ), AND BENACTYZINE. THESE

AGENTS ALTER THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, THEREBY CAUSING VISUAL AND

AURAL HALLUCINATIONS, A SENSE OF UNREALITY, AND CHANGES IN THE

THOUGHT PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR. PSYCHOCHEMICALS ARE GENERALLY

CHARACTERIZED BY A SLIGHTLY DELAYED ONSET OF SYMPTOMS AND BY

PERSISTENCE OF SYMPTOMS FOR A PERIOD GREATLY EXCEEDING EXPOSURE

TIME.



THE ADVANTAGE OF PSYCHOCHEMICALS IS THEIR ABILITY TO

INCAPACITATE BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY PERSONNEL FOR A

RELATIVELY SHORT PERIOD WITH ESSENTIALLY NO FATALITIES. THUS,

THEIR USE MAY PROVE ADVANTAGEOUS IN AREAS WITH FRIENDLY POPU-

LATIONS. ONE DRAWBACK, HOWEVER, IS THAT THE EFFECTS OF MANY OF

THESE AGENTS ARE UNPREDICTABLE, RANGING FROM OVERWHELMING FEAR

AND PANIC TO BELLIGERENCE IN WHICH EXPOSED PERSONNEL ATTACK

WITH LITTLE REGARD FOR PERSONAL SAFETY.



TEAR-GAS AGENTS



TEAR-GAS AGENTS FALL UNDER THE BROADER CATEGORY OF RIOT-

CONTROL AGENTS. THEY ARE NOT CONSIDERED BY THE US GOVERNMENT

TO BE CW AGENTS BECAUSE THEY ARE NONLETHAL IN ALL BUT THE

HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS. EXAMPLES OF THIS TYPE OF AGENT INCLUDE

ORTHOCHLOROBENZYLIDENE MALONONITRILE (CS), CHLOROACETOPHENONE

(CN), CHLOROPICRIN (PS), AND BROMOBENZYL CYANIDE (BBC). THESE

AGENTS ARE HIGHLY IRRITATING, PARTICULARLY TO THE EYES AND

RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND CAUSE EXTREME DISCOMFORT. SYMPTOMS

OCCUR IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE AND GENERALLY DISAPPEAR SHORTLY

THEREAFTER.



 IN MILITARY SITUATIONS, TEAR-GAS AGENTS ARE USED TO

TEMPORARILY REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENEMY PERSONNEL. IN

TACTICAL OPERATIONS, THEY CAN BE USED TO PENETRATE FORTIFIED

POSITIONS AND FLUSH OUT THE ENEMY. ALSO, THESE AGENTS ARE

USEFUL FOR DISRUPTING "HUMAN WAVE" ASSAULTS BY BREAKING .UP

FORMATIONS AND DESTROYING THE MOMENTUM OF THE ATTACK. BECAUSE

TEAR-GAS AGENTS ARE NONLETHAL, THEY CAN BE USED NEAR FRIENDLY

TROOPS WITHOUT RISKING CASUALTIES; THUS, THEIR USE IS MORE

FLEXIBLE THAN CONVENTIONAL CW AGENTS.



VOMITING AGENTS



VOMITING AGENTS ARE OFTEN CONSIDERED TO BE RIOT-CONTROL

AGENTS BECAUSE, UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, THEY CAUSE GREAT

DISCOMFORT BUT RARELY SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. CHARACTERISTIC

AGENTS INCLUDE ADAMSITE (DX) AND DIPHENYL CHLOROARAINE (DA).

IN ADDITION TO CAUSING VOMITING, THESE ARSENIC-BASED AGENTS

MAY ALSO IRRITATE THE EYES AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.



THE ACTION OF VOMITING AGENTS MAY MAKE IT IMPOSSIBLE TO

PUT ON, OR CONTINUE TO WEAR, A PROTECTIVE MASK.







THEY MAY

ALSO BE USED BY THEMSELVES IN PROXIMITY TO FRIENDLY TROOPS AND

IN OTHER SITUATIONS WELL SUITED FOR TEAR GAS AGENTS.







CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA





BOTULINUM TOXIN



BOTULINUM TOXIN IS PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM.

THIS BACTERIUM GROWS ANAEROBICALLY, THAT IS, WITHOUT THE

PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. THE TOXIN PRODUCES ITS EFFECTS WHEN IT

IS EITHER INGESTED OR INHALED. BOTULINUM TOXIN POISONING IS

ALMOST ALWAYS FATAL.







BOTULINUM TOXIN AFFECTS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, WITH DEATH

RESULTING FROM PARALYSIS OF THE NERVES THAT CONTROL BREATHING.

WHEN EXPOSURE TAKES PLACE THROUGH INGESTION, GASTROINTESTINAL

SYMPTOMS ARE OBSERVED BEFORE THE ONSET OF NEUROLOGICAL

SYMPTOMS. ONCE THESE SYMPTOMS BEGIN, THEY INCLUDE WEAKNESS,

DIZZINESS, BLURRED OR DOUBLE VISION, FIXED AND DILATED PUPILS,

IMPAIRED REACTION TO LIGHT, DROOPING EYELIDS, FACIAL MUSCLE

WEAKNESS, AND SPEECH DIFFICULTIES. WHEN EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM

TAKES PLACE THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE, GASTROINTESTINAL

SYMPTOMS ARE ABSENT.







THERE ARE ANTISERA TO BOTULINUM TOXINS, BUT THEY ARE ONLY

EFFECTIVE IF ADMINISTERED BEFORE ONSET OF SYMPTONS.

IT IS HIGHLY UNLIKELY

THAT EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM WOULD BE DIAGNOSED UNTIL CLINICAL

SYMPTOMS APPEARED, AND TREATMENT AT THAT TIME WOULD BE TOO

LATE. CONVERSELY, IMMUNIZATION TO BOULINUM IS POSSIBLE, BUT

REQUIRES MULTIPLE INJECTIONS OF INACTIVATED TOXINS OVER A

PERIOD OF SEVERAL MONTHS. THUS, A COUNTRY THAT HAD DEVELOPED

BOTULINUM TOXIN AS A BW AGENT COULD PROTECT ITS TROOPS FROM

EXPOSURE.







ANTHRAX



ANTHRAX IS PRODUCED BY THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS.

UNLIKE BOTULINUM TOXIN, ANTHRAX SYMPTOMS RESULT WHEN THE

BACTERIA MULTIPLY IN THE BODY, PRODUCING TOXINS. EACH BAC-

TERIUM PRODUCES AND RELEASES ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF ANTHRAX

TOXIN AS IT GROWS; HOWEVER, AS THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY, MORE

TOXIN IS PRODUCED. ANTHRAX IS CONSIDERED A LIVING BW AGENT

BECAUSE IT MUST REPRODUCE IN THE BODY TO CAUSE AN EFFECT.



THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF ANTHRAX, CHARACTERIZED BY THE MODE

OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY; THROUGH CUTS IN THE SKIN (CUTANEOUS),

THROUGH INGESTION (GASTROINTESTINAL), OR THROUGH INHALATION

(PULMONARY). ANTHRAX IS A NATURALLY-OCCURRING DISEASE IN LIVE-

STOCK. HUMANS MOST FREQUENTLY CONTRACT THE CUTANEOUS FORM OF

THE DISEASE WHEN THEY COME IN CONTACT WITH INFECTED ANIMALS.

THE GASTROINTESTINAL FORM OF THE DISEASE RESULTS FROM INGESTING

CONTAMINATED MEAT. OF THESE THREE FORMS, PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS

FATAL MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF THE TIME AND OCCURS ONLY VERY

RARELY. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX IS FATAL ABOUT 75 PERCENT OF

THE TIME, AND CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX IS FATAL LESS THAN TEN PERCENT

OF THE TIME, AND THEN ONLY IF UNTREATED. ALL FORMS OF THE

DISEASE RESPOND WELL TO ANTIBIOTICS IF THE DRUG IS GIVEN

SHORTLY AFTER THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THE DISEASE IS FAIRLY

UNCOMMON, HOWEVER, AND THE DIAGNOSIS OF EITHER GASTROINTESTINAL

OR PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS OFTEN MADE ONLY AFTER DEATH.



ANTHRAX WOULD MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL SUSPENSION

OF SPORES FOR BW PURPOSES. AFTER ANTHRAX SPORES ARE INHALED,

THERE IS AN INCUBATION PERIOD FROM ONE TO SEVERAL DAYS BEFORE

NON-SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS--SUCH AS FATIGUE AND MILD FEVER--APPEAR.

AT THIS POINT, THE ILLNESS IS FREQUENTLY DIAGNOSED AS A RESPI-

RATORY INFECTION. THESE INITIAL SYMPTOMS USUALLY IMPROVE TWO

TO FOUR DAYS LATER, FOLLOWED BY A SUDDEN ONSET OF RESPIRATORY

DISTRESS. PULSE, TEMPERATURE, AND RESPIRATORY RATE BECOME

ELEVATED, AND THE VICTIM BECOMES CYANOTIC--BLUE-BLACK COLORED.

DEATH USUALLY OCCURS WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER ONSET OF THE SECOND

PHASE OF SYMPTOMS.



ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY HARDY IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND IN

STORAGE. IT IS THIS SPECIALIZED FORM OF THE BACTERIUM THAT

INFECTS HUMANS. GROWING BACTERIA, WHEN EXPOSED TO ADVERSE

CONDITIONS--EXTREME HEAT OR COLD, LACK OF NUTRIENTS--PRODUCE

SPORES. THE SPORES, WHICH CAN BE THOUGHT OF AS SEEDS, REMAIN

IN AN INERT STATE UNTIL THEY ENTER THE BODY AND ENCOUNTER

CONDITIONS SUITABLE FOR THEM TO BEGIN MULTIPLYING.







1.5 (C)

73926:73926

Document Page: First | Prev | Next | All | Image | This Release | Search