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File: 970613_72723509_d_txt_0001.txt
Page: 0001
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(b.2.)



SUBJECT:   BIOLOGICAL/CHEMICAL

1. PRIOR TO THE WAR, IRAQ HAD THE MOST EXTENSIVE AND SOPHISTICATED
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (CBW) PROGRAMS IN THE MIDDLE EAST.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN WAS TO PREVENT PRODUCTION OF
ADDITIONAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AND TO DESTROY AS MANY
STORED WEAPONS AS POSSIBLE.
2. THE BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE CBW TARGET SET PROGRESSED IN
THREE OVERLAPPING STAGES. THE FIRST STAGE TARGETED BOTH BW AND CW
R&D, PRODUCTION AND CW FILLING CAPABILITY. THE SECOND STAGE
TARGETED BW AND CW STORAGE. DURING THE SECOND STAGE, MUCH OF THE
CBW R&D AND PRODUCTION CAPABILITY THAT STILL SURVIVED WAS STRUCK
AND DESTROYED. THE THIRD STAGE TARGETED DELIVERY SYSTEMS IN THE
FIELD, AND RE-STRIKE OF TARGETS NOT DESTROYED IN THE FIRST TWO
STAGES. THESE STAGES WERE NOT CLEARLY DELINEATED OR DISTINCT. FOR
EXAMPLE, THE BW ASSOCIATED BUNKERS AT SALMAN PAK WERE DESTROYED
BEFORE THE R&D AND PRODUCTION BUILDINGS AT THIS FACILITY, AND AT
LEAST ONE SIGNIFICANT CW PRODUCTION BUNKER AT SAMARRA SURVIVED THE
ENTIRE BOMBING CAMPAIGN.
A. (U) BIOLOGICAL:
1. THE BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) PROGRAM WAS LOCATED AT FIVE
FACILITIES LOCATED AT SALMAN PAK, TAJI, ABU GHURAYB (TWO PLANTS),
AND LATIFIYAH. COLLECTIVELY, THE FACILITIES WERE CAPABLE OF BW
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND THE PRODUCTION OF ANTHRAX SPORES AND
BOTULINUM TOXIN. THE AGENTS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN WEAPONIZED
BUT THE PRECISE TYPE AND NUMBER OF MUNITIONS ARE UNKNOWN. PRIOR TO
THE WAR, IRAQ WAS ASSESSED TO HAVE AT LEAST ONE METRIC TON OF
DRIED ANTHRAX SPORES AND 20-30 KILOGRAMS OF BOTULINUM


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