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File: 970613_ww33_90b_txt_0001.txt
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SUBJECT: AFMIC SPECIAL WEEKLY WIRE 33-90(B)

1. GENERAL
THIS MESSAGE IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF CURRENT VENOMOUS
ANIMAL THREATS FOR ALL PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN THE DESERT SHIELD AREA OF
OPERATIONS. BROAD DISSEMINATION TO SUBORDINATE UNITS IS ENCOURAGED;
THIS INFORMATION SHOULD BE DISSEMINATED TO ALL MEDICAL PERSONNEL.

2. VENOMOUS ANIMAL THREAT ASSESSMENT - NORTHWESTERN PERSIAN GULF. THE
OVERALL THREAT OF VENOMOUS ANIMALS IN SOUTHERN IRAQ, KUWAIT, EASTERN
SAUDI ARABIA, BAHRAIN, AND THE NORTHERN PERSIAN GULF WATERS IS LOW.
FREQUENCY OF ENCOUNTER DURING DAYLIGHT OPERATIONS IS LOW BUT
INCREASES WITH THE ONSET OF DARKNESS. NORMAL CLOTHING
GENERALLY IS ADEQUATE TO PREVENT MOST BITES. THE FOLLOWING THREAT
ASSESSMENTS ARE PRIORITIZED IN DESCENDING ORDER, USING TOXICITY OF
VENOM AND FREQUENCY OF ENCOUNTER. SOURCES OF ANTIVENIN ARE PROVIDED
AFTER THE THREAT ASSESSMENTS.
    A.  LAND SNAKES
    (1) ECHIS SPP. (CARPET VIPER, SAW-SCALED VIPER).
DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: FOUND IN IRAQ AND KUWAIT IN DESERT, DRY,
BARREN, ROCKY, AND SANDY AREAS, AND SCRUB UP TO 1,800 METERS
ELEVATION. BEHAVIOR: NOCTURNAL IN DRY, HOT WEATHER. MAY BE ACTIVE BY
DAY IN COOL WEATHER. MAY CLIMB INTO BUSHES IN RAINY WEATHER. ALERT
AND EASILY EXCITED, ESPECIALLY IF CORNERED. COILS INTO FIGURE-S WHEN
THREATENED AND RUBS SCALES TOGETHER MAKING A WARNING RASP. STRIKES
QUICKLY AND REPEATEDLY; HAS CONSIDERABLE REACH. IDENTIFICATION: SHORT
AND MODERATELY STOUT (0.4 TO 0.6 METERS AVERAGE LENGTH, 0.9 METERS
MAXIMUM). TOPSIDE IS BUFF, TAN, OLIVE BROWN, CHESTNUT, OR REDDISH
COLOR, WITH WHITE SPOTS AND UNDULATING WHITE LINE ALONG EACH SIDE;

UNDERSIDE IS WHITE TO PINKISH BROWN STIPPLED WITH GRAY; HEAD IS SHORT
AND WIDE WITH BLUNT SNOUT, AND POSSIBLY ARROWHEAD MARK ON TOP.
COMMENT: THIS SNAKE IS A MAJOR CAUSE OF SNAKEBITE AND DEATH. VENOM IS
HIGHLY TOXIC WITH STRONG COAGULANT, WEAKER ANTICOAGULANT ELEMENTS
(FEW DEATHS OCCUR FROM BLOOD CLOTTING). SYMPTOMS OF ENVENOMATION:
PAIN AND SWELLING AT BITE SITE, FEVER, AND SEVERE INTERNAL AND
EXTERNAL BLEEDING (FROM GUMS, NOSE, AND KIDNEYS); DECREASED BLOOD
PRESSURE, RAPID PULSE, SWEATING, SHOCK; DEATH FROM HEMORRHAGE CAN
OCCUR SEVERAL HOURS OR 12 TO 16 DAYS AFTER ENVENOMATION.  AVAILABLE
ANTIVENIN: BEHR: "NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST," "NORTH AND WEST AFRICA."
HAFF: "ECHIS," "POLYVALENT" ANTI-SNAKE VENOM SERUM. IRAN: "ECHIS
ANTIVENIN," "POLYSPECIFIC." KASA: "POLYVALENT." PAST: MONOVALENT
SERUM ANTIVENINEUX, "BITIS-ECHIS-NAJA," "NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST."
SAIMR: "ECHIS." TASH: "MONOVALENT ECHIS CARINATUS," "POLYVALENT NAJA
AND ECHIS."
    (2) BITIS ARIETANS (AKA BITIS LACHESIS, AFRICAN PUFF ADDER,
COMMON PUFF ADDER, PUFF ADDER). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: SOUTHWEST SAUDI
ARABIA (GRASSLAND AND SCRUB FROM 200 TO 3,000 METERS ELEVATION.
SELDOM FOUND IN VERY WET OR DRY AREAS. OFTEN FOUND IN OR NEAR HUMAN�BY DAY; PROBABLY LESS AGGRESSIVE IN DAYTIME). SLOW-MOVING. OFTEN
ENCOUNTERED ALONG PATHS OR IN OR NEAR BUILDINGS. CAN STAY SILENT AND
MOTIONLESS FOR LONG PERIODS WAITING FOR SMALL ANIMAL PREY. MAY BE
AGGRESSIVE AND EASILY EXCITED. WILL STAND GROUND IF APPROACHED. MAY
STRIKE QUICKLY AND WITHOUT WARNING IF STEPPED ON. MAY INFLATE BODY
AND HISS AS WARNING. IDENTIFICATION: LARGE, STOUT, AND HEAVY (0.9 TO
1.3 METERS AVERAGE LENGTH, 1.5 METERS MAXIMUM). TOPSIDE IS BROWN OR
YELLOW, WITH YELLOW V-SHAPED MARKS ALONG BACKBONE; UNDERSIDE IS
YELLOW OR WHITE WITH BLOCK BLOTCHES. HEAD IS BROAD, TRIANGULAR, DARK
BROWN WITH 4 YELLOW STREAKS (2 FROM EACH EYE TO LIP), AND VERY LONG
FANGS; SHORT TAIL. COMMENT: VERY DANGEROUS AND DEADLY SNAKE; CAN
INJECT LARGE AMOUNTS OF VENOM. VENOM VERY STRONGLY HEMOTOXIC AND
NECROTIC; IMPEDES BLOOD CLOTTING AND CAUSES VERY SEVERE PAIN, SKIN
DISCOLORATION, SEVERE SWELLING AND PUFFINESS, SEVERE NAUSEA,
VOMITING, ABDOMINAL PAIN, SWOLLEN LYMPH GLANDS (ARMPITS AND GROIN),
COLD, CLAMMY SKIN, LOWERED BLOOD PRESSURE, SHOCK, BLEEDING,
WIDESPREAD NECROSIS OF TISSUE, TINY RED SPOTS ON SKIN, BLOOD OOZING
INTO TISSUES. THIRST, PUFFY FACE, DILATED PUPILS, WEAK OR IRREGULAR

HEARTBEAT, CHILLS, FEVER, CONVULSIONS, SEMI-CONSCIOUSNESS, AND
UNCONSCIOUSNESS. AVOID USING CONSTRICTIVE BANDAGES OR TOURNIQUETS;
USE PRESSURE BANDAGES INSTEAD. AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN: BEHR: "CENTRAL
AFRICA" ("NORTH AND WEST AFRICA"). PAST: "ANTIREPT PASTEUR." SAIMR:
"POLYVALENT." FITZ: "POLYVALENT-SOUTH AFRICA."
    (3) PSEUDOCERASTES PERSICUS (HORNED DESERT VIPER, FALSE HORNED
VIPER, PERSIAN HORNED VIPER). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: FOUND IN FLAT,
SANDY, DESERT VEGETATION, ROCKY TERRAIN TO ELEVATIONS OF
APPROXIMATELY 1,800 METERS. BEHAVIOR: SLUGGISH AT DAY, AGGRESSIVE AT
NIGHT. FREQUENCY OF ENVENOMATION IS MODERATE. IDENTIFICATION: AVERAGE
ADULT IS 0.5 TO 0.7 METERS; MAXIMUM LENGTH IS 0.87 METERS. COLOR IS
PALE GRAY OR BLUISH GRAY TO KHAKI, WITH GRAY OR BROWNISH GRAY
BLOTCHES OR NARROW CROSSBANDS. SNAKE IS WIDE IN RELATION TO ITS
LENGTH; THE HEAD IS SHORT, WIDE, AND DISTINCT FROM NECK; SNOUT IS
BLUNT WITH SMALL SCALE, COVERED HORNS JUST ABOVE THE EYES; A DARK
BROWN BAND MARKS THE SIDE OF THE HEAD JUST AROUND EYE; THROAT AND
SIDES OF THE BODY HAVE ALTERNATING FAINT SPOTS; UNDERSIDE IS WHITE;
NARROW BLACK TAIL. COMMENT: VENOM IS NEUROTOXIC AND HIGHLY TOXIC.
SYMPTOMS OF ENVENOMATION: WEAKNESS AND IMMOBILITY 2 TO 3 HOURS AFTER

BITE. PROVOKED, JUMPY MOVEMENTS, FORCED RESPIRATION, PARTIAL
PARALYSIS. AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN: IRAN: "POLY-SPECIFIC" ANTIVENIN,
"MONOSPECIFIC PERSICA ANTIVENIN."
    (4) NAJA HAJE (EGYPTIAN COBRA). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: FOUND IN
FLAT LANDS, SCRUB BUSHES, IRRIGATED FIELDS, ROCKY HILLSIDES, AND
SAVANNAS. COMMONLY FOUND IN LARGE RODENT POPULATIONS. BEHAVIOR:
NOCTURNAL, NOT AGGRESSIVE. WHEN BITING HOLDS AND CHEWS SAVAGELY.
IDENTIFICATION: AVERAGE LENGTH IS 1.5 TO 1.8 METERS; MAXIMUM IS 2.5
METERS. TOPSIDE IS YELLOW, DARK BROWN, OR ALMOST BLACK; HEAD AND NECK
ALWAYS DARKER COLOR, SHORT, AND WIDE; UNDERSIDE IS YELLOWISH WITH
OVERLAPPING BROWN; DARK BARS RUN ACROSS NECK AT HOOD; BODY IS
MODERATELY STOUT. TAIL IS MODERATELY LONG. COMMENT: FEW PEOPLE
BITTEN. VENOM IS HIGHLY TOXIC, FAST ACTING, NEUROTOXIC, AND INHIBITS
CLOTTING OF BLOOD. MANY VICTIMS RECOVER WITHOUT TREATMENT. SYMPTOMS�PARALYZED AND VICTIM BECOMES COMATOSE. RESPIRATORY OR CARDIAC ARREST
OCCURS, DEATH. AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN: BEHR: "CENTRAL AFRICA," "NEAR AND

/****** BEGINNING OF SECTION 002 ******/
MIDDLE EAST," "NORTH AND WEST AFRICA." PAST: "BITIS-ECHIS-NAJA,"
"NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST." SAIMR: "POLYVALENT."

    (5) VIPERA LEBETINA (LEVENTINE VIPER, MOUNTAIN ADDER, DESERT
ADDER, BLUNT-NOSED VIPER, KUFI LEVANT VIPER, TRUE ADDER).
DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: FOUND IN DRY, ROCKY AREAS, BUSHES, AND
MOUNTAINS BETWEEN 1,000 AND 2,200 METERS ELEVATION. BEHAVIOR:
NORMALLY PLACID DURING DAY, WILL STRIKE WHEN ENCOUNTERED.
IDENTIFICATION: LARGE, UP TO 1.6 METERS. HAS VERY LARGE FANGS. DORSAL
PATTERN CONSISTS OF DARK BROWN CIRCLES WITH LIGHT CENTERS, WHICH MAY
MERGE INTO WAVY BAND. COLOR IS GRAY, GRAY-BROWN, OR YELLOWISH WITH
GRAY UNDERSIDE; TAIL IS PINKISH BROWN AND TAPERS ABRUPTLY. SYMPTOMS
OF ENVENOMATION: BLEEDING FROM PUNCTURES AND IMMEDIATE BURNING PAIN.
SWELLING IMMEDIATELY OCCURS AROUND BITE SITE AND SPREADS. SKIN
DISCOLORATION AND BLOOD BLISTER WITHIN A FEW HOURS. OTHER SYMPTOMS
INCLUDE WEAKNESS, FAINTNESS, SWEATING, THIRST, NAUSEA, AND VOMITING.
DIARRHEA OCCURS INFREQUENTLY. PAIN OF LYMPHATICS AND SWELLING OF THE
REGIONAL LYMPH NODES. AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN: PAST: "ANTIREPT PASTUER."
TASH: MONOVALENT "VIPERA LEBETINA."  BEHR: "EUROPE," "NEAR AND MIDDLE
EAST," "NORTH AND WEST AFRICA." PAST-ALG: "ANTIVIPERIN." IRAN:
MONOSPECIFIC "VIPERA LEBETINA."
    B.  SEA SNAKES

    (1) HYDROPHIS SPP. (SEA SNAKE). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: PERSIAN
GULF (COASTAL WATERS, MOUTHS OF RIVERS, RARELY UPSTREAM).  BEHAVIOR:
NOCTURNAL, PROBABLY NOT AGGRESSIVE UNLESS CORNERED OR RESTRAINED.
IDENTIFICATION: SMALL, LONG, VERY SLENDER TOWARD HEAD (0.6 TO 1.9
METERS AVERAGE LENGTH, 2.7 METERS MAXIMUM). COLOR VARIES WITH
SPECIES, USUALLY DARK AND MAY HAVE SPOTS OR CROSSBANDS; HEAD SMALL
WITH SMALL FANGS (BOOTS MAY PROTECT WADERS). COMMENT: BITES ARE RARE
BUT CAN BE DEADLY. VENOM IS HIGHLY MYOTOXIC (DESTROYING SKELETAL
MUSCLE FIBERS, NEUROTOXIC, AND NECROTIC. USUALLY ONLY SMALL AMOUNTS
OF VENOM ARE INJECTED. SYMPTOMS OF ENVENOMATION: USUALLY NO PAIN AT
BITE SITE DURING BITE (BITES WITHOUT ENVENOMATION MAY CAUSE FIGHT OR
SHOCK WITH SEMI-CONSCIOUSNESS, COLD, CLAMMY SKIN, RAPID SWALLOW
BREATHING); LATER C0.5 TO 3.5 HOURS), DESTRUCTION OF MUSCLE FIBERS
LEAD TO ACHING MUSCLES, STIFFNESS (IN NECK, THROAT, TONGUE, TRUNK,
LIMBS). THEN GENERALLY DROOPING EYELIDS, PAINFUL MOVEMENT,
MYOGLOBINUREA (RESEMBLING HEMOGLOBINUREA), INTERRUPTION OF
NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION (BY BINDING OF MUSCLE RECEPTOR OR BLOCKING
RELEASE OF NEUROTRANSMITTER) LEADING TO PARALYSIS. ALSO  DROWSINESS,
VOMITING, DISTURBED VISION, SEVERE HEADACHE, THIRST, AND SWEATING;

SEVERE CASES WITH RAPID COLLAPSE AND SHOCK ARE RARE, OCCURRING ONLY
WITH SEVERE ENVENOMATION; DEATH USUALLY FROM RESPIRATORY ARREST.
ANTIVENIN TREATMENT, WHEN DONE CORRECTLY, CAN BE EFFECTIVE HOURS OR
DAYS AFTER ENVENOMATION. BECAUSE A VICTIM'S ALLERGIC REACTION TO
ANTIVENIN MAY BE MORE SEVERE THAN TO THE VENOM IN CASES OF MILD
ENVENOMATION, A SKIN TEST SHOULD BE RUN BEFORE THE ANTIVENIN IS GIVEN�AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN: NONE SPECIFIC, BUT COMM: TIGER-SEA SNAKE
POSSIBLY EFFECTIVE.
    (2) PREASCUTATA VIPERINA (SCHMIDT'S SEA SNAKE, SEA SNAKE,
VIPERINE SEA SNAKE). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: FOUND NEAR SHORE IN
SHALLOW CLOUDY WATER, AND SEVERAL MILES OUT TO SEA. GENERALLY LOCATED
IN SWAMPS, TIDE MARSHES, MUD FLATS, AND FISHERIES. BEHAVIOR: NOT
KNOWN IF NOCTURNAL OR DIURNAL. NOT AGGRESSIVE. WHEN BITES, TAKES HOLD
OF VICTIM AND EMBEDS FANGS. IDENTIFICATION: AVERAGE LENGTH IS 0.8
METERS TO 0.9 METERS. BODY IS MODERATELY THICK AND STOUT TOWARD HEAD
AND STOUTER TOWARD REAR; HEAD IS DARK OR BLACK, HAS NO MARKINGS, AND
IS SHORT, BROAD, AND DISTINCT FROM NECK AND SLIGHTLY FLATTENED; EYES
ARE SMALL WITH ROUND PUPILS; NECK IS THINNER THAN BODY; TAIL IS

FLATTENED LIKE A BLADE; CHIN AND THROAT ARE CREAM-COLORED. TOPSIDE IS
GRAY, OLIVE GRAY, OR DARK BLUE-GRAY. DARK BROWN OR BLACK DIAMOND-
SHAPED SPOTS MAY BE ALONG THE BACKBONE. SIDES ARE YELLOW-GRAY. TAIL
IS BLACK. COMMENT: GENERAL VENOM TOXIC FOR ALL SEA SNAKES. AVAILABLE
ANTIVENIN: COMM: "TIGER-SEA SNAKE" MAY BE EFFECTIVE.
    (3) ENHYDRINA SCHISTOSA (BEAKED SEA SNAKE, COMMON SEA SNAKE,
HOOK-NOSED SEA  SNAKE). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: PERSIAN GULF (COASTAL
WATERS, RIVER MOUTHS, NEAR BEACHES AND FISHING  VILLAGES). BEHAVIOR:
FAST SWIMMER, BUT HELPLESS ON LAND. CAN SEIZE AND SWALLOW LARGE PREY.
PROBABLY MORE AGGRESSIVE THAN OTHER SEA SNAKES. BITES WHEN HANDLED OR
RESTRAINED. HOLDS ONTO VICTIM AND CHEWS WHEN BITING. NET FISHERMEN
MOST AT RISK. IDENTIFICATION: SLIGHTLY FLATTENED BODY (EEL-LIKE),
MODERATELY  STOUT (0.9 TO 1.2 METERS AVERAGE LENGTH, MORE THAN 1.6
METERS MAXIMUM); COLORATION VARIES WITH AGE (NEWBORNS MILK-WHITE WITH
CROSSBANDS ALMOST ENCIRCLING BODY; YOUNG SPECIMENS OLIVE OR GRAY WITH
DARK GRAY OR BLACK CROSSBANDS); ADULT TOPSIDE IS DULL OLIVE BROWN OR
PALE GREENISH GRAY WITH INDISTINCT CROSSBANDS; UNDERSIDE AND SIDES
ARE CREAM TO DIRTY WHITE; HEAD IS SMALL, GREENISH ON TOP, SLIGHTLY
DISTINCT FROM NECK WITH SHORT GROOVED FANGS. CAN OPEN JAW COMPLETELY;

NARROW CHIN; BEAK-LIKE SNOUT EXTENDING OVER LOWER JAW; LOOSE SK?N ON
NECK; TAIL MOTTLED FROM FUSION OF CROSSBANDS. VENOM CHARACTERISTICS,
SYMPTOMS, AND ANTIVENIN:  SIMILAR TO HYDROPHIS SPECIES.
    (4) LAPEMIS CURTUS (SHORT SEA SNAKE). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT:
PERSIAN GULF (ALONG COASTS AND FARTHER OUT TO SEA). BEHAVIOR:  MAY
SWIM UPSTREAM. OFTEN REST FOR EXTENDED PERIODS ON THE SEA BOTTOM. AT
NIGHT ARE ATTRACTED TO NIGHT FISHERMEN'S LAMPS AND ARE OFTEN CAUGHT
IN NETS. MOST BITES OCCUR TO NET FISHERMEN. USUALLY NOT AGGRESSIVE
UNLESS HANDLED OR RESTRAINED. HOLDS ON AND CHEWS WHEN BITING.
IDENTIFICATION: SHORT, CYLINDRICAL, SMALL, AND VERY STOUT (0.8 TO 1.0
METERS AVERAGE); TOPSIDE IS OLIVE GREEN TO WHITE OR PALE YELLOW WITH
MANY BLACK OR GRAY CROSSBANDS; HEAD IS MASSIVE AND BROAD WITH STRONG
JAWS AND SMALL FANGS, OLIVE OR DARK GRAY (ADULTS) OR BLACKISH
(YOUNG), OFTEN WITH YELLOWISH CURVED MARK ON TOP; TAIL WITH BLACK
TIP. VENOM CHARACTERISTICS, SYMPTOMS, AND ANTIVENIN:  SIMILAR TO
HYDROPHIS SPECIES.
    (5) PELAMIS PLATURIS (PELAGIC SEA SNAKE, YELLOW-BELLIED SEA
SNAKE). DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: RARE IN PERSIAN GULF. MOSTLY FOUND IN
CLEAR WARM SHALLOW WATERS, BUT ALSO FAR OUT TO SEA; AVOIDS BRACKISH
�BEHAVIOR: AGILE SWIMMER, AWKWARD ON LAND. REPORTS OF AGGRESSIVENESS

/****** BEGINNING OF SECTION 003 ******/
CONFLICT. BITES WHEN PROVOKED. PROBABLY MORE AGGRESSIVE DURING SPRING
BREEDING SEASON. IDENTIFICATION: FLATTENED, EEL-LIKE BODY (0.6 TO 0.8
METERS AVERAGE LENGTH).  TOPSIDE MOSTLY BLACK OR DARK BROWN;
UNDERSIDE AND SIDES YELLOW TO LIGHT BROWN; HEAD ELONGATED,
TRIANGULAR, SLIGHTLY DISTINCT FROM  NECK, DARK ON TOP AND YELLOW ON
SIDES. VENOM CHARACTERISTICS, SYMPTOMS, AND ANTIVENIN: SIMILAR TO
HYDROPHIS SPP.
    C. SCORPIONS AND SPIDERS
    (1)  ANDROCTONUS SPP. AND LEIURUS SPP. (SCORPION).
DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: WIDESPREAD IN DRY AREAS. LIVES IN BURROWS UNDER
STONES, LOOSE BARK OF TREES, BRICKS, ETC. VERY COMMON AROUND HUMAN
DWELLINGS. SHAKE AND INSPECT CLOTHING BEFORE DONNING. HUNT AT NIGHT.
FEEDS ON INSECTS, ARTHROPODS, OTHER SCORPIONS. NOT AGGRESSIVE; STING
ONLY WHEN MOLESTED OR STARTLED. IDENTIFICATION: LIGHT TAN TO RED OR
DARK BROWN. ELONGATED BODY, 50 TO 80 MILLIMETERS LONG, WITH EIGHT
WALKING LEGS AND TWO LARGE PINCERS IN FRONT. TAIL IS CURVED WITH
STINGER AT TIP WITH TWO POISON GLANDS. TAIL CAN MOVE IN ANY

DIRECTION. COMMENT: STINGS FROM ANDROCTONUS AND LEIURUS SPP. ARE
SERIOUS AND SOME HAVE PROVED FATAL. VENOM CONTAINS POWERFUL
NEUROTOXINS WITH CONVULSANT ACTION. SYMPTOMS: INTENSE LOCAL PAIN,
ANXIETY, AGITATION, PROFUSE SALIVATION AND SWEATING, DARKENED STOOL,
VOMITING, DIARRHEA, INCREASED OR DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE, UNSTABLE
PULSE AND BODY TEMPERATURE, LOSS OF BLADDER AND BOWEL CONTROL,
BREATHING DIFFICULTIES RANGING FROM IRREGULAR BREATHING TO
RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS, INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS, CONFUSION,
CONVULSIONS, HIGH SUGAR IN BLOOD AND URINE, PULSATING EYEBALLS,
DILATED PUPILS, AND BLURRED VISION OR BLINDNESS. AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN:
IRAN: "POLYVALENT SCORPION." LIPM: "SCORPION." PAST-ALG: "SCORPION."
    (2) LATRODECTUS MACTANS TREDECIMGUTTATUS (BLACK WIDOW SPIDER).
DISTRIBUTION/HABITAT: WIDESPREAD; FOUND NEAR OUTHOUSES, HOUSES,
TRASH, AND DUMPS. NOT AGGRESSIVE. MALES DO NOT BITE. FEMALES BITE IF
MOLESTED. FEMALES STAY IN WEB. IDENTIFICATION: BLACK WITH RED OR
YELLOW-RED SPOTS OR STRIPES. 8 TO 15 MILLIMETERS IN SIZE. COMMENT:
ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST POISONOUS SPIDERS. DEATH POSSIBLE BUT
UNLIKELY. VENOM IS NEUROTOXIC. BITE MAY CAUSE LOCAL SHARP PAIN OR MAY
NOT BE FELT AT ALL; LATER, SEVERE ABDOMINAL, APPENDICITIS-LIKE, PAIN

DEVELOPS. PAIN CAN SPREAD THROUGH ENTIRE BODY ACCOMPANIED BY BURNING
FEVER, SHIVERING, NAUSEA, RESTLESSNESS, AND WEAKNESS. SEVERE BITES
MAY BRING ON CRAMPS, PARALYSIS, RIGIDITY, WEAK PULSE, LABORED
BREATHING, STUPOR, DELIRIUM, SHOCK, AND DEATH. AVAILABLE ANTIVENIN:
MERK: "BLACK WIDOW." SAIMR: "BLACK WIDOW." COMM: "RED-BACK SPIDER"
ALSO MAY BE EFFECTIVE.
3. SOURCES OF ANTIVENIN
BEHR: BEHRINGWERKE AG, D 3550 MARBURG/LAHN, POST FACH 167, FEDERAL
REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
COMM: COMMONWEALTH SERUM LABORATORIES, 45 POPLAR ROAD, PARKVILLE,
VICTORIA 3052, AUSTRALIA. (TELEGRAM: "SERUMS," MELBOURNE;
TELEX AA 32789; TELEPHONE 387-1066)�AFRICA
HAFF: HAFFKINE BIO-PHARMACEUTICAL CORP., LTD., PAREL, BOMBAY, INDIA
IRAN: INSTITUT D'ETAT DES SERUMS ET VACCINS RAZI, P.O. BOX 656,
TEHRAN, IRAN
KASA: CENTRAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, KASAULI, (SIMLA HILLS), (H.P.),
INDIA

LIPM: LISTER INSTITUTE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, ELSTREE, HERTS WD6
3AX, ENGLAND
MERK: MERCK, SHARPE, AND DOHME, WEST POINT, PA 79846, USA
PAST: INSTITUT PASTEUR, ANNEXE DE GARCHES, 92 (HAUTES-DE-SEINE),
PARIS, FRANCE (TELEPHONE: 541-52-45)
PAST-ALG: INSTITUT PASTEUR D'ALGERIE, RUE DOCTEUR LAVERAN, ALGER,
ALGERIA
SAIMR: SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH, P.O. BOX 1038,
JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA (TELEGRAPH: "BACTERIA";
TELEPHONE: 724-1781)
TASH: RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF VACCINE AND SERUM, MINISTRY OF PUBLIC
HEALTH, UI, KAFANOVA 93, TASHKENT, USSR  [b.6]



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