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File: 950719_68720351_94d.txt
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IIR 6 872 0351 94/GULF-WAR SYNDROME (U)

Filename:68720351.94d
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SERIAL: (U) IIR 6 872 0351 94.


/*********** THIS IS A COMBINED MESSAGE ************/
BODY
COUNTRY: (U) NORWAY (NO).

SUBJECT: IIR 6 872 0351 94/GULF-WAR SYNDROME (U)

WARNING: (U) THIS IS AN INFORMATION REPORT, NOT FINALLY
EVALUATED INTELLIGENCE.  

--------------------------------------------------------
-            DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
--------------------------------------------------------

DOI: (U) 940611.

REQS: (U) [    b.2.    ]

SOURCE: (U) OPEN SOURCE, LETTER RECEIVED FROM HOST
COUNTRY SCIENTIST WITH DIRECT ACCESS TO INFORMATION
PROVIDED. RELIABILITY OF INFORMATION IS UNSUBSTANTIATED.

SUMMARY: (U) A NORWEGIAN SCIENTIST CLAIMS TO HAVE
EXPERIENCED SYMPTOMS SIMILAR TO THOSE CALLED GULF WAR
SYNDROME.  THE SYMPTOMS WERE TREATED WITH HIGH DOSAGES
OF AN ANTIDOTE AND AFTER TWO (2) YEARS THE PATIENT
EXPERIENCED SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT. ENCLOSURES.

TEXT: 1. (U) DOCTOR OLAV ALBERT ((CHRISTOPHERSEN)), A
NORWEGIAN SCIENTIST, STATES IN A LETTER THAT HE AND HIS
WIFE BECAME ILL DURING 910000 AFTER THE INGESTION OF A
SYNTHETIC LIPID-SOLUBLE ANTIOXIDANT CONTAINING
ETHOXYQUIN. PROFESSOR IVAR ((OYE)), WORKING AT THE
INSTITUTE OF PHARMACOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO, TREATED
BOTH PERSONS BY PROVIDING ANTIDOTE THERAPY OVER A PERIOD
OF TWO(2) YEARS WITH NOTABLE SUCCESS. BOTH MR.
CHRISTOPHERSEN AND DR. OYE BELIEVE THAT THE SYMPTOMS
EXHIBITED WERE REMARKABLY SIMILAR TO THOSE EXHIBITED BY
SOME VICTIMS OF THE GULF-WAR SYNDROME. DR. OYE BELIEVES
THAT IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO TREAT SOME OF THE GULF WAR
PATIENTS BY PROVIDING SIMILAR ANTIDOTE THERAPY.

2.  MR. CHRISTOPHERSEN AND HIS WIFE BECAME ILL AFTER
INGESTING CAPELIN MEAL (A TYPE OF FISH MEAL MADE FROM
SMALL SALMONID FISH, MALLOTUS VILLOSUS) CONTAINING
ETHOXYQUIN. ALTHOUGH ETHOXYQUIN IS EXTENSIVELY USED AS
AN ANTIOXIDANT IN ANIMAL FEED (PRIMARILY FISH MEAL) AND
USED AS A FUNGICIDE FOR SPRAYING APPLES AND PEARS, IT IS
NOT PERMITTED FOR USE AS AN ANTIOXIDANT IN FOODS.
WITHIN TWO (2) WEEKS OF INGESTION OF THE ETHOXYQUIN FISH
MEAL, BOTH CHRISTOPHERSEN AND HIS WIFE DEVELOPED
SKELETAL MUSCLE SPASMS AND PAIN.

3. (U)  MR. CHRISTOPHERSEN SUFFERED PERIPHERAL
NEUROPATHY WITH STRONG PARESTHESIA IN THE LEFT LOWER ARM
AND HAND. A MODERATE LOSS OF CUTANEOUS SENSIBILITY ALSO
OCCURRED ON THE LEFT HAND. CHRISTOPHERSEN'S WIFE
DEVELOPED NO NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS, HOWEVER, SHE HAD
OTHER SYMPTOMS (ANKLE OEDEMA, SHORTNESS OF BREATH AND
ANGINA PECTORIS).

4. (U) DR. OYE TRIED ANTIDOTE THERAPY WITH TWO (2)
DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES, SELENIUM AND UBIQUINONE (COENZYME
Q10). THE UBIQUINONE WAS EXPECTED TO FUNCTION AS A COMPETITIVE
INHIBITOR OF ETHOXYQUIN RADICAL REDUCTION BY REDUCING
THE RATE OF SUPEROXIDE ANION RADICAL GENERATION. A HIGH
DOSAGE OF SELENIUM WAS ADMINISTERED AS A PRECAUTION
AGAINST MUSCLE-SKELETAL DAMAGE RESULTING FROM ABNORMAL
STATIC LOADS ON THE MUSCLE-SKELETON SYSTEM.

5. (U) AFTER TREATMENT BEGAN, IT TOOK APPROXIMATELY SIX
(6) MONTHS FOR SYMPTOMS OF THE ETHOXYQUIN POISONING TO
COMPLETELY DISAPPEAR IN MR. CHRISTOPHERSEN WHILE
SYMPTOMS REMAINED LONGER IN THE HIS WIFE. MR.
CHRISTOPHERSEN BELIEVES THAT ETHOXYQUIN MANIFESTS ITSELF
IN THE HUMAN BODY SIMILARLY TO THE HERBICIDE PARAQUAT BY
FUNCTIONING AS A GENERATOR OF SUPEROXIDE ANION RADICALS.

6. (U) MR. CHRISTOPHERSEN PROVIDED A CASE HISTORY OF THE
TREATMENT (ENCLOSURE 1.) AND THE NAMES/ADDRESSES OF
OTHER PEOPLE WHICH MIGHT BE OF ASSISTANCE IN THE
COOPERATION/TREATMENT OF GULF WAR SYNDROME PATIENTS:

PROFESSOR PER ((JYNGE)), INSTITUTE OF PHARMACOLOGY AND
TOXICOLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF TRONDHEIM, 7055 DRAGVOLL,
NORWAY (TELEPHONE 47 73 59 88 41 / 85 50).

PROFESSOR KARL ERIK ((ZACHARIASSEN)), INSTITUTE OF
ZOOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF TRONDHEIM, 7055 DRAGVOLL, NORWAY
(TELEPHONE - 47 73 59 62 99).

PROFESSOR IVAR OYE, INSTITUTE OF PHARMACOLOGY,
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO, POST BOX 1057 BLINDEREN, 0316 OSLO,
NORWAY (TELEPHONE: 47 22 85 60 71 / FAX 47 22 85 44 40).

COMMENTS: 1. (U) FIELD COMMENT. [      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] 
SPOKE ONLY BRIEFLY
WITH MR. CHRISTOPHERSEN VIA TELEPHONE. INITIALLY, [      (b)(1) 
sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] BELIEVED THAT THE SOURCE WAS QUITE ELDERLY 
BECAUSE HE SPOKE IN A QUIET HALTING VOICE, HOWEVER, [      (b)(1) 
sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] WAS SURPRISED TO FINE OUT THAT THE SOURCE IS IN 
FACT, ONLY 35 YEARS OF AGE. CHRISTOPHEESEN SEEMED GENUINELY
CONCERNED AND WANTED TO HELP ANYONE SUFFERING FROM THE
GULF WAR SYNDROME. MANY OF THE CHEMICAL NAMES ARE
SPELLED AS CHRISTOPHERSEN DID IN HIS REPORT AND
THEREFORE, MAY UTILIZE THE NORWEGIAN SPELLING.

//IPSP: (U) PG 2520; PG 2500//.
//COMSOBJ: (U) [   (b)(2)   ]
ADMIN
PROJ: (U).
INSTR: (U) [   (b)(2)   ]
PREP: (U) [   (b)(6)   ]
ENCL: (U) TO FOLLOW: 2 ENCLOSURES.
1. LETTER WRITTEN BY MR OLAV CHRISTOPHERSEN (U), IN
ENGLISH, 1 COPY, 3 PAGES, 940611 (U).
2. XEROX COPY, CASE HISTORY OF ETHOXYQUIN POISIONING
(U), IN ENGLISH, 1 COPY, 5 PAGES, UNDATED (U)>
ACQ: (U) [   (b)(2)   ]
DISSEM: (U) FIELD: [   (b)(2)   ]


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