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File: 950825_0146pgv_90d.txt
Page: 90d
Total Pages: 1


Filename:0146pgv.90d

DEC 90

SUBJ: MEDICAL THREAT ASSESSMENT - NORTHERN  IRAQ


1. SECTION  I - INFECTIOUS DISEASE THREAT:  INFECTIOUS DISEASES
ARE CATEGORIZED INTO HIGH, MODERATE, AND  LOW RISK  BASED ON 
EXPECTED IMPACT  ON  SHORT  DURATION� [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]
MILITARY OPERATIONS  IN NORTHERN IRAQ DURING THE JANUARY-FEBRUARY 
TIME FRAME  IF NO PREVENTIVE  MEASURES ARE TAKEN.   PRIORITIZATION 
  IS  BASED  ON SEASONAL PREVALENCE,  INCUBATION  PERIOD, AND   
LIKELIHOOD  OF   EXPOSURE   BASED  ON  THE' NATURE  OF THE   
MISSION.   FOOD-  AND  WATERBORNE  DISEASES  ARE   THE  MOST   
IMPORTANT - INFECTIOUS  DISEASE   THREATS,   PARTICULARLY  FOR  
PERSONNEL OBTAINING
SUBSISTENCE  ITEMS   FROM LOCAL  SOURCES.  INCUBATION  PERIODS AND 
LOCAL NAMES FOR THE DISEASES ARE  IN PARENTHESES.

  
2.  (U) HIGH RISK DISEASES:  THESE DISEASES ARE   ENDEMIC AND 
WIDESPREAD IN  URBAN    AND  RURAL    AREAS  AND  POSE   A  
SIGNIFICANT THREAT  TO UNCONVENTIONAL FORCES.

        A.  (U) ACUTE DIARRHEAL DISEASES (6 HOURS TO JO DAYS; 
ESCHAL)  TRANSMISSION: INGESTION  OF  CAUSATIVE  AGENTS  OR  THEIR 
 TOXINS  IN  CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER.

RISK  PERIOD/DISTRIBUTION:  OCCURS  YEAR-ROUND,   WITH       
OVERALL RISK GREATEST FROM JULY THROUGH SEPTEMBER.  RISK   FROM 
VIRAL  ETIOLOGIES  IS ELEVATED  FROM  DECEMBER   THROUGH  MARCH,  
 AND  RISK  FROM  BACTERIAL ETIOLOGIES  IS ELEVATED FROM JUNE 
THROUGH OCTOBER. OCCURS COUNTRYWIDE;
 
RISK GREATER IN RURAL VILLAGE AREAS.

REMARKS:  MODERATELY  ENDEMIC.  FREQUENTLY  OCCURRING PATHOGENS  
INCLUDE ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI  (ETEC),   ROTAVIRUS   
(MOST  COMMON  IN  CHILDREN),   SHIGELLA  SPP. ,   SALMONELLA  
SPP. AND CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. SHIGELLOS IS,  USUALLY CAUSED BY SH 
IGELLA  SONNE I   OR  S.   FLEXNER I, IS   COMMON. SALMONELLOSIS  
 INCREASINGLY  IS  BEING REPORTED. MULTIPLE DRUG

  RESISTANCE  IS LIKELY AMONG SALMONELLA AND SHIGELLA ISOLATES.
 
       B.  (U) ACUTE RESPIRATORY  DISEASES (ARD)   (1-10 DAYS;  
INFLUANZA; NAZLAT BARD)
  TRANSMISSION:   DIRECT OR INDIRECT CONTACT WITH INFECTIOUS 
DROPLETS.

RISK PERIOD/DISTRIBUTION:       OCCURS  YEAR-ROUND;   INFLUENZA 
CASES PEAK FROM  DECEMBER   THROUGH  FEBRUARY;   INCIDENCE  OF    
OTHER   ETIOLOGIES INCREASES  IN   JULY AND  AUGUST (RELATED TO 
DUSTY ENVIRONMENT). OCCURS COUNTRYWIDE.

  REMARKS:  HIGHLY ENDEMIC.  ARD CONSTITUTE A MAJOR CAUSE OF 
MORBIDITY  IN THE   INDIGENOUS   POPULATION   AND  COULD   BECOME 
  A  MAJOR   SOURCE  OF MORBIDITY AMONG MILITARY PERSONNEL. 
OUTBREAKS OF INFLUENZA INVOLVING UP TO  A MILLION CASES HAVE 
OCCURRED.  DURING THE LATE  1980's, ISOLATES OF  INFLUENZA A(H3N2) 
 PREDOMINATED OVER THOSE OF A(HlN1)  AND B.

C.  (U)  ENTERIC PROTOZOAL DISEASES   (1   WEEK   TO   SEVERAL 
MONTHS; AMIBI,  GIARDIA) TRANSMISSION:  INGESTION  OF CAUSATIVE   
AGENTS  IN FECALLY CONTAMINATED WATER OR FOOD.
  RISK PERIOD/DISTRIBUTION:   YEAR-ROUND,  WITH INCREASED   
INCIDENCE IN - AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER. OCCURS COUNTRYWIDE.
  REMARKS: USUALLY   ASSOCIATED  WITH  MORE   CHRONIC   
INFECTIONS;   SOME PROTOZOANS   SUCH   AS   ENTAMOEBA   
HISTOLYTICA,   GIARDIA  -LAMBLIA, AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM   SPP.   CAN 
 CAUSE ACUTE DIARRHEA. MODERATELY ENDEMIC.
  GIARDIASIS  IS THE   MOST   COMMONLY   DETECTED   INTESTINAL   
PARASITE AND   USUALLY   IS   SEEN   IN  CHILDREN   (INFECTION   
RATES ESTIMATED AT 25-30   PERCENT).  AMEBIASIS  IS THE MOST 
COMMON  CAUSE OF  CLINICAL DYSENTERY,  WITH CARRIER   RATES  IN 
APPARENTLY HEALTHY ADULTS EXCEEDING 25 PERCENT  (INCLUDING HIGHER 
SOCIOECONOMIC GROUPS  IN URBAN AREAS).
        D.  (U)  TYPHOID AND PARATYPHOID FEVERS (1-3 WEEKS;  
AL-TYPHODIA) TRANSMISSION:   INGESTION  OF   CAUSATIVE   AGENT   
IN  FOOD AND WATER CONTAMINATED BY FECES OR URINE `OF  INFECTIVE 
HUMANS.
  RISK PERIOD/DISTRIBUTION: OCCURS YEAR-ROUND, WITH  INCREASED  
INCIDENCE  FROM JUNE TO AUGUST. OCCURS COUNTRYWIDE.
  REMARKS: MODERATELY ENDEMIC.  THE CARRIER   RATE   LIKELY   IS  
 HIGH,  BUT DATA ARE   NOT AVAILABLE.   A LOW LEVEL OF MULTIPLE 
DRUG RESISTANCE HAS - BEEN   REPORTED.   MAY   BE   A   
SIGNIFICANT   SOURCE   OF   MORBIDITY AMONG
  NONINDIGENOUS PERSONNEL.
        E.  (U) MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS (2-10 DAYS,  USUALLY 3 TO 
4 DAYS; ELTIHAB AL-SAHAYA)
  TRANSMISSION:  DIRECT CONTACT,  INCLUDING DROPLETS AND   
DISCHARGES FROM NOSES AND THROATS OF INFECTED PERSONS.
  RISK PERIOD/DISTRIBUTION:  CASES OCCUR YEAR-ROUND, WITH PEAK  
INCIDENCE FROM NOVEMBER THROUGH FEBRUARY.   OCCURS  COUNTRYWIDE,  
 WITH  INCREASED RISK   FROM  CLOSE   CONTACT   WITH   THE   LOCAL 
POPULATION,  PARTICULARLY CHILDREN AND LOWER SOCIOECONOMIC GROUPS.
  REMARKS:  ENDEMIC,  BUT CYCLIC.  USUALLY OCCURS   AS SPORADiC   
CASES,  BUT WITH  EPIDEMICS EVERY    8    TO   12    YEARS.   
SERO-GROUP A  USUALLY  PREDOMINATES,  BUT AN UNCONFIRMED  OUTBREAK 
ATTRIBUTED  TO GROUP WI 35  OCCURRED  IN   BASRAH  IN   1989. MOST 
  CASES OCCUR  IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS, WITH AN OVERALL CASE 
FATALITY RATE BETWEEN 10 AND 25 PERCENT.
        F.   (U)   ENTERICALLY TRANSMITTED VIRAL HEPATITIS  (15-60 
DAYS;  ELTIHAB AL-KABED)
  TRANSMISSION:  PERSON TO PERSON BY THE FECAL-ORAL ROUTE.
  RISK PERIOD/DISTRIBUTION:   YEAR-ROUND, WITH   INCIDENCE' 
INCREASED FROM   OCTOBER THROUGH DECEMBER.  OCCURS COUNTRYWIDE.
- REMARKS:  HEPATITIS   A (HAV)   IS HIGHLY   ENDEMIC AND  MAY 
POSE A MAJOR  HEALTH HAZARD TO NONINDIGENOUS  `PERSONNEL;   NEARLY 
  ALL   CHILDREN ARE SEROPOSITIVE     FOR   HAV   BY  AGE    5.   
HEPATITIS   E   (HEV)  HAS NOT BEEN  REPORTED,  BUT  IS PROBABLY 
PRESENT.
  3.  (U) MODERATE RISK DISEASES:   THESE   DISEASES   GENERALLY  
 ARE MINOR  RISKS TO  MILITARY PERSONNEL   UNDER NORMAL   
CIRCUMSTANCES,  BUT ARE AN   INCREASED THREAT TO UNCONVENTIONAL 
FORCES.
        A.  (U) BRUCELLOSIS (5-60      DAYS,   COMMONLY    1   TO 
   2.  MONTHS; AL-BROSLIYAT)
  TRANSMISSION/RESERVOIR: OVER   80 PERCENT   OF REPORTED HUMAN 
CASES ARE  DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF   RAW DAIRY   PRODUCTS (GOAT   
AND CAMEL  MILK AND  CHEESES).  CONTACT WITH  INFECTED MATERIAL 
PLAYS A MINOR ROLE.  IN HUMAN  CASES NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIRECT   
ANIMAL   OR   PRODUCT   EXPOSURE, MOST   APPEAR TO   HAVE 
CONTRACTED   THE DISEASE WHILE TRAVELING THROUGH AREAS  
CONTAMINATED WITH ANIMAL FETAL TISSUES.   THE   DISEASE   IS   
ENDEMIC  IN   NATURAL   RESERVOIRS    (GOATS,   SHEEP,    CAMELS, 
  AND  CATTLE),   WHICH
  -PRINCIPALLY ARE  INFECTED WITH BRUCELLA MELITENSIS.   THE 
PREVALENCE OF   INFECTION OF   SHEEP AND GOATS COMMONLY EXCEEDS  
10 PERCENT. 

	  B.  ABORTUS   MAY BE PRESENT  IN CATTLE AND CAMELS,  BUT 
THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IS  PROBABLY LOW.
  DISTRIBUTION/RISK PERIOD:   WIDESPREAD,  BUT REGIONAL VARIATIONS 
EXIST.   HUMAN CASES CAUSED BY B. MELITENSIS   ARE WIDELY   
DISTRIBUTED,  IN BOTH RURAL   AND   URBAN   AREAS.   SEASONALLY   
DISTRIBUTED,   WITH  MOST CASES   OCCURRING MARCH TO JULY,  
PEAKING  IN APRIL AND MAY.  PEAK   INCIDENCE OF   CASES   
ASSOCIATED  WITH   ENVIRONMENTAL   EXPOSURE   COINCIDES WITH THE  
- LAMBING AND KIDDING SEASONS.
  REMARKS: ONE  OF   THE  COMMONEST  HUMAN   INFECTIOUS  DISEASES 
  IN THE   REGION;   PARTICULARLY    COMMON  AMONG    FARMERS,   
SHEPHERDS,   NOMADIC   TRIBESMEN,  AND THEIR FAMILIES   (10 TO  25 
PERCENT  SEROPREVALENCE HAS BEEN  DETECTED   IN  AGRICULTURAL  
WORKERS).   BRUCELLOS IS  HAS REACHED   EPIDEMIC PROPORTIONS  IN 
SOME PARTS OF   THE COUNTRY   (PRESUMABLY RURAL   AREAS).   FOR   
 EACH  CASE    REPORTED,   AN    ESTIMATED  25  CASES  ARE
  UNRECOGNIZED OR UNREPORTED.
       B.   (U) Q FEVER (USUALLY 2 TO 3 WEEKS)
  TRANSMISSION/RESERVOIR:  COMMONLY  TRANSMITTED  BY  AIRBORNE
  DISSEMINATION  OF  R ICKETTS IA   (COX I ELLA BURNET I I) AND 
SECONDARILY BY- DIRECT CONTACT WITH  INFECTED  ANIMALS  AND  FROM 
 CONSUMPTION  OF RAW   MILK;   IXODES  AND  ARGASID  TICKS  ARE  
CAPABLE  OF TRANSMITTING THE   DISEASE,  BUT PROBABLY  ARE  ONLY  
OF   SECONDARY   IMPORTANCE. DOMESTIC   ANIMALS,,  RODENTS,   AND 
TICKS (PRIMARILY HYALOMMA DROMEDAR I I) SERVE AS   NATURAL 
RESERVOIRS.
  DISTRIBUTION/RISK PERIOD:   WIDELY DISTRIBUTED  THROUGHOUT THE 
REGION;  SEROLOGICAL  STUDIES    SUGGEST   THAT    IT  MAY    BE  
HIGHLY  ENDEMIC,   PARTICULARLY  IN RURAL AREAS. ENZOOTIC  IN 
LIVESTOCK.  YEAR-ROUND.   REMARKS:  SPORADIC CASES HAVE BEEN 
REPORTED AREAWIDE, BUT  INCIDENCE  IS   SUSPECTED  TO  BE  GREATER 
 THAN  REPORTED  DUE TO LIMITED DIAGNOSTIC  CAPABILITIES.   
APPARENTLY,   IN  RURAL  AREAS,   SUBCLINICAL  INFECTION
DEVELOPS   IN  CHILDHOOD,   AND  VIRTUALLY  ALL  YOUNG  ADULTS 
HAVE HAD   SENSITIZING CONTACT (INDUCING ACQUIRED  IMMUNITY).
       C.   (U) TYPHUS,  LOUSE-BORNE (1  TO 2 WEEKS, COMMONLY 12  
DAYS; AL-  TYPHOOS)
  TRANSMISSION/RESERVOIR:   BY  RUBBING  CRUSHED  BODY  LICE   
(PEDICULUS   HUMANUS) OR   THEIR  FECES   INTO  THE   BITE   SITE 
 OR  ABRASIONS; LICE DEFECATE R ICKETTS lAE (R ICKETTS IA PROWAZEK 
I) WHILE FEEDING. MAN IS THE  RESERVOIR AND MAINTAINS THE  
INFECTION DURING INTER-EPIDEMIC PERIODS.
  DISTRIBUTION/RISK PERIOD:   ENDEMIC  FOCI   ARE   PRESENT   IN  
 IRAQ, BUT   PREVALENCE   IS  UNKNOWN.   SEASONAL,   USUALLY MORE 
PREVALENT IN COLDER   MONTHS.
  REMARKS:   LOUSE-BORNE  TYPHUS   IS  COMMONLY  ASSOCIATED    
WITH  OVER-  CROWDING,   TRANSIENT    POPULATIONS,   IMPOVERISHED 
 PEOPLE, AND  POOR   SANITARY CONDITIONS; REFUGEE POPULATIONS 
WOULD BE AT  INCREASED RISK.
      D.  (U) PLAGUE (2 TO 6 DAYS;  TAA'ON)
TRANSMISSION/RESERVOIR:        PRIMARILY   TRANSMITTED  BY  THE  
BITE  OF AN INFECTIVE FLEA   (PRIMARILY XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS,  THE 
ORIENTAL RAT FLEA,  BUT ALSO PULEX  I RR I TANS,  THE  HUMAN  
FLEA).   RESERVOIRS  FOR SYLVAT IC PLAGUE   IN  THE   REGION   
INCLUDE GERBILS (MERIONES SPP. AND GERBILLUS
SPP.) AND DESERT VOLES.  RATTUS RATTUS MAY SERVE AS A RESERVOIR 
AROUND DWELLINGS  IN ENDEMIC AREAS.
DISTRIBUTION/RISK    PERIOD:        OCCURS  AREAWIDE.   NATURALLY 
 OCCURRING  ENZOOTIC FOCI OF PLAGUE HISTORICALLY HAVE EXISTED 
BETWEEN  THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES 
EXTENDING FROM SYRIA TO THE  PERSIAN  GULF.   THE  HIGHLANDS  NEAR 
   THE   BORDER    WITH  SYRIA  HISTORICALLY HAVE  BEEN AN 
ENZOOTIC FOCUS.  YEAR-ROUND, BUT ESPECIALLY  DURING HOT,  DRY 
MONTHS.
REMARKS:   UNDERREPORTED.  
    4.  (U) LOW RISK DISEASES:  THESE ENDEMIC DISEASES ARE 
CONSIDERED A LOW RISK;   HOWEVER,   EACH  DISEASE  MAY  BE  MORE  
 SIGNIFICANT  DURING  A DIFFERENT  TIME  OF  YEAR  OR  UNDER  A  
DIFFERENT    SET  OF  MISSION CIRCUMSTANCES (LONGER  DURATION OR  
HUMANITARIAN MEDICAL ASSISTANCE). THE DISEASES ARE LISTED BY THE 
PRIMARY REASON  FOR  INCLUSION   IN THIS CATEGORY.
       A.  (U)   SEASONAL  DISTRIBUTION   (PREVALENCE LOW OR 
TRANSMISSION DOES NOT OCCUR): MALARIA;   ARBOVIRAL   FEVERS   
(SANDFLY, CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGlC,    WEST    NILE,    SINDBIS, 
  AND  DENGUE);   LElSHMANIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS;  LEPTOSPIROSIS; 
ANTHRAX; CHOLERA. 
       B.  (U) NATURE OF THE  MISSION  (LOW  RISK  OF  CONTACT  OR 
MINOR CLINICAL  IMPACT):  PARENTERALLY TRANSMITTED VIRAL HEPATITIS 
(HEPATITIS B,   C,   AND  D);    MURINE   TYPHUS;    INTESTINAL  
HELMINTHS;   SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (INCLUDING AIDS/HIV);  
TRACHOMA.
      C.  (U) LONG  INCUBATION PERIOD:  RABIES (HOWEVER,  
DOG/ANIMAL BITES MAY CAUSE PHYSICAL TRAUMA); ECHINOCOCCOSIS;  
TUBERCULOSIS.
5.  SECTION  I I  - ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS  IN NORTHERN IRAQ.



6.  (U) TOPOGRAPHY

      A.  (U)  THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE NORTH AND NORTHEAST  IS 
DOMINATED BY RUGGED HILLS  AND SERRATED  MOUNTAIN SUMMITS   RISING 
TO 3,600 METERS.  GROUND MOVEMENT	   IN THIS  REGION WOULD  BE 
RESTRICTED  BY THE LIMITED  NUMBER OF  FINISHED ROADWAYS  AND 
LANDSLIDES  DUE TO SPORADIC SEISMIC ACTIVITIES. EARTHQUAKES   IN 
THE  NORTHEAST MOUNTAINS  ARE NOT COMMON, HOWEVER,  IT  SHOULD BE 
 NOTED THAT A DEVASTING EARTHQUAKE OCCURRED IN THE NEARBY 
NORTHWESTERN PROVINCE OF  IRAN ON 20 JUNE 1990.
       B.  (U)  IN THE WEST, VAST DESERTS PREDOMINATE AND WADS,   
SOME UP TO  400  KILOMETERS   LONG,   ARE  NUMEROUS.   DURING  THE 
WINTER RAINS,  TORRENTIAL  WATER   FLOWS   IN  THE  WAD IS    
SHOULD  BE  AN  IMPORTANT   CONSIDERATION FOR PERSONNEL TRAVERSING 
OR BIVOUACKING IN THIS REGION.
       C.  (U) CENTRALLY, BETWEEN THE TIGRIS  AND EUPHRATES,   
MAJOR LAND   FEATURES  VARY  AND   INCLUDE  DESERT,   DEEPLY  CUT 
RIVER VALLEYS, AND  CLIFFS (IRAQ  IS AN ARABIC WORD FOR CLIFF).  
THE RUDDEDNESS OF TERRAIN WOULD IMPEDE MOST CROSS COUNTRY 
VEHICULAR MOVEMENT.
       D.  (U)   THE BETTER TRANSPORTATION ROUTES  IN NORTHERN  
IRAQ, AS IN  THE  REMAINDER  OF   THE  COUNTRY',   ARE  
CONCENTRATED  IN  THE  AREAS SURROUNDING' THE   TIGRIS AND  
EUPHRATES RIVERS. WATER NAVIGATION ALONG   THE NORTHERN PORTION OF 
THE TWO RIVERS WOULD BE COMPLICATED  BY RAPID   WATER CURRENT,  
ESPECIALLY DURING THE RAINY SEASON.
  7.  (U) CLIMATE
       A.   (U)   WINTERS   IN  THE  NORTH ARE COOL TO COLD AND 
MODERATELY   CLOUDY  WITH  CONSIDERABLE   PRECIPITATION.   WINTER 
 LOWS  AVERAGE  -6   DEGREES CELSIUS  IN THE WESTERN DESERT AND 
NORTHERN PLAINS AND BETWEEN   -7 AND -12 DEGREES   IN THE  
MOUNTAINOUS REGION   (AT HIGHER ELEVATIONS
  TEMPERATURES  BELOW  -20  DEGREES  CELSIUS  ARE NOT UNCOMMON). 
COMMON   EXPOSURE  RELATED   INJURIES  CAN  BE  AVOIDED  THROUGH  
THE USE OF   APPROPR lATE  COLD  WEATHER  HYGIENE   (I . E.  
LAYERING OF CLOTHES, CLEAN   UNDERCLOTHING AND SOCKS,  AND  CHANGE 
 OF  SHOES  AND  SOCKS  TO AVOID   IMMERSION  FOOT  TYPE   
INJURIES).   BECAUSE  OF   THE  RELATIVELY  MILD
  WINTERS,  THE MORE SERIOUS   THREAT OF  COLD  INJURIES   IS MORE 
ALTITUDE - DEPENDENT; PERSONNEL   INVOLVED  IN  WINTER MOUNTAIN 
OPERATIONS SHOULD,   THEREFORE, BE PREPARED FOR THE RISKS  OF WIND 
 CHILL  INJURIES  DUE TO   HIGH WINDS,   FROSTBITE, AVALANCHES,  
BLIZZARDS AND SNOW BLINDNESS.  THE   WARM FOEHN WINDS THAT BLOW 
OVER   THE PLAINS  OF NORTHERN IRAQ DURING   THE WINTER  ARE 
PARTLY  RESPONSIBLE FOR  THE ABSENCE OF SEVERELY COLD   WEATHER  
IN IRAQ.
       B.  (U) MIGRATORY LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS  AFFECT  IRAQ  AND 
ARE MORE   FREQUENT   IN  NOVEMBER  AND  APRIL   THAN THE OTHER 
WINTER MONTHS. ONE   FEATURE OF   THE  MIGRATORY  SYSTEMS   IN  
THE  DESERT  REGIONS   IS THE   PRODUCTION OF SAND AND DUST STORMS 
BY THE ACCOMPANYING WINDS SWEEPING   OVER DRY,  LOOSELY PACKED 
SURFACES.
        C.  (U) SUMMERS  IN THE NORTHEAST  ARE GENERALLY  WARM, 
CLEAR, AND   DRY WITH  HIGHS  IN BETWEEN 16 DEGREES AND 27 DEGREES 
CELSIUS. DAYTIME   HIGHS APPROACHING 43 AND HIGHER ARE NOT 
UNCOMMON IN THE   REMAINDER OF   THE COUNTRY.
        D.  (U)   REPRESENTATIVE ANNUAL  AVERAGE TEMPERATURES FOR 
SELECTED   AIRFIELDS ARE DEPICTED BELOW (TEMPERATURES ARE  IN 
CELSIUS).  MOSUL AIRFIELD (361827N/0430858E)
  J     F     M      A    M     J      J    A     S     0      N  
 "D
  7     9     12     17   23    29     32   32    27    21     15 
  9
- MAXIMUM SUMMER HIGHS APPROACH 43 DEGREES  IN AUGUST
  MAXIMUM WINTER LOWS APPROACH 2 DEGREES  IN JANUARY


  KIRKUK AIRFIELD (352819N0442108E)
  8     10    13    19    26     32   33    34    30    24    17  
 11
  MAXIMUM SUMMER HIGHS APPROACH 43 DEGREES  IN JULY
  MAXIMUM WINTER LOWS APPROACH 4 DEGREES  IN JANUARY


  BAGHDAD/MUTHENNA AIRFIELD (331944N0442158E)
  9     12    15    22    28     32   34    34    31    24    18  
  12
  MAXIMUM SUMMER HIGHS APPROACH 43 DEGREES  IN JULY AND AUGUST
  MAXIMUM WINTER LOWS APPROACH 4 DEGREES  IN JANUARY


        E.  (U) NINETY PERCENT  OF   THE  ANNUAL  RAINFALL  OCCURS 
BETWEEN  NOVEMBER AND  APRIL. ANNUAL PRECIPITATION IN THE 
NORTHEAST  IS BETWEEN   3O AND  45 CM  AND MAY  TAKE THE   FORM OF 
 TORRENTIAL RAINS.  STANDING - WATER  IN AREAS OF HEAVY RAINFALL 
CONTRIBUTES TO EXCESSIVE HUMIDITY.
  8.  (U) WATER
        A.        FRESH WATER  IS PERENNIALLY AVAILABLE FROM THE 
TIGRIS AND   EUPHRATES RIVERS WHICH RUN  IN A SOUTHEASTERLY 
DIRECTION FROM NORTHERN   IRAQ TO  THE PERSIAN  GULF.  THE   
NORTHERN PORTIONS  OF THE RIVERS ARE   GENERALLY LESS  BRACKISH 
THAN  THE SOUTHERN  PORTIONS.  FLOODING ALONG   THE TIGRIS AND 
EUPHRATES  IS COMMON DURING THE WINTER RAINY SEASONS.
        B.        NORTHEASTERN STREAMS OFFER MEAGER TO SMALL 
QUANTITIES OF  FRESH WATER BETWEEN LATE NOVEMBER AND  JUNE, AND  
MEAGER TO  NONE THE  REST OF   THE YEAR.   BRACKISHNESS OF   THE 
WATER  INCREASES AS THE WATER   `LEVEL DECREASES.
        C.       IN THE  WEST,  FRESH  WATER  IS   TRANSIENTLY 
AVAILABLE ONLY   AFTER  INFREQUENT RAINS.
        D.       ALL FRESH WATER SOURCES  IN  IRAQ ARE SUBJECT TO 
BIOLOGICAL   CONTAMINATION FROM  MAN AND  ANIMAL WASTE  AND 
CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION   FROM PESTICIDES AND FERTILIZERS.  ALL 
SURFACE WATER SHOULD,  THEREFORE,   BE TREATED AND/OR TESTED PRIOR 
TO CONSUMPTION.
  9.  (U) VENOMOUS ANIMALS   (GENERAL):   THE  VENOM  OF  MANY  
SNAKES AND   INVERTEBRATES (BUGS  AND SPIDERS)  IS CYTOTOXIC, 
WHICH' MEANS THE VENOM   HAS�A SPECIFIC POISONOUS  EFFECT ON  
SPECIAL CELLS   IN THE  BODY. THE   MOST COMMON CELLS AFFECTED ARE 
BLOOD CELLS AND NERVE CELLS. HEMOTOXIN   VENOM ATTACKS BLOOD CELLS 
MAY CAUSE   UNSTOPPABLE BLEEDING. NEUROTOXIC   VENOM  ATTACKS  
NERVE  CELLS.   NEUROTOXIN  MAY AFFECT BOTH NERVES AND   MUSCLES, 
CAUSING CONVULSIONS,  SEVERE PAIN (POSSIBLY NO PAIN  AT ALL),
  AND/OR `MUSCLE  SPASMS OR  PARALYSIS (INVOLVEMENT  OF LUNG 
MUSCLES CAN  STOP BREATHING).
  10.  (U) SNAKES:  SOME NORMALLY NOCTURNAL SNAKES  IN WESTERN 
DESERT, MAY  BE MORE ACTIVE DURING WINTER DAYLIGHT HOURS.
        A.   (U)   PUFF  ADDER   (BITIS  ARIETANS)   -  
RESPONSIBLE  FOR THE  MAJORITY OF   SERIOUS BITES  AND DEATHS   TO 
MAN  AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS.    COMMON THROUGHOUT  THE REGION;  
PREVALENT  IN THE SHORT GRASSLANDS WITH   FEW SCATTERED  TREES.   
ITS  BODY  COLOR  USUALLY   IS  ADAPTED  TO ITS   ENVIRONMENT,  
BUT  CAN BE  IDENTIFIED BY DARK CHEVRONS POINTING TOWARDS   ITS 
TAIL. A HEAVY AND THICK BODIED SNAKE WITH AN AVERAGE LENGTH OF  .8 
 TO 1.3 METERS. VENOM IS HEMOTOXIN.
        B.  (U) SAW-SCALED VI PER (ECHIS COLORATUS/CARINATUS) - 
ONE OF THE   - MOST DANGEROUS SNAKES  IN THE WORLD. WIDELY 
DISTRIBUTED  IN THE WESTERN   DESERT  AND  ROCKY  HIGHLANDS  OF   
THE   EAST AND NORTHERN PART OF THE   COUNTRY. OCCUPIES RODENT 
BURROWS  AND SCRUB  FORESTS. MAY  CLIMB  INTO   BUSHES   TO  
ESCAPE  FLOODING  FROM   RAINS. ONE SPECIES  IS REPORTED IN   
VARIOUS DARK SHADES OF  GRAY,  BLUE,   OR SILVER,   DAPPLED WITH 
LIGHTER   SPOTS  AND  HAS  A  WHITE   UNDERSIDE;   HEAD  IS BELL 
SHAPED.  A RELATED   SPECIES  IS REDDISH BROWN  WITH WHITE   BARS 
ON   ITS BACK,   A YELLOWISH
  COLORED BELLY,   AND AN  EGG SHAPED  AND SPECKLED  HEAD WITH A 
TRIDENT  POINTING TO THE REAR. AVERAGE LENGTH,  .4 TO   .6 METERS. 
CHARACTERIZED   BY A  DISTINCTIVE   SIDEWINDING  MOVEMENT  AND 
RAPID DIGGING INTO THE   SAND. WHEN CONFRONTED ASSUMES A FIGURE   
8 AND  SCRAPES THE  SCALES OF   ADJACENT  COILS   TOGETHER  TO  
PRODUCE A LOUD GRATING, HISSING NOISE.
  VENOM  IS BOTH NEUROTOXIC AND HEMOTOXIN. 
       C.   (U) FIELDS HORNED VI PER (PSEUDOCERASTES Fl EDLDI I) - 
 FOUND IN   WESTERN  PART  OF   THE  COUNTRY,   IN  AREAS  OF  
SANDY ROCK.  SNAKE  IS   DARK/GRAYISH  IN COLOR WITH A SERIES OF 
DARK BARS ALONG ITS BACK, ONE-  HALF  INCH  HORNS ABOVE  THE EYES, 
  AND A DISTINCTIVE TRIANGULAR HEAD.   AVERAGE  ADULT     LENGTH, 
      0.6  TO  .7  METERS.    VENOM     IS   PRIMARILY   
NEUROTOXIC.

        D.  (U)  FALSE HORNED      (PSEUDOCERASTES PERSICUS 
PERSICUS) - FOUND   IN THE SANDY AND ROCKY REGIONS   IN THE  
WESTERN PART  OF THE COUNTRY.   AVERAGE LENGTH,  .9 METERS. VENOM 
IS PRIMARILY NEUROTOXIC.
        E.  (U)   BLUNT-NOSED/LEVANTINE VI PER (VIPERA LEBETINA 
EUPHRATICA)  - THE MAJOR CAUSE OF SNAKEBITE THROUGH  THE REGION,  
 BUT THE FATALITY   RATE  IS  LOWER THAN   IN BITES  BY SAW-SCALED 
VIPERS.  FOUND THROUGHOUT   THE COUNTRY; OBSERVED INHABITING 
BARREN,  ROCKY AREAS  IN  THE NORTH UP  TO ALTITUDES  OF 2, 100  
METERS AND AT LOWER ALTITUDES  IN THE WEST AND   SOUTH. AVERAGE 
LENGTH .8 TO 1 .2 METERS. VENOM IS PRIMARILY HEMOTOXIN.
  11.  (U)  INVERTEBRATES
       A.   (U)   CENT I PEDES (SCOLOPENDRA  SPP.) -  HIDES  IN 
LITTER, UNDER  LOOSE BARK,  STONES,  LEAVES, AND  DEBRIS   IN  THE 
 DAYTIME.   BITES ARE   PAINFUL AND  MAY CAUSE  VOMITING, 
HEADACHE,   AND SWELLING.  FATALITIES   ARE RARE AND USUALLY OCCUR 
AMONG CHILDREN.
       B.   (U) SCORPIONS   (ANDROCTONUS  CRASSICAUDA)   -  LIVES 
 IN DRYER   AREAS AND  HUNT  INSECTS  AT NIGHT.   THE ANDROCTONUS 
 CRASSICAUDA IS A   LARGE SCORPION,  HEAVY-BODIED, WITH SLENDER 
PINCERS  AND THICK,  ROBUST - TAIL, APPROXIMATELY   120-140MM  IN 
 LENGTH,  AND DARK BROWN TO BLACK IN   COLOR.  THE   LE]URUS 
QUINQUESTRIATUS   IS A  SMALLER,  THINNER SCORPION,   BROWN  TO   
LIGHT  YELLOW  COLORATION,   VERY SLENDER PINCERS WITH LONG  
FINGERS,  THIN TAIL WITH SHARPLY CURVED  STINGER,  80-90  MM  IN 
LENGTH.  MOST  SCORPION  STINGS  ARE  NOT DANGEROUS,  HOWEVER,  
POTENTIAL DANGER  EXISTS WHERE DUGOUTS, BUNKERS,   OR  OTHER   
SUBTERRANEAN  OR TERRANEAN   SHELTERS HAVE   BEEN ABANDONED,  
SINCE SCORPIONS WILL TAKE UP RESIDENCE   IN THEM  IN LARGE 
NUMBERS.
       C.   (U)   BLACK  WIDOW  SPIDERS   (LATRODECTUS    SPP.)   
IS  WIDELY - DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT WARM RURAL REGIONS,  
ESPECIALLY OPEN FIELDS.  IT    IS OFTEN FOUND UNDER   STONES,   
NEAR  OUT-HOUSES,   HOUSES,   TRASH,  AND   DUMPS.  THE VENOM  IS 
NEUROTOXIC.
[   (b)(6)   ]                                                    
 
 



 

 



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