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File: 950825_22tr0109_143.txt
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Filename:22tr0109.143
*********************************************
This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
*********************************************
Official Special Manual
	No. 469						May not be circulated out of 
								the Armed Forces


Manual
for the tactical use of weapons of mass destruction
Volume Two - Part One
Principles of using chemical and biological agents
in wars

This manual replaces the manual (Principles of using toxic chemical and biological 
agents) number 469 for 1980 and the manual (Defense against a chemical and biological 
warfare) number 230 for 1969.






	General Staff of the Army
	    Training Department					    First Copy
      Directorate of the Chemical Corps				December - 1987




















Number
Amendments
Date Entered


















Distribution Quantity
 
Quantity (A) 5 copies as a basic material for each department, directorate, and 
institution.
Quantity (B) 5 copies as a basic material for commands and formations.
Quantity � 300 copies to the corps school and training center.
Quantity (D) 2 copies for each unit, sub unit, or equivalent in the corps.































Official Special Manual
	No. 469						May not be circulated out of 
								the Armed Forces


Manual
for the tactical use of weapons of mass destruction
Volume Two - Part One
Principles of using chemical and biological agents
in wars

This manual replaces the manual (Principles of using toxic chemical and biological 
agents) number 469 for 1980 and the manual (Defense against a chemical and biological 
warfare) number 230 for 1969.






	General Staff of the Army
	    Training Department					    First Copy
      Directorate of the Chemical Corps				December - 1987

  



































































The finest minds are those that learn from other people�s experience. 
There are sufficient experiences of people and nations to cope with life 
in peace and at war.

							President / Commander
							Saddam Hussein
































Order
This manual was published to train members of the Armed Forces. Therefore, they all have to 
carefully abide by its regulations.






















							[Signature]
Ministry of Defense - Baghdad			Lieutenant General / Special Forces
December - 1987					Nizaar Abdul Kareem Faysal Al-Khazragi
							Army Chief of Staff



















































Contents
______________________________________________________________________________
Part		Chapter	Subject							Page
______________________________________________________________________________
One		___		Chemical Warfare						9	
	One		Development of the Chemical Threat				11
		Two		Classifying and spreading toxic chemical agents  
				Their purpose							13
		Three		Types, properties, preventive measures and 
				decontamination of toxic chemical agents 			17
				Nerve agents...
				Blister agents....
				Choking agents....
				General effect agents (Blood agents)
				Tear agents
				Sneezing agents (Vomiting)
				Psycho chemicals (Incapacitating agents)
		Four		Agents that affect the use of the toxic chemical agents	33
		Five		Analysis of the chemical target and fire plan 			41
		Six		Tactical matters that affect the use of toxic chemical agents	45
				in combat fields and special battles.
		Seven		The chemical defense....					53
Two		__		The biological warfare ...					61
		Eight		Introduction to the history of biological warfare		63
		Nine		Classifying and spreading biological agents			65
		Ten		Characteristics and properties of the biological agents,	69
				Methods of dispersion, and difference between biological  
				agents and toxic chemical agents.
		Eleven		The military use of the biological agents			72
		Twelve	Defense against chemical and biological weapons		74

Annexes
		Annex (A)	Glossary of chemical and biological warfare			79 
				
		Annex (B)	Types and properties of common toxic chemical agents	88
				Their (safety/decontamination/detection/dispersion) measures

			



Contents
______________________________________________________________________________
Part		Chapter	Subject							Page
______________________________________________________________________________
				and infection symptoms
		Annex � 	Spreading toxic chemical agents ....				92
				Appendix (1): Weapons that are available in the United	102
				Kingdom to spread toxic chemical agents.
				Appendix (2): Description of the chemical mines....		103
		Annex (D)	Information for the troops� safety (Safety report for troops	104 
				from chemical attacks)
				Appendix (1): Dangerous distances (measured in meters) of	106 
				non persistent nerve agents with the wind for the unwarned 
				troops (sudden attack)
				Appendix (2): Dangerous distances and duration of toxic	107 
				chemical agents.
				Table Number (1): Downwind safe distance from the 	107 
				fumes upon the attack.
				Table Number (2): Downwind safe distance from the 	108
				fumes after the attack.
				Table Number (3): Danger period of liquid toxic chemical	109
				Agents in the contaminated area.
		Annex (E)	Effects of the weather conditions and the nature of the 	110
				ground on the use of toxic chemical agents.
				Appendix (1) Sample of chemical (biological / radiation)	116 
				weather forecast
		Annex (F)	Evaluating losses of chemical attacks				119
				Appendix (1) Average losses upon using non persistent  	120
				nerve  agents
				Appendix (2): Average losses upon using persistent toxic	121
				chemical agents.
				Table Number (1): Average losses upon using persistent	121
				nerve agents.
				Table Number (2): Average losses upon using blister	122
				agents� fumes.
				Table Number (3): Average losses upon using persistent 	123
				toxic chemical agents by spraying from aircrafts.
		Annex (G)	Equipment of the chemical defense				124
		Annex (H)	Chemical training aids					128

 



 

 



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