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File: 950825_22tr0409_143.txt
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Filename:22tr0409.143
*********************************************
This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
*********************************************
											Annex D
Information for the troops� safety (Report of troops� protection from chemical attacks
General
1. 	The nature and duration of the effects of a toxic chemical agent change according to its 
amount, the type of agent that is used, the weapon used to spread the agent, weather 
conditions, and the nature of the ground. During a chemical attack, the danger comes from



vapors and sprays that blow with the wind towards our troops. The main danger is the remaining 
contaminations and vapors.
Dangers of non persistent toxic chemical agents
2. 	The danger from non persistent toxic chemical agents lies in their downwind vapors and 
sprays on our troops at estimated distances from the target area.
	Appendix 1 lays out the dangerous distances of non persistent nerve agents towards the 
wind for unwarned troops sudden attack) with various weapons.
Dangers of persistent toxic chemical agents
3. 	Liquid (persistent) toxic chemical agents are spread usually from air explosive ammunition 
or special tanks that are mounted on aircrafts. There are four risks that should be taken 
into account when using persistent toxic chemical agents. They are:
	a. 	Instant effects
		One. 		Liquids fall during the attack
		Two.		Vapors upon the attack
	b. 	Eventual effects
		One. 		Vapors  after the attack
		Two. 		Dangerous remaining liquids in the contaminated area
4. 	The danger in the above a. One depends on the firing accuracy when attacked. Thus, the 
danger level is compared with the weapon�s accuracy range.
5. 	Appendix 2 shows the dangerous distances of persistent toxic chemical agents and their 
duration in 3 three tables. They are as follows:
	a.	Table number 1
		Downwind safe distance from vapors upon the attack (instant)
	b. 	Table number 2
		Downwind safe distance from vapors after the attack (eventual)
	c. 	Table number 3
		Duration of the danger of liquids in the contaminated area.



															Appendix 1 of Annex D
Dangerous distances (measured in meters) for non persistent nerve agents with the wind of unwarned troops (sudden attack) with various types of 
weapons

No.
Weapon Type
Number of 
Shots
Weather condition * / Distance in meters


Remarks




Stable
Equal
Unstable


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Dismountable 105 mm mortar
155 mm artillery (M 109)
175 mm artillery (M 107)
8 Knot artillery
[] John missile
Sergeant missile
Artillery
81 mm mortar
Aircraft bombs:
250 pound
750 pound

36
36
12
2
1
1
12
30

6
6
8600
38000
20000
5000
48000
25000
2000
6000

28000
80000
2600
7000
4000
1500
9300
6500
1000
3000

6000
16000
300
300
3000
100
500
400
200
300

700
700
A dangerous distance 
changes according to the
number of fired shots
For example: 12 105 mm mortar shots , 
dismountable. The distance will be 2000, 1000, 
and 200 meters


* Vertical changes in temperature



															Appendix 2 of Annex D
Dangerous distances of persistent toxic chemical agents
and their duration
Table number 1
	Downwind safe distance from vapors upon an attack (instant vapors)

No.


Target 
area
Depth
of
Downwind
Target 
(in meters)
Distances in meters



Nerve agents




Blister agents
Temperature (Centigrade)






(13-25) C
More than 25 C


1.
Open grass area
200
500
1600
4100
900
3200
Air explosive bombs 1500

2.
Forests
200
500
800
2100
500
1100
Aircraft spray 3000

3.
Deserts
200
500
2100
5200
1100
2700



Note: 
A persistent toxic chemical agent (Mustard) freezes at a temperature of 13 degrees centigrade. Therefore, there is no risk of evaporation when the 
temperature is below 13 degrees centigrade




															Appendix 2 of Annex D
Table number 2
Safety distance towards the bottom of the wind from the fumes after the attack (remaining fumes)

No.


Target
area
Depth of 
downwind
target
(in meters)
Distances in meters








                      Blister agents                                                                        Nerve agents








              Temperature (centigrade)                                                    Temperature (Centigrade)








(1-13) C
(13 - 25)
More than 25 C
(13 - 25) C
More than 25 C

1.
Open grassland
200
500
300
700
1600
4100
900
3200
200
500
100
300

2.
Forests
200
500
200
400
800
2100
500
1100
100
300
100
200

3.
Deserts
200
500
400
100
2100
5200
1100
2700
300
800
200
400





Appendix 2 of Annex D
Table number (3)
Danger period of liquid toxic chemical agents in the contaminated area (target)
No.


Troops
Activity


Target 
area
Days after which the target ceases to cause danger to persons who are not wearing protective masks







Blister agents

Nerve agents





Temperature degree (centigrade)

Temperature degree (centigrade)





13 -25 C
More than 25 C
13 to 25 C
More than 25 C

1.
Crossing the 
contaminated area
Short grass
3
2
3
2



Dense forests
6
4
5
4

2.
Occupying the 
contaminated area
Short grass
4
3
4
3



Dense forests
6
4
5
3


Note
The above numbers are just guidelines. Reconnaissance should be performed to confirm the decrease of contamination.
 



 

 



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