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Filename:22tr1012.143 ********************************************* This document is a captured Iraqi military record. It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings. ********************************************* Part One The Chemical Warfare Part One The Chemical Warfare Chapter One Development of the chemical threat History 1. Despite using sulfur oxide fumes in the war between the Greeks and the Spartans in 428 B.C., the beginning of the chemical warfare dates back to April 22, 1915 when Germans used chlorine in the western front... and there were no defensive preparations for such wars. Despite the small amount of gas used, its consequences were substantial. Many think that if the Germans had intensified the chemical attack against the unprotected troops, they would have won the war with this weapon. However, it was too late since by the time the Germans had increased this attack, the allies had become fully ready for it as well. 2. The first protective equipment provided was the primitive mask since it was countered by an effective gas, phosgene, which could penetrate it. Soon came the protective mask against all toxic gas fumes. However, the Mustard agent was the most evasive. Although it could not penetrate the mask through breathing, it was able to attack humans through their skin. 3. World War I ended at this point. However, it may not have uncovered the fact that the use of toxic gas had led to more than one million victims in the western front only. 4. At the beginning of World War II, the allies were not ready to use chemical weapons other than two agents (phosgene and mustard) although a major development had been reached in finding ways to spread them and improve their effects, and in protective measures since quick detection methods were available as well as protective and decontamination equipment. This may be one of the reasons that prevented Germans from using the chemical weapons in World War II. 5. Before the end of the World War II, Germans had shells that contained toxic and liquid chemical agents that were colorless and odorless. The results of the tests showed that they were new (unknown) agents that were lethal, highly toxic, and very effective (since one drop was sufficient to kill a rabbit in a very short period). Research continued on such agents in different parts of the world especially in the Soviet Union and the United States of America. Many highly effective toxic chemical agents were found compared with the agents that were used during World War I and are known to us as the nerve agents. Future Courses 6. The toxic chemical components are currently available in large quantities and come in various types. Some are deadly (lethal) toxic chemical components and others are not deadly (incapacitating) in the field. Some may be prepared to be used with something else if needed. This is what is actually known as the double agent: the two (or more) primary agents are not toxic when they are separate and will be mixed after launching before they reach or hit the target to become a toxic chemical agent. When used, toxic chemical agents look like a drizzle, tiny drops, fumes, solid aerosols, or gas. They affect humans through the respiratory system, the skin, as well as the eyes and the digestive system. They are used in various types of common weapons (artillery/ mortars/ mines /aircrafts/ missiles etc.). 7. Since there are many toxic chemical agents and many means to spread them around, they may be used in all types of wars (from repressing a rebellion to a general war). The developing countries that have the appropriate scientific capability can produce the most dangerous toxic chemical agents since they are inexpensive and relatively easy to use. This constitutes an advantage to the countries that are unable to acquire nuclear weapons since they can acquire an important threat weapon. Its effect is limited to humans and living creatures without destroying installations and industrial ports.
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