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File: 950825_22tr1316_143.txt
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Filename:22tr1316.143
*********************************************
This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
*********************************************
Chapter Two
Classifying and spreading toxic chemical agents
Their purpose

1. 	Classifying toxic chemical agents
	Toxic chemical agents are classified as follows:
a.	The military use
	This classification means in principle applying the effects of the toxic chemical agents to 
the military activities (progression, defense, withdrawal, etc.) They are divided into the 
following:
	One: 	Lethal toxic chemical agents
		(1) 	immediate effect
			Such as nerve agents that show quick and immediate symptoms of 
infection
		(2) 	slow effect
			Such as mustard and nitrogen agents that show symptoms of infection 
after the incubation period.
	Two: 	Harassing toxic chemical agents
		They are agents that disturb individuals for a limited period and do not offer lethal 
concentrations in the field. Such agents are tear and sneezing agents (Adamsite, 
Chloracetophenone, and CS).
	Three: Incapacitating agents
		They are agents that render individuals unable to perform their obligations for a 
limited period of time (their effects are either psychological or physiological) such 
as psycho chemicals (BZ, LSD, Mescaline).
b. 	The physiological effect
	Toxic agents are divided in terms of their physiological effects to lethal toxic chemical 
agents and non lethal toxic chemical agents (they do not have a lethal field concentration) 
as follows:



	One: 	Deadly toxic chemical agents (lethal)
		(1) 	Nerve agents
			They are toxic chemical components that affect the physiology of the 
nerve system. They are highly toxic and effective. They penetrate the 
body through the respiratory system, the skin, the digestive system, and 
the eyes. They are called (the organic phosphorus components) such as 
(Tabun, Sarin, Suman, D.F.P., and VX series)
		(2) 	Blister Agents
			They are toxic chemical components which have effects on the body and 
show up in the form of  a reddish blister, small blisters, large blisters, and 
pyodermatitis depending on the contamination level. They also cause a 
general poisoning to the body. They penetrate the body through the skin, 
the respiratory and digestive systems, the eyes. Such agents are  (Mustard, 
Nitrogen Mustard, Lewisite, and other components.)
		(3) 	Choking agents
			They are toxic chemical components which cause changes in the 
pulmonary tissues. The lungs become unable to provide the body with the 
necessary oxygen and eventually lead to the death of the infected person. 
They mainly affect the respiratory system such as (phosgene, diphosgene, 
and triphosgene)
		(4) 	General effect agents (blood agents) 
			They are toxic chemical agents that affect the body when they are inhaled 
and affect the vital organs (inside the body). They prevent blood and 
oxygen from reaching the tissues and the cells. Such agents are (Hydrogen 
Cyanide, Cyanogen Chloride, Arsine, Phosphate, Carbon Monoxide).
	Two: 	Non lethal toxic chemical agents
		(1) 	Vomiting agents (sneezing)
			They are chemical components that are mostly organic arsenic 
components. 



			They cause coughing, sneezing, pains in the nose, throat, pharynx, 
vomiting, and tears. and They are often accompanied by a headache. For 
example: Adamsite, Diphenylchloroarsine, Diphenylcyanoarsine.
		(2) 	Tear agents
			These agents cause massive tears and irritation in the eyes (temporary) and 
smarting, they cause burns to the skin and the infected feels these agents as 
if he were mangy. For example: Chloracetophenone, bromobenzyl cyanide, 
and CS.
		(3) 	Psycho chemicals
			They are a large group of chemical agents that affect certain nerve cells in 
the brain and cause uncontrollable conducts in humans for a certain period 
of time. For example: Mescaline, LSD-25, and BZ.
	C. 	Persistent (Agent�s persistency) 
		One. 	Persistency means the period during which the toxic chemical agent keeps 
its toxic characteristics (causes the appearance of symptoms). The 
persistency of an agent depends on the following:
			(1) 	Agent�s properties (condition, boiling point, freezing point, 
volatility, etc.)
			(2) 	Agent�s used quantity 
			(3) 	Weather conditions before and after the use.
			(4) 	Nature of the ground
			(5) 	Weapon that is used to spread the agent
		Two. 	Toxic chemical agents are classified in terms of their persistence to the 
following:
			(1) 	Persistent agents- such as nerve agents (VX) and blister agents 
(Mustard).
			(2) 	Semi persistent agents- such as Nerve agents (G, Sarin, Suman, 
etc.)
			(3) 	Non persistent agents - such as general effect agents (Hydrogen 
Cyanide, Cyanogen Chloride) and choking agents (Phosgene)



9. 	Purpose of using chemical weapons
	Toxic chemical agents are used for the following purposes:
	a. 	To affect human resources by contaminating air, persons, ground, weapons, food, 
and others.
	b. 	To hit vital targets inside the enemy�s territory. Thus, they are used for offense 
and defense.
	c. 	To hinder the enemy�s actions and prevent building important military sites.
	d. 	To obstruct the enemy�s way. In this case, they are used in defense.
	e. 	To have psychological effect and weaken the morals among the enemy�s troops.
	f. 	To control riots and acts of violence.
10. 	Means of spreading toxic chemical agents
	The following means are used to spread toxic chemical agents:
	a. 	Aircrafts (bombs / air spray)
	b. 	Missiles
	c. 	Artillery
	d. 	Mortars
	e. 	Mines
	f. 	Hand Grenades
	g. 	Containers
11. 	Spreading toxic chemical agents
	Toxic chemical agents are spread in the following shapes:
	a. 	Liquid drops or rain drizzles.
	b. 	Liquid aerosols such as a light drizzle that can be inhaled.
	c. 	Very small solid particles such as smoke.
	d. 	Fumes
	e. 	Gas

Annex (A)
Annex (A) lays out the glossary that is used in the chemical and biological warfare.




 



 

 



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