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File: 950825_22tr1732_143.txt
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Filename:22tr1732.143
*********************************************
This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
*********************************************

Chapter Three
Types and properties of toxic chemical agents
Their protective measures and decontamination

Nerve agents
General
12. 	They are toxic chemical components that affect the physiology of the nervous system. 
They are highly toxic and very effective. They penetrate the body through the respiratory 
system, the skin, the digestive system, and the eyes. They are called (organic 
phosphorus) components. For example: (Sarin, Suman, Tabun, D.F.P., VX series). Nerve 
agents are divided into two categories:
	a. 	G Agents:
		Such as Tabun GA, Sarin GB, Suman GD, and D.F.P.
	b. 	V agents:
		VX agents are considered dozens of times more toxic than G agents. They were 
produced after World War II. Such agents are O- Methyl - S (N,N,N - 
Trimethylammonium ethyl) - Methyl Thiophosphonate).

13. 	Characteristics of nerve agents
	They feature the following:
	a. 	They are highly toxic.
	b. 	They are very effective. The infection symptoms appear immediately contrary to 
the blister agents (Mustard and Mustard Nitrogen) in which infection symptoms 
appear after the incubation period.
	c. 	They are mostly persistent toxic chemical agents.
	d. 	They affect humans through the respiratory system, the skin pores, the digestive 
system, and the eyes.
	e. 	They require decontamination procedures immediately after the contamination.




	f. 	They require protective clothing to protect the body in general (Protective 
equipment number 1).
14. 	Properties
	Most nerve agents are colorless liquids that are either odorless or have a light fruity odor. 
Their boiling point is more than 140 Co, their freezing point is less than zero degrees 
centigrade from -30 Co to -80 Co. They are slightly soluble in water and very soluble in 
organic solvents and oil derivatives.
15. 	Infection symptoms
	Symptoms depend on the dose to which an individual was exposed, how the agent 
penetrated, and the exposure�s duration. In general, the following symptoms appear when 
exposed to nerve agents no matter how the agents entered the body.
	a. 	Light infection
		One.  	Pinpoint eye pupils.
		Two. 	Cramps in blood vessels.
		Three.	Shrinking muscles in lungs, hearts, and chest.
		Four. 	Headache
		Five. 	General weakness and relatively in the senses
		These symptoms remain one or two days and sometimes longer.
	b. 	Medium infection
		The above symptoms of light infection appear but take effect more quickly and 
severely. They are as follows:
		One. 	Extreme pinpoint eye pupils.
		Two. 	Severe pain in visual accommodation.
		Three.	Dizziness and watery eyes.
		Four. 	Breathing difficulty because of constriction of the bronchi.
		Five. 	High blood pressure and increase in heart beats.
		Six. 	Shrinking muscles and cold sweat.
		Seven.	Loss of balance during movement
		Eight	diarrhea
		Nine. 	Shrinking intestines that cause diarrhea
		These symptoms remain for a period of more than 4 to 5 days.




	c. 	Severe infection
		These symptoms are more severe than in the medium infection and they are as 
follows:
		One. 	Extreme difficulty in breathing.
		Two. 	Very watery eyes and severe nasal discharges
		Three.	Paralysis in muscles
		Four. 	Unconsciousness
		Five. 	Death because of heart failure.
		These symptoms appear within 30 seconds. The infected person becomes 
unconscious within one minute and dies within 5 to 15 minutes.
		An infected person usually dies within one minute or less if exposed through the 
respiratory system, within a few minutes if exposed through the digestive system, 
and within 5 to 20 minutes if exposed through the skin pores.
16. 	Protection
	Protection from nerve agents occurs by using the following:
	a. 	Protective equipment number 1 which consists of:
		One. 	A protective mask (It is essential to personal protection)
		Two. 	A protective cloak (protective coat / protective suit)
		Three.	A pair of light protective gloves
		Four.	A light protective foot gear
	b. 	Two types of shelters: conditioned and non conditioned
	Note
	Nerve agents cannot be usually recognized (sensed) in combat situations. When exposed 
to a nerve agent, initial symptoms are considered the first warning of an attack. As to the 
main protective measures, they consist of using protective equipment especially 
protective masks.
17. 	Decontamination
	The following disinfectants are used to decontaminate nerve agents through equipment 
and various methods (decontamination amount/ decontamination equipment/ 
decontamination vehicles)
	a. [    ] powder
	b. [    ] Ammonia		Non organic chloroxides




	c. 	Decontamination solution number 2. It contains:
		One. 	2% Sodium Hydroxide
		Two. 	5% Monoethanolamine
		Three.	20% Ammonia
		Four.	73 % Water
	d. 	Basic solutions
	e. 	Ammonia Solution
Blister agents
General
18. 	They are toxic chemical components (that have various chemical components). They 
affect humans through:
	a. 	The skin. Their effects appear through a rash, small blisters, and large blisters that 
later explode and the area is infected (depending on the contamination level).  
These effects are called localized effects.
	b. 	The tear tissues
	c. 	The respiratory system
	d. 	The digestive system
	e. 	These agents also cause a general infection to all tissues and cells of the body and 
affect the nuclear acids. They are also accumulative.
		Such agents are Sulfuric Mustards, Nitrogen Mustards, and Lewisite
19. 	Characteristics of blister agents
	They are characterized by the following:
	a. 	They are highly toxic
	b. 	They affect humans through the skin pores, the eyes, and the digestive and 
respiratory systems)
	c. 	They require measures to protect the body in general (a protective mask and 
clothing)
	d. 	They are persistent toxic chemical agents
	e. 	They require decontamination procedures immediately after the infection.



	f. 	These agents have an incubation period that ranges between many hours and many 
days, except for Lewisite and Phosgene that have the immediate infection 
symptoms.
20. 	Properties
	The main blister agent is called Mustard agent. It is a liquid that is colorless when pure 
and dark mocha color when impure. The pure agent has the odor of castor oil and the 
impure agent has the odor of garlic and sulfuric components. Its boiling point is very high 
and reaches 217 Co for pure mustard and 203 Co for impure mustard. Its freezing point is 
14.5 Co for pure mustard and 8.8 Co for impure mustard. It volatility is very low at 0.61 
mg/liter in a 20 Co temperature, very hardly soluble in water, very soluble in organic 
solvents and oil derivatives.
21. 	Infection symptoms
	Blister  agents (Mustard) have localized effects on the skin. They appear like rashes and 
small blisters.... They also have general effects on the body since they affect the DNA. 
The symptoms of infection with mustard agent are the following:
	a. 	Through the skin
		When Mustard drops fall on the skin, they are absorbed within 2 to 3 minutes by 
the skin surface. They are later absorbed within 7 minutes by a deeper layer of the 
skin where they will be fully absorbed within 20 to 30 minutes. Symptoms do not 
appear during this period but after a period that ranges between 2 to 6 hours 
(incubation period) and sometimes 12 hours (depending on the contamination level 
on the surface of the skin). The infected area becomes red but that disappears 
soon for a few days if the exposure level was low. As to the high levels of 
exposures, small blisters appear in the red areas within 6 to 30 hours of the 
infection. They develop and multiply for 3 to 4 days during which no painful 
itching symptoms appear. Later on, the blisters explode and are exposed to 
infections . The healing process from these takes a period that ranges from one to 
two months and probably longer. The infection leaves brown spots on the 
contaminated area after healing.



	Note
	The infection may be accompanied by a fever (increase or decrease in temperature) and a 
tremor.
	b. 	Through the eyes
		Eyes are very sensitive to mustard. The following symptoms appear when 
exposed to mustard fumes:
		One. 	Red and itchy eyes
		Two. 	Irritated eyes
		Three.	Severe allergy to light
		Four. 	Tissue inflammation
		Five. 	Loss of vision (permanent blindness) when Mustard drops fall inside the 
eyes.
	Note
	The above symptoms depend on the mustard concentration and the exposure period.
	c. 	Through the respiratory system
		If mustard smoke is inhaled, the respiratory system is infected and the following 
symptoms appear within 4 to 6 hours.
		One. 	Dry mouth
		Two. 	Chest pains
		Three.	Breathing difficulty
		Four. 	Gradual loss of voice
		Fifth. 	Inflammation of the respiratory tracks and lungs
		Sixth. 	Death in high concentrations.
		The above symptoms depend on the mustard concentration and the exposure 
period.
	d. 	Through the digestive system
		The effect of the mustard through the digestive system is considered more serious 
than its effect through others. The infection symptoms are the inflammation of the 
internal tissues of the digestive system (Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and 
intestines) weakness, and headache.




22. 	Protection
	Protection from blister agents is provided by the following:
	a. 	Protective equipment number 1 that consists of:
		One. 	A protective mask (it is essential in personal protection)
		Two. 	A protective cloak (protective coat / protective suit)
		Three.	A pair of light protective gloves
		Four. 	A light protective foot gear
	b. 	Both types of shelters: conditioned and non conditioned.
23. 	Decontamination
	The following disinfectants are used to decontaminate from blister agents through 
equipment and various means (decontamination quantity / decontamination equipment / 
decontamination vehicles)
	a. [    ] powder
	b. [    ] ammonia			non organic chloroxides

	c. 	Decontamination solution number 1. It consists of 10 % Dichloramine that is 
diluted in Chlorothen or 5 % Hexachloromelamine that is diluted in dichloroethane.
	d. 	Monochloramine solution that is diluted in 10% alcohol.
	e. 	Sodium Sulfide, Sodium carbonate, thionyl chloride, sufaryl chloride, and sodium 
bicarbonate.
	f. 	Ointment that is  used to protect the skin from Lewisite agent.
	g. 	Anethole that is  used through injections for medical treatment of Lewisite agent.
Choking agents
General
24. 	The expression �choking toxic chemical agents� may include all chemical components that 
cause changes in the pulmonary tissues where the lungs fail to provide the body with the 
necessary oxygen and eventually lead to the death of the infected person. In fact, most of 
the toxic chemical agents can cause such changes such as mustard, Lewisite, and others. 
However, choking chemical agents are those that mainly affect the pulmonary tissues and 
lead 





	to their destruction while their effect on other organs and systems in the body is 
secondary or absent. Choking agents include Phosgene, Diphosgene, and Triphosgene. 
These agents are similar in properties. Most casualties during the World War I were a 
result of using Phosgene that caused 80 % of the total of toxic chemical agents losses.
25. 	Characteristics
	They are characterized by the following:
	a. 	They affect humans through the respiratory system only.
	b. 	They are considered among the non persistent (volatile) toxic chemical agents.
	c. 	They are used to contaminate the air only
	d. 	Their incubation period depends on the dose that was received and the 
individual�s vulnerability
	e. 	There is no need to perform decontamination operations in open areas (the field)
		Choking agents have very similar chemical, physiological, and psychological 
properties
26. 	Properties
	The main agent in this group is Phosgene agent that is colorless and has the odor of 
recently mowed grass, yellow corn, or rotten hay. It is highly volatile, badly soluble in 
water, and soluble in organic solvents and oil derivatives.
	Note
	Diphosgene is a liquid while triphosgene in a solid substance.
27. 	Infection symptoms of choking agents
	Upon inhaling air that is contaminated with phosgene, the infected person feels some 
irritation in the respiratory tracks, a strange taste in the mouth, slight dizziness, and a 
general weakness. After being exposed to Phosgene, the mentioned symptoms disappear 
and the incubation period starts and lasts between 4 and 5 hours during which the 
infection of the pulmonary tissues increases and  the following symptoms appear:





	a. 	Accelerated breathing
	b. 	Excessive coughing that is accompanied by nasal discharges and sometimes blood
	c. 	Pain and dizziness that is accompanied by pains in the chest and the throat
	d. 	Accelerated heart beats, general weakness, and difficulty in breathing
	e. 	Blue marks on the face, the ears, and the hand skin
	f. 	Death within two days after the infection in severe cases because the air vesicles 
are torn, phosgene concentrations increased, or high doses were received. In this 
case, the incubation period disappears and the symptoms appear immediately.
28. 	Protection
	The protective mask and both types of shelters, -conditioned and non conditioned- are 
used to protect from choking agents.
29. 	Decontamination
	There is no need to perform decontamination procedures in open spaces (field)
General effect agents (blood agents)
General
30. 	General effect agents have a general impact on the body by destroying the vital organs. 
However, they do not cause any kind of effects on organs or tissues that they use to 
penetrate the body. There are different types of general effect agents. They may have 
different  physiological effect or chemical components. This group include the following 
agents:
	a. 	Hydrogen cyanide.
	b. 	Cyanogen Chloride
	c. 	Arsine
	e. 	Phosphate
	f. 	Carbon monoxide
	g. 	Carbon
	g. 	Alcohols and derivatives.
31. 	Characteristics





	They are characterized by the following:
	a. 	They affect humans through the respiratory system only except for Hydrogen 
cyanide which has an effect through the skin in very high concentrations. 
Cyanogen Chloride also affects the eyes.
	b. 	They are non persistent (volatile) toxic chemical agents
	c. 	They are used to decontaminate the air only
	d. 	They do not have an incubation period except for Arsine.
	e. 	They require a protective mask only to protect the respiratory system
	f. 	There is no need to perform decontamination procedures in the field (open areas)
	g. 	Hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen chloride do not accumulate inside the body.
	We will deal with one important agent: Hydrogen Cyanide.
32. 	Properties of Hydrogen Cyanide / Cyanogen Chloride
	Hydrogen Cyanide is a colorless liquid that has the odor of bitter almond. Its boiling point 
is 25.6 CO. It is very highly volatile and lighter than air. It is soluble in water and organic 
solvents.
33 	Infection symptoms of Hydrogen Cyanide
	The central nervous system is considered more sensitive than the other body organs. 
Therefore, the brains cells are paralyzed. This leads to cramps that are accompanied by 
violent tremors and a change in heart beats. The respiratory system is affected and leads 
to death. A severe infection with Hydrogen Cyanide (Hydrocyanic acid) through the 
respiratory system depends on its concentration in the air and the duration of the 
exposure. Therefore, low concentrations that reach 0.04 mg/liter do not cause any effects 
even if the exposure period reached (6) six hours because the body can overcome small 
doses of this substance and disable its effect totally by transforming it into a relatively 
non toxic substance. The following symptoms appear upon infection:
	a. 	A burning and mineral taste in the mouth.





	b. 	A feeling of strange objects in the mouth.
	c. 	Nausea
	d. 	Vomit
	e. 	Headaches and general weakness
	f. 	Difficulty in breathing
	g. 	Paralysis due to heart failure
	Note
	Cyanogen Chloride is different than Hydrogen Cyanide by its symptoms since it causes 
scars to the respiratory tracts.
35. 	Protection from blood agents
	The protective mask and both types of shelters are used to protect from general effect 
agents (blood agents)
35. 	Decontamination of blood agents
	There is no need to perform decontamination procedures in open areas (field). Covered 
areas are decontaminated by letting air through.
Tear agents
General
36. 	This type of toxic chemical agents was used during World War I, the US -Vietnam war, 
and the Portuguese war with Angola. Those agents are usually known for their use to 
control riots and are used for the following purposes:
	a. 	To disperse demonstrations and control riots.
	b. 	To disable people
	c. 	To force the enemy to evacuate a certain area
	d. 	For training purposes, to test masks and effects of toxic chemical agents on 
humans.
37. 	Characteristics
	They are the following:





	a. 	They do not cause death in �non lethal� field concentrations.
	b. 	They are unstable (volatile) toxic chemical agents
	c. 	Their infection symptoms appear immediately
	d. 	Their infection symptoms disappear after exiting the contaminated area.
	e. 	Only protective mask is used for protection.
	f. 	There is no need to perform decontamination procedures in field concentrations
38. 	Types of tear agents
	Many chemical components cause tears. We will not deal with all of them but they 
include the following components:
		a. 	Chloroacetophenone
		b. 	Chloro Becrine
		c. 	Bromobenzyl cyanide
		d. 	Ortho-chlorobenzylidenemalonotetrite (CS)
	We will deal for the moment with one important tear agent: CS
39. 	CS agent
	CS agent causes immediate effects that start with excessive sneezing even in low 
concentrations. Exposed persons lose the capacity to work. The following symptoms 
appear after being exposed for a period of 20 to 60 seconds of the infection period:
	a. 	Infected, red, and watery eyes
	b. 	Unintentional eye closure by the infected person
	c. 	Irritation and inflammation of the respiratory tracts, and continuous nasal 
discharges
	d. 	Difficulty in breathing and chest pains
	e. 	Pinpoint eye pupils
	f. 	Dizziness
	g. 	Burn in the moist body organs
	h. 	Vomit in high concentrations in addition to the above symptoms.
	i. 	All symptoms appear 5 to 10 minutes after being exposed to fresh 
decontaminated air.





	j. 	The concentration which causes symptoms to the eyes reaches 0.001 to 0.005 
mg/liter
40. 	Protection from tear agents
	The protection mask provides sufficient protection from all tear agents (the face, eyes, 
and respiratory tracts)
Sneezing agents (vomiting)
General
41. 	These agents were called sneezing agents because they cause severe sneezing by affecting 
the sensitive nerve cells in the nasal tissues of the respiratory tracts. This causes a strong 
reaction from the body that consist of the following symptoms:
	a. 	Severe coughing and sneezing that are accompanied by constant and excessive 
nasal discharges and salivation.
	b. 	Chest pains, headaches, watery eyes, difficult breathing, fatigue, and fear.
	c. 	Vomit
	d. 	They cause general infection to the body when they penetrate through the 
digestive system or the wounds since they contains Zernig, a toxic element
42. 	Types of Sneezing agents
	Most organic Zernig components that are derived from Zernig trichloride (Ascl3) are 
considered sneezing agents through respiration. The following agents are examples of 
sneezing agents:
	a. 	Adamsite
	b. 	Diphenylchloroarsine
	c. 	Diphenylcyanoarsine
43. 	Characteristics
	They are the following:
	a. 	They affect the nasal and tear tissues
	b. 	They are considered non lethal toxic chemical agents in field concentrations
	c. 	They are non persistent toxic chemical agents
	d. 	For protection, only the protective mask is used.





	e. 	It is unnecessary to perform decontamination procedures in open spaces (field)
44. 	Protection
	The protective mask and both types of shelters - non conditioned and conditioned - are 
used for protection from sneezing agents.
	Note
	Refer to Annex B for the description of tear and vomiting agents, and psycho chemicals.
Psycho chemicals (incapacitating agents)
General
45. 	Disabling the functions of the body organs may occur either through the direct effect of 
the toxic chemical agents or through the effect of these agents on the nervous system that, 
in turn, causes these organs to malfunction. The toxic properties of various toxic chemical 
agents show that the substances that affect the nerve system (such as the organic 
phosphorous components �nerve agents�) are more toxic than the substances that directly 
affect the organs. Thus, in recent years, scientists mainly from the United States of 
America launched a campaign of the chemical warfare to stop the use of various chemical 
substances that affect the function of the central nervous system which is considered the 
most important system of the human body. It is also the most sensitive system of the 
body when it comes to various effects. Eventually, these substances were called psycho 
chemicals.
46. 	These agents are considered temporary substitutes for fighting since they remove the 
infected person out of the battlefield for a certain period. However, it is very possible 
that these agents cause permanent psychological diseases. The infections may become 
chronic and may even lead to death.
47.  	These agents exist in the Unites States of America and its allied countries. They were 
discovered by scientists who sought to produce medicine to treat people who suffered 
from mental illnesses. As a result of the research, it was noted that some of these 
substances irritate the nervous system and some others relieve the nervous system. Later 
on, these substances were used for military purposes.
48. 	There are two types of people who suffer from psychological illnesses: They are either





	hyper or unconscious. The most common psychological illness is the lack of logical 
thinking or having multiple personalities. The symptoms that interfere with the functions 
of the central system are the following:
	a. 	Failure to move or perform physiological activities
	b. 	Abnormal or unrealistic mental state such as hallucinations and phobia etc.
	c. 	These symptoms may be summarized with the fact that the infected person loses 
any sense of stability and movement or taking the right decisions.
49. 	Properties of the psycho chemicals
	They are the following:
	a. 	They are considered non lethal agents in field concentrations
	b. 	They are non persistent (volatile) toxic chemical agents
	c. 	They mainly affect people through the respiratory system.
	d. 	Only protective masks are used for protection
	e. 	It is unecessary to perform decontamination to the open areas (the field)
50. 	Psycho chemicals include the following chemical components:
	a. 	Mescaline
	b. 	LSD - 25
	c. 	BZ
51. 	Symptoms of infection with LSD - 25
	a. 	Wide eye pupils
	b. 	Accelerated heart beats
	c. 	Loss of control, balance, memory, and capacity to think
	d. 	Unjustified laughing
	e. 	Hallucinations as if to see abnormal things
	f. 	Change in the shape of eyes
	g. 	The skin of the body changes to greenish
	h. 	Schizophrenia





	These symptoms are followed by the feeling of fear, melancholia, and passiveness. The 
infected person is also unable to measure time. Other illness cases occur such as vomit 
and muscles tremors
52 	Protection from psychological effect agents
	Protective masks and both types of shelters - conditioned and non conditioned - are used 
for protection from psycho chemicals.
53. 	Decontamination
	It is unecessary to perform decontamination procedures in open areas (the field)
Annex B
Annex B lays out all types of known toxic chemical agents, their properties, measures of 
(protection, decontamination / detection, infection) and infection symptoms etc.

 



 

 



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