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File: 950825_22tr3340_143.txt
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This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

Chapter Four
Factors that affect the use of toxic chemical agents

54. 	The losses resulting from the use of toxic chemical agents by well protected and trained 
troops cannot be compared with the losses resulting from the use of nuclear weapons on 
the same troops. However, their special characteristics may be invested in certain 
situations with or without conventional weapons. The following are the main principles 
that define the tactical effects of toxic chemical agents in addition to the main 
chracteristics (technical) that were mentioned in Chapters Two and Three of this manual.
55. 	The sudden attack
	a. 	The sudden attack element is considered tactically and strategically one of the 
most important factors that lead to reaching the ultimate effect of the toxic 
chemical agents. Thus, it is always useful to the first user of this agent. It is 
expected for chemical weapons in a general war to be widely spread all over the 
battlefield. In the mobilization, the enemy will have recourse to all kinds of tricks 
to guarantee the sudden attack. The best ways to guarantee a sudden attack when 
using toxic chemical agents are the following:
		One. 	Use toxic chemical agents at night when the enemy is less likely to be 
		Two. 	Launch a sudden and intensified attack on the troops that did not expect to 
be attacked before they can take protective measures such as wearing a 
		Three.	Use chemical bombs along with highly explosive artillery bombs since they 
cannot be identified when they are part of coordinated fire plan.
	b. 	The most important principle to remember when operating the targets with toxic 
chemical agents is to send any amount of the agent as soon as possible. When 
using non persistent toxic chemical agents, this period must not exceed 15 
seconds. It is also required that the chemical ammunition reach the target area 
together. The intensity

		of the effect depends on the time the defensive troops spend on wearing 
protective masks. In turn, this depends on the troops training to use protective 
equipment especially protective masks. The time that it takes a well trained 
soldier to wear a protective mask is eight seconds during the day and ten seconds 
during the night.
	c. 	For the same reason, the wind velocity will have a relatively little effect on the 
effectiveness of non persistent chemical agents to cause losses. The chemical 
ammunition must be spread in the target area after being divided into the areas 
above which the ammunition is to disperse. They do not depend on the wind. 
These considerations can also be applied to the attack with persistent liquid 
chemical agents.
		As to the attack by aircraft spray tanks or bombs that explode in the air, there will 
be a time for warning. This gives a sufficient time to wear the protective mask and 
		In general, it is difficult to achieve the surprise factor by throwing agents from the 
air. The sudden attack can be achieved if agents are launched by ground weapons 
(artillery / missiles)
56. 	Weapons characteristics
	Many ways are used to spread toxic chemical agents in the target area. Details and 
characteristics of the most important weapons that were used for this kind of war were 
mentioned in Annex C of this manual. In general, these toxic chemical agents may be 
spread in the following manners:
	a. 	Ground weapons
		The chemical ammunition may be fired in offensives by any ground weapon 
within its range, accuracy, and specifications. Sudden concentrations may be 
expected to be fired for 30 seconds by using the weapons at their best. If the 
objective of using the chemical ammunition is to disturb the enemy's troops, the 
attacks may be sporadic and accompanied by very explosive bombs as well as 
smoke bombs. As to missiles that contain liquid toxic chemical agents, they may 
be detonated in the air at various altitudes which reach more than 150 meters. It is 
possible to surprise the enemy in such an attack especially if there are low clouds. 
Nevertheless, the results are not

		guaranteed because it is difficult to reach a very accurate explosion point on the 
target. Therefore, it is impossible to use this type of attack in the front area 
especially if supporting an advancing force. It may be used to disturb troops in 
the back area. The following ground weapons are used to spread toxic chemical 
		One. 	Artillery
		Two.	Mortars
		Three.	Guided missiles and shells
		Four.	Mines
		Five. 	Hand grenades
	b. 	Air weapons
		An aircraft's speed, range and attack level at various altitudes enables it to surprise 
the defensive troops. In addition to the aircraft's big capabilities to carry the 
ammunition, these characteristics mean that the close support aircraft may play an 
important role in attacking the targets with toxic chemical agents. Despite the 
danger of the close support aircraft's spray at altitudes of more than 150 meters, it 
has an essential obligation when the chemical warfare breaks in each of the back 
and front areas. Air weapons may be fired for secondary obligations such as 
contaminating a certain area on the ground such as important passages. The firing 
process guarantees the intensity of the contamination a lot more than the aircraft 
spray system. Chemical bombs may be fired along with very explosive bombs to 
hinder rescue and repair operations in the areas.
57. 	Suitable target
	In order to obtain the best results, the target must be studied to take a decision on using 
chemical weapons whether separately or along with other weapons in the fire plan. The 
following matters are considered very closely related to the issue of an appropriate 
estimate of a certain target of a chemical attack:
	a. 	Contents, size, and description of the target and its vicinity to civil areas and our 
	b. 	The required effect (paralysis / losses / disturbance) and whether the chemical 
weapons are to be used separately or with other weapons?

	c. 	The enemy's chemical defense capability that depends on the availability of 
protective equipment and types, the training level, a good warning system, quick 
detection methods etc.
	d. 	The availability and dispersion methods of the appropriate chemical ammunition 
and their readiness to operate the target.
	e. 	Advantages and disadvantages of avoiding the destruction of depots and 
installations in the target area
58. 	Coordinating the use of chemical weapons with other weapons
	a. 	Highly explosive weapons
		The use of chemical weapons must be very carefully integrated within the attack 
plan for any operation. This requires coordinating all weapons that are within the 
attack plan to support the operation. The responsibility for this is entrusted to 
the headquarters that are responsible for coordinating the attack plan. When using 
very explosive weapons against unprepared troops immediately and suddenly 
after intensifying the use of chemical weapons (chemical attack), these troops will 
suffer big losses incurred from the very explosive weapons during their operation 
period by wearing protective equipment. In case the troops were attacked while in 
the open air by very explosive weapons, they will certainly have recourse to lying 
on the ground and thus be more exposed to the effects of the stable toxic chemical 
agents that are on the surface of the ground. The delay in firing the chemical 
ammunition to the final stages of an attack plan guarantees a sudden attack.
	b. 	Nuclear weapons
		Toxic chemical agents may be used on the nuclear targets' surrounding to detect 
the trouble. The enemy's defensive system is considered an appropriate chemical 
target. The toxic chemical agent must be delivered after the end of the blast wave 
which is caused by the nuclear weapons. When using toxic chemical agents with 
nuclear weapons, these agents may be directed against persons who survive the 
explosion as well persons who are in vehicles, armored vehicles, and shelters who 
were not very affected by the nuclear blast.
59. 	Troops' safety
	a. 	When planning for a nuclear attack, the subject of the troops security (our troops)

		must be taken into consideration since this fact sometimes hinders the use of 
chemical weapons, affects the choice of agent type, dispersion methods, and 
explosion sites and points even during the attack.
		The danger covers our troops that are within the same target area as well as the 
troops who are downwind or may be affected or hit because of the inaccuracies.
	b. 	In areas that are contaminated by toxic chemical weapons, people are exposed to 
dangers that depend on the type and quantity of the used chemical agent as well as 
the nature of the ground and the weather conditions.
	c. 	Our troops are not permitted to enter the contaminated areas unless in the 
following cases:
		One.	When wearing protective equipment
		Two.	When performing decontamination operations
		Three.	After a period that is sufficient to lower the risk to the allowed limit
	d. 	Vapors and aerosols of toxic chemical agents cause risks to the troops that are 
downwind from the target area and at certain distances.
		Annex D of this manual lays out information about the dangers of downwind 
explosions and aerosols as well as the dangers of the liquid agent's persistence on 
our troops.
	e. 	Weapon inaccuracies are considered among the important factors since most of 
used weapons have inaccuracies. Thus, upon using toxic chemical agents on 
nearby and friendly sites, the weapon's inaccuracy should be taken into account to 
avoid these sites (Inaccuracy levels are low compared with artillery weapons. 
However, they are high if compared with missiles and shells)
	f. 	The distance that is required for the safety of our troops from the target area is 
known to be the shortest safe distance (Minimum Safety Distance - M. S. D.)
		When the distance is shorter than the minimum safety distance (M. S. D.) the 
leader has to make one of the following decisions:
		One. 	Not to use the chemical weapon.
		Two.	Change the location of the hit (target)

		Three.	Withdraw the troops to the required distance, increase the protective 
measures, or accept a high level of risk. The risk level depends on 
the expected doses and is classified as low, medium, and urgent 
Effects of the weather conditions and the nature of the ground
60. 	General considerations
	The weather and the nature of the ground affect the function of the toxic cloud  and the 
persistence of the toxic chemical agents.
	Despite using almost successfully the chemical agents in all conditions, the appropriate 
ground nature and weather give the most effective results on these agents.
	In general, light winds and normal temperature (10 -20 CO) as well as cloudy weather are 
appropriate for using chemical agents. This normally occurs at night. The ideal wind 
velocity is 2 to 3 meters / second. However, its effectiveness decreases if accompanied by 
high temperature, excessive rain, or extreme cold...
	As to the nature of the ground, the agent's cloud tends to go through valleys and last 
longer in low and green areas. Toxic chemical agents are more effective if the ground is of a 
solid, dry, and hot nature since the liquid chemical agent remains on the surface while 
forming toxic vapors that in turn contaminate the surrounding air. However, the 
contamination period is short since the agent evaporates quickly. If the ground is sandy 
and damp, the chemical agent is absorbed by the soil and the contamination lasts for a 
long time. The evaporation level of the agent is low compared to the first case. Annex E of 
this manual lays out the effects of the weather and the nature of the ground on toxic 
chemical agents.
61. 	Effects of the weather on the use of non persistent toxic chemical agents
	The effect of non persistent toxic chemical agents depends on the quantity of vapors that 
can be generated by these agents in the target area. Wind velocity and air turbulence are 
considered the main factors that affect the concentration of the agent in the toxic cloud 
while it the wind direction defines the main diversion of the cloud. As to rain, it does not 
have any noteworthy effect on non persistent toxic chemical agents. Temperature level 
changes control 

	the air turbulence. In other words, whenever the air temperature decreases by elevating 
away from the surface of the ground, currents that spread vapors (unstable condition) are 
generated. However, if the temperature increased when elevating away from the surface of 
the ground, it creates a stable condition which helps the toxic cloud to stay close to the 
surface of the ground. Therefore, the best conditions for the attack by using non 
persistent toxic chemical agents is a stable condition or "equilibrium".
62. 	Weather effects on persistent toxic chemical agents 
	The persistence of (persistent) toxic chemical agents depend on many combined factors 
that cannot be accurately predicted. In general, temperature degree and wind depend on 
the persistence of the agents
	a. 	Temperature
		Low temperatures on the surface of the ground reduce the evaporation speed of 
the toxic chemical agent and therefore increase the persistence period. At the same 
time, they reduce the danger of its vapors. In cold weather, the liquid chemical 
agent remains a danger for many months. However, it does not constitute a 
dangerous vapor. On the contrary, when the temperature is high on the surface of 
the ground, the evaporation speed of the toxic chemical agent increases and 
eventually forms a dangerous vapor but for a short period of time. It is also 
noteworthy that the temperatures on the surface of the ground not only vary 
according to the altitude above the surface of the ground, the season, and time (day 
/ night) but also to the nature of the ground (soil type). Sandy ground is hotter 
that earthy ground under the same weather conditions.
	b. 	Winds
		High winds cause an acceleration in liquid chemical agents' evaporation and 
eventually reduce the persistence period. In fact, the persistence of the liquid 
chemical agents go contrary to the wind velocity.
	c. 	Rain
		Light rain has little effect on contamination. As to heavy rain on solid ground, it 
leads to washing out a part of the contamination. This does not mean that its 
danger is gone. As known, nerve agents are soluble in water while water solubility 
for the mustard is low.

	d. 	Snow
		Snow covers the contaminated area and reduces the effects of toxic chemical 
agents. However, after melting, the effects resurface.
63. 	Effects of the ground
	a. 	Soil
		The nature of the ground affects toxic chemical agents . The decomposition of the 
smoke cloud (toxic agent) when passing through an open area is lower than when 
passing through winding and rugged territories. The cloud tends to follow low 
elevations even if it were going against the wind in high elevations. The toxic 
concentration in the built or bordered area, or in forests lingers longer than in open 
	b. 	Soil and plants
		Liquid chemical agents are affected by the nature of the soil. In the solid soil, the 
liquid remains above the surface and mostly not absorbed. Therefore, it is exposed 
to the effects of temperature, humidity, and rain. On the other hand, dry soil 
absorbs the liquid and is eventually affected. In general, it may be said that 
persistent toxic chemical agents remain for a longer period in covered grounds (not 
desert) and forests. A part of the liquid chemical agent will stick to the grass and 
leaves and thus increase the contaminated area.

The three annexes show the following (we wish to refer to them)
Annex C: Dispersion methods and characteristics of toxic chemical agents
Annex D: Information about the troops (our troops) safety (Troops safety report of the chemical attacks)
Annex E: Effects of weather conditions and nature of the ground (area) on using toxic chemical agents.




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