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Filename:22tr3340.143 ********************************************* This document is a captured Iraqi military record. It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings. ********************************************* Chapter Four Factors that affect the use of toxic chemical agents General 54. The losses resulting from the use of toxic chemical agents by well protected and trained troops cannot be compared with the losses resulting from the use of nuclear weapons on the same troops. However, their special characteristics may be invested in certain situations with or without conventional weapons. The following are the main principles that define the tactical effects of toxic chemical agents in addition to the main chracteristics (technical) that were mentioned in Chapters Two and Three of this manual. 55. The sudden attack a. The sudden attack element is considered tactically and strategically one of the most important factors that lead to reaching the ultimate effect of the toxic chemical agents. Thus, it is always useful to the first user of this agent. It is expected for chemical weapons in a general war to be widely spread all over the battlefield. In the mobilization, the enemy will have recourse to all kinds of tricks to guarantee the sudden attack. The best ways to guarantee a sudden attack when using toxic chemical agents are the following: One. Use toxic chemical agents at night when the enemy is less likely to be awake. Two. Launch a sudden and intensified attack on the troops that did not expect to be attacked before they can take protective measures such as wearing a mask. Three. Use chemical bombs along with highly explosive artillery bombs since they cannot be identified when they are part of coordinated fire plan. b. The most important principle to remember when operating the targets with toxic chemical agents is to send any amount of the agent as soon as possible. When using non persistent toxic chemical agents, this period must not exceed 15 seconds. It is also required that the chemical ammunition reach the target area together. The intensity of the effect depends on the time the defensive troops spend on wearing protective masks. In turn, this depends on the troops training to use protective equipment especially protective masks. The time that it takes a well trained soldier to wear a protective mask is eight seconds during the day and ten seconds during the night. c. For the same reason, the wind velocity will have a relatively little effect on the effectiveness of non persistent chemical agents to cause losses. The chemical ammunition must be spread in the target area after being divided into the areas above which the ammunition is to disperse. They do not depend on the wind. These considerations can also be applied to the attack with persistent liquid chemical agents. As to the attack by aircraft spray tanks or bombs that explode in the air, there will be a time for warning. This gives a sufficient time to wear the protective mask and clothing. In general, it is difficult to achieve the surprise factor by throwing agents from the air. The sudden attack can be achieved if agents are launched by ground weapons (artillery / missiles) 56. Weapons characteristics Many ways are used to spread toxic chemical agents in the target area. Details and characteristics of the most important weapons that were used for this kind of war were mentioned in Annex C of this manual. In general, these toxic chemical agents may be spread in the following manners: a. Ground weapons The chemical ammunition may be fired in offensives by any ground weapon within its range, accuracy, and specifications. Sudden concentrations may be expected to be fired for 30 seconds by using the weapons at their best. If the objective of using the chemical ammunition is to disturb the enemy's troops, the attacks may be sporadic and accompanied by very explosive bombs as well as smoke bombs. As to missiles that contain liquid toxic chemical agents, they may be detonated in the air at various altitudes which reach more than 150 meters. It is possible to surprise the enemy in such an attack especially if there are low clouds. Nevertheless, the results are not guaranteed because it is difficult to reach a very accurate explosion point on the target. Therefore, it is impossible to use this type of attack in the front area especially if supporting an advancing force. It may be used to disturb troops in the back area. The following ground weapons are used to spread toxic chemical agents: One. Artillery Two. Mortars Three. Guided missiles and shells Four. Mines Five. Hand grenades b. Air weapons An aircraft's speed, range and attack level at various altitudes enables it to surprise the defensive troops. In addition to the aircraft's big capabilities to carry the ammunition, these characteristics mean that the close support aircraft may play an important role in attacking the targets with toxic chemical agents. Despite the danger of the close support aircraft's spray at altitudes of more than 150 meters, it has an essential obligation when the chemical warfare breaks in each of the back and front areas. Air weapons may be fired for secondary obligations such as contaminating a certain area on the ground such as important passages. The firing process guarantees the intensity of the contamination a lot more than the aircraft spray system. Chemical bombs may be fired along with very explosive bombs to hinder rescue and repair operations in the areas. 57. Suitable target In order to obtain the best results, the target must be studied to take a decision on using chemical weapons whether separately or along with other weapons in the fire plan. The following matters are considered very closely related to the issue of an appropriate estimate of a certain target of a chemical attack: a. Contents, size, and description of the target and its vicinity to civil areas and our troops. b. The required effect (paralysis / losses / disturbance) and whether the chemical weapons are to be used separately or with other weapons? c. The enemy's chemical defense capability that depends on the availability of protective equipment and types, the training level, a good warning system, quick detection methods etc. d. The availability and dispersion methods of the appropriate chemical ammunition and their readiness to operate the target. e. Advantages and disadvantages of avoiding the destruction of depots and installations in the target area 58. Coordinating the use of chemical weapons with other weapons a. Highly explosive weapons The use of chemical weapons must be very carefully integrated within the attack plan for any operation. This requires coordinating all weapons that are within the attack plan to support the operation. The responsibility for this is entrusted to the headquarters that are responsible for coordinating the attack plan. When using very explosive weapons against unprepared troops immediately and suddenly after intensifying the use of chemical weapons (chemical attack), these troops will suffer big losses incurred from the very explosive weapons during their operation period by wearing protective equipment. In case the troops were attacked while in the open air by very explosive weapons, they will certainly have recourse to lying on the ground and thus be more exposed to the effects of the stable toxic chemical agents that are on the surface of the ground. The delay in firing the chemical ammunition to the final stages of an attack plan guarantees a sudden attack. b. Nuclear weapons Toxic chemical agents may be used on the nuclear targets' surrounding to detect the trouble. The enemy's defensive system is considered an appropriate chemical target. The toxic chemical agent must be delivered after the end of the blast wave which is caused by the nuclear weapons. When using toxic chemical agents with nuclear weapons, these agents may be directed against persons who survive the explosion as well persons who are in vehicles, armored vehicles, and shelters who were not very affected by the nuclear blast. 59. Troops' safety a. When planning for a nuclear attack, the subject of the troops security (our troops) must be taken into consideration since this fact sometimes hinders the use of chemical weapons, affects the choice of agent type, dispersion methods, and explosion sites and points even during the attack. The danger covers our troops that are within the same target area as well as the troops who are downwind or may be affected or hit because of the inaccuracies. b. In areas that are contaminated by toxic chemical weapons, people are exposed to dangers that depend on the type and quantity of the used chemical agent as well as the nature of the ground and the weather conditions. c. Our troops are not permitted to enter the contaminated areas unless in the following cases: One. When wearing protective equipment Two. When performing decontamination operations Three. After a period that is sufficient to lower the risk to the allowed limit d. Vapors and aerosols of toxic chemical agents cause risks to the troops that are downwind from the target area and at certain distances. Annex D of this manual lays out information about the dangers of downwind explosions and aerosols as well as the dangers of the liquid agent's persistence on our troops. e. Weapon inaccuracies are considered among the important factors since most of used weapons have inaccuracies. Thus, upon using toxic chemical agents on nearby and friendly sites, the weapon's inaccuracy should be taken into account to avoid these sites (Inaccuracy levels are low compared with artillery weapons. However, they are high if compared with missiles and shells) f. The distance that is required for the safety of our troops from the target area is known to be the shortest safe distance (Minimum Safety Distance - M. S. D.) When the distance is shorter than the minimum safety distance (M. S. D.) the leader has to make one of the following decisions: One. Not to use the chemical weapon. Two. Change the location of the hit (target) Three. Withdraw the troops to the required distance, increase the protective measures, or accept a high level of risk. The risk level depends on the expected doses and is classified as low, medium, and urgent (high). Effects of the weather conditions and the nature of the ground 60. General considerations The weather and the nature of the ground affect the function of the toxic cloud and the persistence of the toxic chemical agents. Despite using almost successfully the chemical agents in all conditions, the appropriate ground nature and weather give the most effective results on these agents. In general, light winds and normal temperature (10 -20 CO) as well as cloudy weather are appropriate for using chemical agents. This normally occurs at night. The ideal wind velocity is 2 to 3 meters / second. However, its effectiveness decreases if accompanied by high temperature, excessive rain, or extreme cold... As to the nature of the ground, the agent's cloud tends to go through valleys and last longer in low and green areas. Toxic chemical agents are more effective if the ground is of a solid, dry, and hot nature since the liquid chemical agent remains on the surface while forming toxic vapors that in turn contaminate the surrounding air. However, the contamination period is short since the agent evaporates quickly. If the ground is sandy and damp, the chemical agent is absorbed by the soil and the contamination lasts for a long time. The evaporation level of the agent is low compared to the first case. Annex E of this manual lays out the effects of the weather and the nature of the ground on toxic chemical agents. 61. Effects of the weather on the use of non persistent toxic chemical agents The effect of non persistent toxic chemical agents depends on the quantity of vapors that can be generated by these agents in the target area. Wind velocity and air turbulence are considered the main factors that affect the concentration of the agent in the toxic cloud while it the wind direction defines the main diversion of the cloud. As to rain, it does not have any noteworthy effect on non persistent toxic chemical agents. Temperature level changes control the air turbulence. In other words, whenever the air temperature decreases by elevating away from the surface of the ground, currents that spread vapors (unstable condition) are generated. However, if the temperature increased when elevating away from the surface of the ground, it creates a stable condition which helps the toxic cloud to stay close to the surface of the ground. Therefore, the best conditions for the attack by using non persistent toxic chemical agents is a stable condition or "equilibrium". 62. Weather effects on persistent toxic chemical agents The persistence of (persistent) toxic chemical agents depend on many combined factors that cannot be accurately predicted. In general, temperature degree and wind depend on the persistence of the agents a. Temperature Low temperatures on the surface of the ground reduce the evaporation speed of the toxic chemical agent and therefore increase the persistence period. At the same time, they reduce the danger of its vapors. In cold weather, the liquid chemical agent remains a danger for many months. However, it does not constitute a dangerous vapor. On the contrary, when the temperature is high on the surface of the ground, the evaporation speed of the toxic chemical agent increases and eventually forms a dangerous vapor but for a short period of time. It is also noteworthy that the temperatures on the surface of the ground not only vary according to the altitude above the surface of the ground, the season, and time (day / night) but also to the nature of the ground (soil type). Sandy ground is hotter that earthy ground under the same weather conditions. b. Winds High winds cause an acceleration in liquid chemical agents' evaporation and eventually reduce the persistence period. In fact, the persistence of the liquid chemical agents go contrary to the wind velocity. c. Rain Light rain has little effect on contamination. As to heavy rain on solid ground, it leads to washing out a part of the contamination. This does not mean that its danger is gone. As known, nerve agents are soluble in water while water solubility for the mustard is low. d. Snow Snow covers the contaminated area and reduces the effects of toxic chemical agents. However, after melting, the effects resurface. 63. Effects of the ground a. Soil The nature of the ground affects toxic chemical agents . The decomposition of the smoke cloud (toxic agent) when passing through an open area is lower than when passing through winding and rugged territories. The cloud tends to follow low elevations even if it were going against the wind in high elevations. The toxic concentration in the built or bordered area, or in forests lingers longer than in open areas. b. Soil and plants Liquid chemical agents are affected by the nature of the soil. In the solid soil, the liquid remains above the surface and mostly not absorbed. Therefore, it is exposed to the effects of temperature, humidity, and rain. On the other hand, dry soil absorbs the liquid and is eventually affected. In general, it may be said that persistent toxic chemical agents remain for a longer period in covered grounds (not desert) and forests. A part of the liquid chemical agent will stick to the grass and leaves and thus increase the contaminated area. Annexes The three annexes show the following (we wish to refer to them) Annex C: Dispersion methods and characteristics of toxic chemical agents Annex D: Information about the troops (our troops) safety (Troops safety report of the chemical attacks) Annex E: Effects of weather conditions and nature of the ground (area) on using toxic chemical agents.
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