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Filename:22tr4144.143 ********************************************* This document is a captured Iraqi military record. It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings. ********************************************* Chapter Five Analyzing the chemical target and creating an offensive plan General considerations 64. Analyzing the chemical target is the process of studying the existing and eventual targets to evaluate their compatibility with the chemical attack and choose the appropriate type of agent and weapon. The process of analyzing the target should also include the results that are required for the chemical attack. In the defense, the staff board is responsible for assessing the possibilities and predicting the effects of a chemical attack on our troops as well as evaluating the losses of the attack after it occurs. Steps to analyze the chemical target 65. The steps to analyze the chemical target of a chemical attack include the following steps: a. Knowing the commander's objective Although the commander's objective is to inflict the biggest losses to the enemy�s troops, there are certain matters that need to be noted: One. The delay period or the effectiveness of the enemy. Two. What are the units that need to be paralyzed (disabled) Three. Is the effect required a temporary delay or disabling losses. Four. The commander may mention the total losses that are required for a certain target. b. Selecting the target One. Shape of the target In order to get the maximum effect, the shape of the target need to be very appropriate with how the used weapon spreads. For example, a weapon that spreads 500 meters around cannot operate a line target of 1000 meters long and 100 meters wide. The shape of the area that is hit by missiles or shells that carry chemical warheads is almost circular (oblong) and the shape the area that is contaminated by aircraft spray is almost straight. The contamination density is contrary to the altitude of the explosion. Two. Size of the target Targets usually have uneven sizes and shapes. However, they should be converted into circles with half diameter that are known to proceed with the analysis process. The troops' location is considered fixed at 300 x 150 meters. It should be noted that the larger the size of the target, the larger are the areas it occupies. Three. Nature of the target Since the chemical attack mainly target the troops, the information (about the enemy's force, training, chemical equipment, morals, restrain, competence of the chemical equipment etc) is considered extremely important. The effectiveness of the enemy should also be evaluated in the target's area, type and quantity of available chemical protective equipment and the competence in using them. During the process of selecting the target, a study should also be made for the targets that are going to be indirectly attacked (to study the target that are located downwind). The study should pertain to equipment, mobility from locations to others after an attack. Four. Location of the target If the objective of the chemical attack is to cause temporary losses, the targets should be accurately determined. This leads in turn to reducing the quantity of the required ammunition and inflicting the required losses. However, if the attack's target is to paralyze or delay the troops, they would be no need for accurate information on the target's location. The availability of friendly troops near the target area is considered an important factor that affects the process of whether to select the target or not for a chemical attack. c. Plants and soil The nature of the soil affects toxic chemical agents. Paths, valleys, and hills are used as channels by toxic chemical agents' clouds that come from unexpected directions. Therefore, the area's curves should be studied and the characteristics of the ground should be note. Local plants also cause changes in the normal function of the toxic chemical agents since deserts, forest, and cultivated land all affect the process of analyzing the target. A close attention should be paid to evaluating their effects. d. Selecting the appropriate agents The following factors determine the process of selecting an agent: One. The type of expected effects and losses: are they lethal, disabling, or paralyzing? Two. Is the required duration of the effect temporary or delayed? Is the risk persistent or not? Three. Future plan near our troops during attack and the accepted danger level Four. Agents' availability Five. Appropriate weapon's availability Six. Weather conditions, nature of the ground and the target. e. Selecting dispersion methods The process of selecting the appropriate method to spread the selected chemical agent in the target area consists of the following: One. Make an inventory of the weapons that provide the spread of the selected chemical agent within the target�s range and represent the required accuracy. Two. In order to get the required sudden effect, the length of the fire duration is 30 seconds only. Three. Evaluate the quantity of ammunition that is necessary to cause the required effect. It includes evaluating the size of the target, the nature of the soil, and the protection level of the enemy. Four. Evaluate each weapon's capability to achieve all or part of the required operation. Five. Compare the above Three and Fourth, then take a decision on the weapon or weapons that are used. f. Chemical ammunition requirements and losses prediction A accurate prediction of the expected losses and the quantity of the required chemical ammunition depend on the enemy's capability and alert, and the level of chemical training of its troops as well as the function of its chemical equipment. Annex F lays out an assessment of the losses of the chemical attacks. These numbers were obtained during exercises conducted by the British army. 66. The are other steps that include the process of analyzing the chemical target and were detailed in Chapter Four of this manual. They are about the troops' safety / a study of the weather conditions and the nature of the ground. Annex F Annex F lays out the assessment of the chemical attacks' losses.
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