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File: 950825_22tr4144_143.txt
Page: 143
Total Pages: 1

This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
	Chapter Five
	Analyzing the chemical target and creating an offensive plan
General considerations
64. 	Analyzing the chemical target is the process of studying the existing and eventual targets 
to evaluate their compatibility with the chemical attack and choose the appropriate type 
of agent and weapon. The process of analyzing the target should also include the results 
that are required for the chemical attack. In the defense, the staff board is responsible for 
assessing the possibilities and predicting the effects of a chemical attack on our troops as 
well as evaluating the losses of the attack after it occurs.
Steps to analyze the chemical target
65. 	The steps to analyze the chemical target of a chemical attack include the following steps:
	a. 	Knowing the commander's objective
		Although the commander's objective is to inflict the biggest losses to the enemy�s 
troops, there are certain matters that need to be noted:
	One. 	The delay period or the effectiveness of the enemy.
	Two.	What are the units that need to be paralyzed (disabled)
	Three.	Is the effect required a temporary delay or disabling losses.
	Four. 	The commander may mention the total losses that are required for a certain target.
	b. 	Selecting the target
		One. 	Shape of the target
			In order to get the maximum effect, the shape of the target need to be very 
appropriate with how the used weapon spreads. For example, a weapon 
that spreads 500 meters around cannot operate a line target of 1000 meters 
long and 100 meters wide.
			The shape of the area that is hit by missiles or shells that carry chemical 
warheads is almost circular (oblong) and the shape the area that is 
contaminated by aircraft spray is almost straight. The contamination 
density is contrary to the altitude of the explosion.
		Two. 	Size of the target
			Targets usually have uneven sizes and shapes. However, they should be 

		converted into circles with half diameter that are known to proceed with the 
analysis process. The troops' location is considered fixed at 300 x 150 meters. It 
should be noted that the larger the size of the target, the larger are the areas it 
		Three.	Nature of the target
			Since the chemical attack mainly target the troops, the information (about 
the enemy's force, training, chemical equipment, morals, restrain, 
competence of the chemical equipment etc) is considered extremely 
important. The effectiveness of the enemy should also be evaluated in the 
target's area, type and quantity of available chemical protective equipment 
and the competence in using them. During the process of selecting the 
target, a study should also be made for the targets that are going to be 
indirectly attacked (to study the target that are located downwind). The 
study should pertain to equipment, mobility from locations to others after 
an attack.
		Four. 	Location of the target
			If the objective of the chemical attack is to cause temporary losses, the 
targets should be accurately determined. This leads in turn to reducing the 
quantity of the required ammunition and inflicting the required losses. 
However, if the attack's target is to paralyze or delay the troops, they 
would be no need for accurate information on the target's location.
			The availability of friendly troops near the target area is considered an 
important factor that affects the process of whether to select the target or 
not for a chemical attack.
	c. 	Plants and soil
		The nature of the soil affects toxic chemical agents. Paths, valleys, and hills are 
used as channels by toxic chemical agents' clouds that come from unexpected 
directions. Therefore, the area's curves should be studied and the characteristics of 
the ground should be note. Local plants also cause changes in the normal function 
of the toxic chemical agents since deserts, forest, and cultivated land all affect the 
process of analyzing the target. A close attention should be paid to evaluating 
their effects.

	d. 	Selecting the appropriate agents
		The following factors determine the process of selecting an agent:
		One. 	The type of expected effects and losses: are they lethal, disabling, or 
		Two. 	Is the required duration of the effect temporary or delayed? Is the risk 
persistent or not?
		Three.	Future plan near our troops during attack and the accepted danger level
		Four. 	Agents' availability
		Five. 	Appropriate weapon's availability
		Six. 	Weather conditions, nature of the ground and the target.
	e. 	Selecting dispersion methods
		The process of selecting the appropriate method to spread the selected chemical 
agent in the target area consists of the following:
		One. 	Make an inventory of the weapons that provide the spread of the selected 
chemical agent within the target�s range and represent the required 
		Two. 	In order to get the required sudden effect, the length of the fire duration is 
30 seconds only.
		Three.	Evaluate the quantity of ammunition that is necessary to cause the 
required effect. It includes evaluating the size of the target, the 
nature of the soil, and the protection level of the enemy.
		Four.	Evaluate each weapon's capability to achieve all or part of the required 
		Five.	Compare the above Three and Fourth, then take a decision on the weapon 
or weapons that are used.
	f. 	Chemical ammunition requirements and losses prediction
		A accurate prediction of the expected losses and the quantity of the required 
chemical ammunition depend on the enemy's capability and alert, and the level of 
chemical training of its troops as well as the function of its chemical equipment.
		Annex F lays out an assessment of the losses of the chemical attacks. These 
numbers were obtained during exercises conducted by the British army.

66. 	The are other steps that include the process of analyzing the chemical target and were 
detailed in Chapter Four of this manual. They are about the troops' safety / a study of the 
weather conditions and the nature of the ground.
	Annex F 
	Annex F lays out the assessment of the chemical attacks' losses.




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