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File: 950825_22tr4552_143.txt
Page: 143
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This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

	Chapter Six
	Tactical matters that affect the use of
	Toxic chemical agents in combat and special combats

General considerations
67. 	The use of chemical weapons imposes developing the conventional doctrine instead of 
changing it in comparison with the nuclear weapons that imposed new principles. 
Nevertheless, owning weapons that can inflict big and various losses from incapacitating 
to lethal, gives the leader a certain flexibility in using the available fire force.
68. 	Toxic chemical agents are used in offensive and defensive operations under nuclear and 
non nuclear conditions, and in a specific or general war. Toxic chemical agents may be 
used separately or with other weapons for reinforcement.
Using toxic chemical agents in combat and special combats.
69. 	The defense
	a. 	Ground contamination does not prevent the attacker from penetrating the area. 
However, the danger of continuous losses remain as well as the necessity to keep 
the protective equipment which lead to determining the competence. All this 
makes the attacker unable to proceed to the target after occupying it for a period 
of time. Decontamination operations are considered hindering factors. In general, 
the defensor uses liquid toxic chemical agents in the following areas:
		One.	The areas that are appropriate for surveillance
		Two.	The possible formation locations
		Three.	Sites of headquarters and passages. Vehicles and mines are usually used for 
contamination in combat. If this method is tactically inappropriate, 
aircraft sprays, air bombs, or artillery shells are used. However, 
this method causes less contaminations than the first method and is 
only used as a secondary method.

	b. 	Non persistent toxic chemical agents are effective when used on unprotected 
attackers through mortars, artillery, and missiles. This forces them to wear 
protective masks. The possible targets of an attack are concentration, shelter and 
formation sites.
		Toxic chemical agents mainly affect tired troops who performed exhausting 
activities. Thus, the attacker is usually more susceptible to toxic chemical agents.
	c. 	The sudden use of chemical ammunition is followed by a combination of chemical 
ammunition and an effective shelling. Therefore, chemical weapons cause losses 
with their chemical effect and the explosion of shells that contain toxic chemical 
agents. They also have indirect effects due to the contamination of the ground, 
equipment, and vehicles that become dangerous for troops that were  not warned 
about the contamination of these materials.
	d. 	Troops that are in open air, groups that have special obligations such as building 
bridges, and troops that make preparations for the offensive sites or are in 
uncovered trenches (such as shelters), are among the good targets for aircrafts that 
spray toxic chemical agents (Spray method may not lead to direct losses. 
Therefore, it is considered more appropriate against precautions and back areas)
	e. 	The defensor should evaluate the effects of the chemical agents that are directed 
against him. Therefore, the following measures must be taken: Protection, warning, 
decontamination, supplies, and medical treatment of the infected troops. These 
measure do not provide full protection in the field. If possible, it should be noted 
not to select the defensive sites where there are contaminated air currents or a 
toxic cloud has settled. The spreading factor is considered an appropriate matter. 
In the chemical warfare, the importance of alternative sites is evident.
70. 	The offense
	a. 	The offense always tries to use the weakness of the chemical measures and make 
preparations for a chemical attack.
		The better the information are, the more opportunities there are to use the 
weakness and invest the advantage of the chemical weapon. If the offense have 

		chemical weapons and techniques, they will be able to use the capabilities of the 
toxic chemical agents especially when the plan to use them is coordinated with the 
firing plan and the sudden use is not forgotten.
		In general, it is appropriate to use non persistent chemical agents in front areas 
especially those that are selected during the attack since they take effect and 
disappear quickly.
		Trenches and shelters do not provide protection against toxic chemical agents 
vapors. Conditioned shelters are also considered unpractical under the current 
combat conditions. Armored vehicles and personnel carriers are considered 
susceptible if they are not equipped with air filters. A danger lies in the toxic 
vapors if the wind direction is with the offensive troops or the troops that are 
surrounding the area. Therefore, all troops that are downwind are to be warned 
prior to the attack to take the necessary preventive measures. As to the attack 
troops that are entrusted with occupying the contaminated area, they must wear 
all protective equipment especially the protective masks.
		All contaminated areas must be avoided including the bushy areas and forests 
where the vapor of the toxic chemical agents remains longer than in the other areas. 
The troops must keep the protective mask until they are sure that the area is not 
contaminated or the contamination level is within the allowed limit. This occurs 
by using various detection methods (chemical reconnaissance gear / detection 
sheets / chemical detection equipment)
	b. 	The use of non persistent chemical agents
		Non persistent chemical agents such as Sarin are used in the front areas (front 
sites, barriers, immobile and mobile reserve, and artillery sites) especially those 
that are selected during the attack because they take effect and disappear quickly. 
They are also used in thick forests and built areas. The following should be noted:
		One. 	Trenches and shelters do not provide full protection against vapors. 
Shelters that are equipped with filters (conditioned) are also considered 
unpractical under the current combat conditions.

		Two. 	Armored vehicles and personnel carriers are considered susceptible if they 
are not equipped with air filters
		Three.	Attack troops that are entrusted with occupying the contaminated area 
must wear protective equipment.
		Four. 	It is noteworthy that there is a danger in vapors if the wind is towards the 
offensive troops, the troops that surround the area, or are downwind. 
Then, all troops that are located downwind must be warned to take 
protective measures.
		Five. 	Chemical bomb craters must be avoided (place of the explosion) since they 
are contaminated. Bushy areas and forests must also be avoided since the 
agents remains there for a longer period.
	c. 	The use of persistent liquid chemical agents
		Persistent liquid toxic chemical agents that remain toxic for a long period 
(especially those that show infection symptoms after some time) may be easily 
used behind the front area. Thus, they are appropriate for the deep targets etc. 
especially for reserve troops and administrative areas.
		They are also appropriate to weaken the immunity of strong defenses from the 
dangers of touching the liquid agent. Its vapor also causes losses for long period 
because of the constant evaporation of the toxic vapors. The offense should also 
expect chemical attacks by artillery and take the appropriate preventive measures.
71. 	In general, non persistent chemical agents such as Sarin are more appropriate to support 
attacks that are quickly carried out in the front areas. However, persistent toxic chemical 
agents such as VX and HD are appropriate for attacking deep targets and supporting a 
prepared attack. The targets include the troops in the front sites, barriers, mobile or 
immobile reserves, and artillery areas.
	In all cases, an attack during the night is the most appropriate since it is possible that the 
troops may not be widely awake, the protective equipment not ready. In addition, 
weather conditions are more appropriate at night than during the day. Toxic chemical 
agents are also 

	appropriate in the stages of close clashes against the strong defenses in dense forests or 
built areas for the purpose of confusing the enemy and weakening its defenses.
72. 	The advance
	a. 	The general considerations that affect the use of toxic chemical agents in the attack 
also applies to the advance.
	b. 	The targets that are located ahead of the very advanced troops will be among the 
targets that are preferably selected for the chemical attack. The best way for 
attacking them is the air attack (spray method). The difficulty of piling a sufficient 
amount of the chemical ammunition in the appropriate location may render the use 
of the ground weapons (artillery and mortars) limited to the temporary disturbing 
	c. 	When the troops continue their advance with the evacuating enemy, they should 
expect to be involved in contaminated selected areas such as straits, barriers, and 
passages. The spray method is also expected to be used.
	d. 	Good chemical training, the necessary protective measures, and decontamination 
capabilities guarantee avoiding the delay imposed by the evacuating troops and 
decreases the losses. All armored troops have to take the appropriate preventive 
measures when passing through the contaminated ground. It is preferable to avoid 
the contaminated areas if possible.
73. 	The evacuation
	When evacuating, toxic chemical agents are used against the following targets:
	a. 	Straits that are located on the main evacuation roads
	b. 	Destruction areas
	c. 	Crossing areas for the water areas
	d. 	Contamination of selected passages
	e. 	Using liquid chemical agents on the evacuation roads
	f. 	Blockading the front troop and then form an appropriate target for aircraft sprays 
or artillery use.
74. 	Mountain wars
	a. 	Communication lines are put in the mountainous areas along the main valleys. 

		are a few. Vital points, farms, houses, and water sources are located in theses areas 
or close by. On the other hand, elevations provide surveillance points, very good 
control, and protected locations that are very hard to hit with artillery shells and 
air bombs. They may provide partial protection from nuclear weapons. However, 
they can be treated with chemical weapons.
	b. 	Toxic chemical agents are used in general against the following targets:
		One. 	The use of non persistent chemical agents against front areas
		Two. 	The use of persistent toxic chemical agents against fortified and deep sites 
such as artillery and reserve areas.
	c. 	Among the specifications of the mountain wars are the following:
		One.	Individuals need to be very fit.
		Two.	Troops that work in mountainous areas make an effort that is more than 
that of the troops that work in other areas. When using toxic chemical 
agents, it is required to wear protective equipment that lead to reducing the 
capability to move.
		Three.	It is difficult to predict the direction and range of the cloud. In general, the 
cloud deviates during its trip through the valleys. The 
concentration of the agent in the valley is more that in the slopes.
		Four.	When the weather is clear at night, a toxic chemical agent cloud goes 
towards the bottom of the elevations while it goes towards the top during 
the day.
75. 	Snow and severe cold
	a. 	Toxic chemical agents are less volatile in low temperatures. Thus, the danger of 
their vapors diminishes. However, at the same time, they are more persistent and 
become gradually more dangerous as the temperature  increases.
	b. 	Thick winter cloths provide partial protection from the vapor effects and the toxic 
chemical agents liquids.
	c. 	The process of wearing the protective equipment is longer in low temperatures.

	d. 	The offensive party remains in the shelters in cold weather to make use of the 
warmth. Therefore, it is preferable to use toxic chemical agents on very explosive 
bombs, nuclear weapons, and mainly non persistent agents.
	e. 	Air explosions are preferred because it is possible that the shock bombs will not 
explode since they will be buried in the snow.
76.  	Forest operations
	a. 	The use of toxic chemical agents in forests is considered one of the difficult 
operations for the following reasons:
		One. 	The wind velocity is slow, eventually reduces the movement of the toxic 
cloud, and requires a very accurate selection of the target.
		Two. 	It is difficult to accurately select the target due to the dense trees and the 
blurred vision.
		Three.	Dense trees provide covers for the fighters (existing troops) and protect 
them from aircraft sprays.
		Four.	Due to high temperature and humidity, the defensive and offensive troops 
are required to wear light clothes. Wearing protective equipment in these 
conditions weakens the troops' ability to fight and eventually forces them 
to remove the protective equipment and incur casualties during chemical 
	b. 	The best use of chemical weapons is to use non persistent chemical agents. 
Artillery is the best way to spread the agents.
	c. 	The use of persistent chemical agents that are dangerous to the advancing troops.
77. 	The desert
	Desert conditions are deemed inappropriate for using toxic chemical agents for the 
following reasons:
	a. 	Storage problems due to the big difference in temperature level between day and 
	b. 	Nature of the soil in the desert since it is sandy and can absorb toxic chemical 

	c. 	Vapors evaporate quickly due to high temperatures during the day.
	d. 	The best use of toxic chemical agents in the desert areas is at night.
78. 	The operations of special forces
	a. 	Equipment, storage, and distribution problems prevent the extensive use of 
chemical weapons by the special forces and others that work against them. Those 
weapons are mobile and light, and may use aircrafts and short range weapons for 
toxic chemical agents.
	b. 	Incapacitating agents are usually used against the special forces or (gangs) that 
work in the crowded areas where it is difficult to use other lethal agents.




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