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File: 950825_22tr5360_143.txt
Page: 143
Total Pages: 1

This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

	Chapter Seven
	The chemical defense
General considerations
79. 	The defensive capability of a certain country against chemical attacks depends on the 
organization of its intelligence, research, and technical development in the fields of various 
chemical equipment, and medical treatments. At the field (tactical) level, a successful 
chemical defense depends on the early detection of chemical contamination, early chemical 
warning, using personal and collective protective equipment, performing partial and full 
decontamination to persons, equipment, and gear at the appropriate time, and medical 
treatment. This is not reached (a successful chemical defense) without a high level of 
chemical training.
	Annex G lays out the requirements of the chemical defense
Detection and warning
80. 	The available method to detect toxic chemical agents in all non chemical units (battalion.. 
.any unit) is the chemical reconnaissance gear. They are operated by the unit�s chemical 
advisor. The gear have the capability of diagnosing most types of known toxic chemical 
agents (nerve agents, blister agents, choking agents, Hydrogen cyanide and Cyanogen 
chloride). The gear's capability to detect depends on the type of detection tubes that are 
provided with the equipment. Detection sheets may also be available.
81. 	In the chemical units (chemical battalion, company, platoon, etc.) there are chemical 
reconnaissance vehicles (armored and unarmored) that contain a number equipment that 
are used for detection and warning of toxic chemical agents in the field. They are:
	a. 	Quick chemical detection device
		A special device that detects contaminations of nerve agents by giving light and 
sound signals for very low concentrations (GSP -11, GSI - 12, etc.)

	b. 	Chemical reconnaissance equipment
		They are the same equipment that can be found in the non chemical units. They 
are used to detect most types of toxic chemical agents by relying on the type of 
detector tubes that are available with the gear.
	c. 	Semi-mechanized chemical detection device
		It is a mechanized system that is mounted on the vehicle's electricity. It is used 
mechanically to detect most toxic chemical agents with detector tubes (the same 
detector tubes that are with the chemical reconnaissance equipment)
	d. 	Chemical labs
		In the chemical units (chemical battalion / company/ center for a naval base/ 
chemical platoon for an air base) there are chemical labs that can detect most types 
and amounts of toxic chemical agents.
82. 	All individuals are to be trained on identifying the signs of chemical decontaminations 
(physiological characteristics of agents / signs and symbols that are mounted on chemical 
ammunition / effects that are left in the area after the use / infection symptoms etc. They 
also have to give an immediate chemical warning signal.
83. 	Chemical surveillance centers are opened in the non chemical units by chemical advisors 
and elements from other units that are trained on surveillance and reconnaissance 
operations. They are also opened by chemical units (chemical reconnaissance 
detachments) in the formations' headquarters. They also have to carry out the following 
obligations that pertain to chemical attacks:
	a. 	Give an immediate chemical warning
	b. 	Determine the attack area, the type of the chemical contamination and its 
concentration if possible.
	c. 	Continuous periodic test (after use)
	d. 	Submit reports about the chemical attack
	e. 	Take samples from the field and send them to the higher headquarters
	f. 	Control weather conditions and send reports about the weather (in case the 
weather conditions equipment are available).

84. 	The necessary protection must be provided to individuals and units at the right time from 
any sudden attack by the enemy with chemical weapons in order to avoid or minimize the 
effects of these weapons. There are two types of protective measures:
	a. 	Individual protective measures
		Measures of individual protection from the effects of chemical weapons Are taken 
by using the following protective equipment (protective equipment number 1) 
that are used by each element of the armed forces. They consist of:
		One.	A protective mask that is essential to individual protection
		Two.	A protective cloak (protective coat or suit)
		Three.	A pair of light protective gloves
		Four.	Light protective foot gear
		The above protective equipment provide protection from toxic chemical agents for 
a period that may reach six 6 hours. Regular clothing also provides a relative 
protection from the effects of toxic chemical agents
	b. 	Collective protective measures
		Some collective protective equipment are required to guarantee operating some 
headquarters without using protective masks or equipment especially command 
headquarters, communications center, and field hospitals. This occurs by using 
both shelters - conditioned (depends on filtering contaminated air through 
collective protective gear) and non conditioned (very tightly closed and depend on 
internal clean air). There are some armored vehicles (tanks / armored personnel 
carriers), and field hospitals that are equipped with filters to decontaminate the 
85. 	The nature of the ground should also be used to offer protection from the effects of the 
chemical weapons. For example, low areas such as valleys should be avoided where a 
toxic chemical agent cloud settles. In addition, the wide spread of the troops as permitted 
by the tactical situation is useful for chemical protection.

Chemical decontamination
86. 	Contamination must be removed or reduced to the normal level. The best way is the one 
that occurs with the least effort and materials within the period that is permitted by the 
tactical situation. Decontamination is divided into:
	a. 	Immediate decontamination
		It is the decontamination that is necessary to save a life. The individual is 
responsible for using the decontamination and first aid equipment available to all 
elements or with another method. This should occur within the first minutes of 
the contamination. This is called first hand decontamination
	b. 	Partial decontamination
		It is a limited decontamination of various equipment and necessary items to carry 
out the obligations during operations. This decontamination is deemed a 
continuous process whenever permitted by the tactical situation. This type of 
decontamination is called second hand decontamination. This occurs by using 
decontamination equipment that are special to non chemical units (ADK -1, ARB 
- 4, DK -4) or tank methods.
	c. 	Full decontamination
		It is the phase during which the decontamination is reduced to persons and 
equipment to the lowest level of the decontaminated units where they can carry 
out their obligations without using protective equipment. This occurs in 
decontamination centers or stations that are opened by chemical units 
(independent chemical platoon, chemical corps in a division , chemical battalion in 
the headquarters) and at predesignated locations.
Medical treatment
87. 	It means treating, decontaminating, and evacuating the infected persons (contaminated 
victims or others) according to the measures to evacuate the casualties in the field when 
chemical attacks occur from the unit's first aid location to the base�s hospitals. Necessary 
disinfectants and medicine are to be provided and used for decontamination and treatment 
by doctors such as: (monochloramine, sodium bicarbonate, Atropine shots, Oxime PAM2 
Chloride , Amyl 

	nitrate, sodium nitrate, sodium sulfate, pal ointment etc.) and all that pertains to chemical 
88. 	The medical staff is also responsible for continuously (periodically) testing food and 
water to confirm that they bo not contains chemical contamination. In general, canned 
food is safe. However, the can must be washed thoroughly before opening it with organic 
solvents or gasoline, and water. As to the food that is contained in the wooden containers, 
fabric and paper bags, they do not provide a shield or protection against liquids or vapors 
of toxic chemical agents. Food that is contaminated by toxic chemical agents is useless. As 
to fatty food or water, they are often usable if contaminated by vapors only and when 
	Food is usually filled in special can that prevents chemical contamination under chemical 
war conditions
Staff duties 
89. 	Chemical defense measures should be part of the fixed procedures of the units. 
Continuous training is provided and in special cases confirmed by operations orders. 
There should also be a cooperation among all staff department on chemical operations. 
90. 	In the headquarters of each chemical corps, there is a commander who has obligations to 
give the necessary consulting to the staff. In each headquarters also, there is an chemical 
officer has obligations to give consulting to the commander. 
91. 	The most important obligations of the chemical corps command and the chemical officers 
in the formations are the following:
	a. 	To provide technical advice to the commander/leader and his officers about  
protective measures that range from chemical weapons plans to evaluating 
(assessing) the chemical situation.
	b. 	To supervise the technical training of the chemical units and formations and 
submit reports.
	c. 	To organize the chemical support of the units that are based upon the tactical 
situation and the plan of the chemical situation

	d. 	To supervise the distribution and storage of chemical substances, decontamination 
solutions, and protective equipment in the units and formations.
	e. 	To supervise the chemical warning methods in the units and formations.
	f. 	It is technically linked to all chemical elements in the formations.
	g. 	To issue publications and information about chemical weapons that are available 
with the enemy and share these information with the other corps.
92. 	Units and formations should train on the necessary preventive measures when chemical 
attacks occur. They are mainly the following:
	a. 	An accurate identification of the characteristics and effects of toxic chemical agents
	b. 	Protective and first aid measures of the effects of toxic chemical weapons.
	c. 	The use of a protective mask and other individual protective equipment as well as 
the decontamination and first aid equipment.
	d. 	Measures that need to be taken when a chemical attack occurs (upon receiving the 
chemical warning signal)
	e. 	Recognizing the signs of a chemical attack
	f. 	The chemical warning
	g. 	Work procedures at decontamination centers and stations
93. 	All staff should confirm that the troops are well trained on the above. This occurs by 
always taking the following measures:
	a. 	Units and formations are to perform their activities while wearing protective 
	b. 	Units are to perform decontamination at decontamination points and stations that 
are opened by the chemical units.
	c. 	Headquarters, units, and formations are to take the measures that need to be taken 
during chemical attacks at all levels.
94. 	Some alternative substances (non toxic chemical substances) or non lethal (tear) chemical

	 agents may be used to train troops on protective measures such as CN - 
Chloroacetophenone and CS. However, the use of CS is not recommended because of its 
smell that is easily identified. Annex H lays out some toxic chemical agents and their 
alternatives that may be used in chemical training on individuals and troops.

The following annexes lay out the following (we wish to refer to them):
Annex G
Chemical defense requirements
Annex H
Chemical training alternatives



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