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Filename:22tr6164.143 ********************************************* This document is a captured Iraqi military record. It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings. ********************************************* Part Two The Biological Warfare Part Two The Biological Warfare Chapter Eight General Introduction 95. The biological warfare is the war during which microbes or their toxic components are used to cause death, disabling, or destruction to humans, animals, and crops. As an intentional and planned war that is far from the explosions, it has the same lethal effect. However, biological warfare is still widely unknown and its reality is still unchecked. Nevertheless, there are many proofs of efficient research programs underway in various parts of the world since 1930. 96. Any country with a modern scientific program can produce efficient biological agents. The cost of a project to produce large quantities of biological agents may be relatively high at the beginning. However, at a later phase, its cost become low. Despite the necessity to provide strict control conditions, storage tanks are considered efficient, good, and multi shaped. Nevertheless, storage under combat conditions may result in some difficulties. Biological agents may be spread very efficiently by the attackers. History 97. Biological warfare has an old and blurry history since the idea of poisoning water wells was one of the tricks that were used in the past during the fourteenth century when the Tatars blockaded the Italians in one of the fortresses and threw on them the corpses of the plague victims in an attempt to try to force them to come out. In the sixteenth century, one of the Italian tactical manuals included a method to design artillery shells that are special for transporting a certain disease to the enemy�s troops. Due to the nature of the biological weapon itself, it is very difficult to prove its use since diseases usually spread and accompany wars. It was said that during the colonialism, European merchants, sold the quilts of smallpox victims to native Indians in North America to weaken their combat ability. 98. There are some proofs that a number of German scientist in America vaccinated animals that were sent to Europe in order to transport diseases to these areas. They also infected Roman cavaliers with influenza (one of the diseases that attack the eyes and provoke discharges). Serious and efficient research on biological warfare was started by the Germans, Russians, and Japanese since 1930. Japan did some limited research on biological agents against China during the World War I. Otherwise, there are no indications of wide use of biological agents in wars. Thus, they have not been tested in the field so far. 99. Although the disease can spread quickly, the infection is slow and often lead to single infections. On the other hand, the biological warfare seeks to infect all exposed people at the same time. The plague that struck London in the seventeenth century lasted nine months to reach its peak. It caused 70,000 deaths. This was not a disaster that could not contained. Recently, people were able to develop healthy protective methods that constituted a strong defense against natural diseases. Modern healthy preventive measures were able to limit the effect of plague which causes the previously mentioned effect. They were also able to stop typhoid that spread to the city of Aberdeen in 1964. Nevertheless, when defending oneself against biological warfare, there are difficulties that we will discuss later.
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