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File: 950825_22tr6568_143.txt
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This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

	Chapter Nine
	Classification of the biological agents and systems of their delivery

Classification of biological agents
100. 	Biological agents are classified in terms of many considerations such as type, intended 
use, and effect. These classifications are closely related and follow the scientific advance 
and military target. They also rely on other factors such as contamination, effectiveness, 
and various conditions. In general, biological agents may be classified as follows:
In terms of types of biological agents
101. 	Biological agents are divided in terms of this classification into:
	a. 	Micro organisms
		They are divided into:
		One. 	Bacteria
			They are one celled micro organisms that look like plants. They do not 
have chlorophyl. They spread in nature and cause a lot of diseases to 
humans, animals, and crops. For example: They poison food. Some types 
also cause some kinds of scarlet fevers, meninx inflammation, tuberculosis, 
anthrax, dysentery, typhoid, plague, syphilis, cholera, etc.
		Two.	Rickettsiae
			They are fungi that live in body cells. Their size ranges between the 
bacteria and viruses. They move through bites of insects that carry them. 
They cause many diseases to humans including: Typhus fever, diphtheria 
fever, etc.
		Three. Viruses
			They are complex organic substances that multiply or increase only in 
living cells of the susceptible host. These microscopic organisms cause 

 			diseases to humans and animals such as the inflammation of the spinal 
cord, rabies, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles, influenza , and cattle 
plague.  They cause diseases to plants such as tobacco mosaic , cucumber 
disease, and some sugar cane wilts.
		Four. 	Fungi
			They can be either one or multi celled organisms although viruses are 
always monocellular. They include mildew, plant mildew , and enzymes. 
They cause many diseases to plants including brown-spot disease which 
affects rice, potato yellow dwarf, mildew of cereals, sugar cane wilt and 
late blight of  potato.
		Five.	Protozoa
			They are uneven group of living organisms that are monocellular. They are 
the smallest primary animals in the animal kingdom. They cause diseases 
such as Amebic dysentery, African swine fever, Malaria, triba nosoma 
diseases that attack horses and cattles etc.
	b. 	Toxins
		They are relatively non persistent toxic substances that resemble proteins and 
their chemical properties. They originate from plants, animals, or micro organisms. 
Toxins are divided into:
		One. 	External toxins
		They are diluted toxin that are secreted by living viruses. They are more toxic than 
internal toxins. They are easily exterminated with heat such as toxins that cause 
diphtheria, tetanus, and dysentery etc.
		Two.	Internal toxins
		They are toxins that are liberated after the death or dissolution of microscopic 
organisms. Such toxins cause diseases like cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid
	c. 	Diseases transmitters
		They are animals that transmit contagious biological agents from one host to 
another. They are usually arthropoda and are divided into biological transmitters 
such as

		anopheles that carries malaria, and mechanical transmitters such as many insects 
that carry plant diseases.
	d. 	Chemical components that affect crops
		They are chemicals that affect the growth of crops by destroying their tissues, 
killing them, and eventually affecting one country�s economy. They are divide 
into: Herbicides and defoliants
In terms of their intended use
102. 	They are classified in terms of their intended use into:
	a. 	Antipersonnel biological agents
	b. 	Anti-animal biological agents (especially pets)
	c. 	Antiplant biological agents
In terms of their effect
103. 	Biological agents are classified in terms of their effect into:
	a. 	Lethal biological agents
	b. 	Incapacitating biological agents
Transmission of biological agents
104. 	Biological agents spread and penetrate the body through one of the following:
	a. 	The skin
		The disease  is transmitted  through the bites of insects that carry the disease to 
the skin of humans. Biological agents penetrate the human body through bruises 
on the skin and go directly to the blood stream.
	b. 	Foods and drinks
		Foods and drinks are always exposed to the contamination of microbes or toxins. 
This method is used by the enemy when agents are deployed to perform biological 
sabotage activities to contaminate water  and grain depots or by hitting waterways 
with bombs that carry biological agents that transmit these microbes through the 
human digestive system.

	c. 	The air (respiratory system)
		This is the most widespread and efficient method since many diseases spread 
through the air such as viruses that cause the influenza and others. Bacteria may 
be launched by aircrafts, artillery, or missiles.



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