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Filename:22tr6568.143 ********************************************* This document is a captured Iraqi military record. It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings. ********************************************* Chapter Nine Classification of the biological agents and systems of their delivery Classification of biological agents 100. Biological agents are classified in terms of many considerations such as type, intended use, and effect. These classifications are closely related and follow the scientific advance and military target. They also rely on other factors such as contamination, effectiveness, and various conditions. In general, biological agents may be classified as follows: In terms of types of biological agents 101. Biological agents are divided in terms of this classification into: a. Micro organisms They are divided into: One. Bacteria They are one celled micro organisms that look like plants. They do not have chlorophyl. They spread in nature and cause a lot of diseases to humans, animals, and crops. For example: They poison food. Some types also cause some kinds of scarlet fevers, meninx inflammation, tuberculosis, anthrax, dysentery, typhoid, plague, syphilis, cholera, etc. Two. Rickettsiae They are fungi that live in body cells. Their size ranges between the bacteria and viruses. They move through bites of insects that carry them. They cause many diseases to humans including: Typhus fever, diphtheria fever, etc. Three. Viruses They are complex organic substances that multiply or increase only in living cells of the susceptible host. These microscopic organisms cause serious diseases to humans and animals such as the inflammation of the spinal cord, rabies, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles, influenza , and cattle plague. They cause diseases to plants such as tobacco mosaic , cucumber disease, and some sugar cane wilts. Four. Fungi They can be either one or multi celled organisms although viruses are always monocellular. They include mildew, plant mildew , and enzymes. They cause many diseases to plants including brown-spot disease which affects rice, potato yellow dwarf, mildew of cereals, sugar cane wilt and late blight of potato. Five. Protozoa They are uneven group of living organisms that are monocellular. They are the smallest primary animals in the animal kingdom. They cause diseases such as Amebic dysentery, African swine fever, Malaria, triba nosoma diseases that attack horses and cattles etc. b. Toxins They are relatively non persistent toxic substances that resemble proteins and their chemical properties. They originate from plants, animals, or micro organisms. Toxins are divided into: One. External toxins They are diluted toxin that are secreted by living viruses. They are more toxic than internal toxins. They are easily exterminated with heat such as toxins that cause diphtheria, tetanus, and dysentery etc. Two. Internal toxins They are toxins that are liberated after the death or dissolution of microscopic organisms. Such toxins cause diseases like cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid c. Diseases transmitters They are animals that transmit contagious biological agents from one host to another. They are usually arthropoda and are divided into biological transmitters such as anopheles that carries malaria, and mechanical transmitters such as many insects that carry plant diseases. d. Chemical components that affect crops They are chemicals that affect the growth of crops by destroying their tissues, killing them, and eventually affecting one country�s economy. They are divide into: Herbicides and defoliants In terms of their intended use 102. They are classified in terms of their intended use into: a. Antipersonnel biological agents b. Anti-animal biological agents (especially pets) c. Antiplant biological agents In terms of their effect 103. Biological agents are classified in terms of their effect into: a. Lethal biological agents b. Incapacitating biological agents Transmission of biological agents 104. Biological agents spread and penetrate the body through one of the following: a. The skin The disease is transmitted through the bites of insects that carry the disease to the skin of humans. Biological agents penetrate the human body through bruises on the skin and go directly to the blood stream. b. Foods and drinks Foods and drinks are always exposed to the contamination of microbes or toxins. This method is used by the enemy when agents are deployed to perform biological sabotage activities to contaminate water and grain depots or by hitting waterways with bombs that carry biological agents that transmit these microbes through the human digestive system. c. The air (respiratory system) This is the most widespread and efficient method since many diseases spread through the air such as viruses that cause the influenza and others. Bacteria may be launched by aircrafts, artillery, or missiles.
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