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File: 950825_22tr6971_143.txt
Page: 143
Total Pages: 1

This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

Chapter Ten
Properties, Characteristics, and methods if delivery of the biological agents
Differences and similarities between toxic chemical and biological agents

Properties of biological weapons
105. 	Biological weapons have certain distinctive properties that are different than other 
weapons. They are:
	a. 	They have unpredictable results and casualties when they are launched.
	b.	They are flexible . If the objective is to incapacitate the rival on a temporary basis, 
a certain living organism is used for this purpose. If the objective is to destroy the 
enemy or crops totally, biological agents are used specially for this purpose.
	c. 	There is a time lapse between launching the biological agents and the appearance 
of their effects: The incubation period of microbes in the human body ranges 
between 1 and 5 days while other weapons have effects that appear immediately 
after use.
	d.  	They are highly effective against targets of humans, animals, and plants compared 
with the weight of the weapon, its costs, and the easy production.
	e. 	The biological agents� explosion sound is different than that of the regular bombs 
since the sound is low and each sound is distinctive.
	f. 	The psychological effect of using these weapons is great since the casualties, 
whether military or civilian, are likely to be high.
	g. 	There are many possible methods to spread biological agents within the enemy� 
ranks. They have a sudden attack effect and are very difficult to fight.
	h. 	It is difficult to detect the type of biological agent that is being used in the field. 
This requires a long time that is spend to send samples of the allegedly 
contaminated substances to labs for testing then identifying their type since they 
are colorless, odorless, and tasteless.
	I. 	Biological weapons of a country will constitute a shield against an attack by 

		country with these weapons. Thus, the attacker would definitely receive a similar 
hit for his biological attack.
	j. 	Buildings, installations, and equipment remain safe when using this weapon. This  
allows the attacker to control the country�s resources without any damages.
Characteristics of the biological agents that are used for military purposes
106. 	In order to use the biological agents effectively as a combat weapon, the following 
characteristics should be available:
	a. 	Highly transmitted and spreadable in water, food, and air.
	b. 	Easy to produce and store, low costs of production that is sufficient for military 
	c. 	Convenient for use under combat conditions, persistent under these conditions, 
and  capable of fighting weather conditions such as heat, sun, and drought.
	d. 	Highly capable of inflicting big casualties whether by death or by incapacitating 
the enemy and capable of multiplying in the human body.
	e. 	The agents that are used should be uncommon in the target area so that there 
would be no natural immunity for the inhabitants of this area. This is to inflict the 
biggest possible casualties.
	f. 	The disease caused by the biological agents should have a short incubation period.
	g. 	The agent does not negatively affect its user. For protection, the troops that are 
launching the attack should be vaccinated with the same agent that they intend to 
Methods of delivery of the biological agents
107. 	The following methods are used to spread the biological agents to their targets:
	a. 	Aircrafts that carry special bombs that are thrown from the sky or aircrafts that 
carry spray, cloud, or smoke generators.
	b. 	Artillery shells and mortars
	c. 	Special containers that are mounted on the field missiles (Surface - Surface)
	d. 	Sabotage and contamination operations by agents.

108. 	Similarities between biological agents and toxic chemical agents
	a. 	Their cost decreases according to their effects and the losses they incur.
	b. 	Both attack humans and do not destroy properties such as buildings and other 
	c. 	Both can be similarly spread through air and carried by the wind. Both 
contaminate the ground, clothes, equipment, water, and food. The level of their 
effect depends on whether they are used on humans, animals, or plants.
	d. 	Biological and chemical agents can penetrate a spot as long as air reaches it 
contrary to the other regular explosives.
	e. 	Preventive measures are similar especially when using protective equipment and 
performing decontamination procedures.
109. 	Differences between biological agents and toxic chemical agents
	a. 	Biological agents are different than toxic chemical agents because they inflict 50 % 
more casualties than toxic chemical agents.
	b. 	It is difficult to detect biological agents while easy for toxic chemical agents.
	c. 	Symptoms of biological agents appear at a late time and the incubation period is 
estimated at days while symptoms of toxic chemical agents appear more quickly 
and within hours.
	d. 	The effect of biological and toxic chemical agents are different on humans since 
toxic chemical agents cause localized effect such as the appearance of blisters on 
the human body or causes cramps or tears while the biological agents� effects 
appear like internal diseases in the human body.



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