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File: 950825_22tr7478_143.txt
Page: 143
Total Pages: 1

This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

Chapter Twelve
Fighting biological weapons

115. 	The lack of an appropriate detection system of biological agents makes it necessary to 
think of an appropriate solution to guarantee the defense against an attack with biological 
agents. This type must include some preventive measures such as preventing the attack 
and fighting the agent�s effects on people. In order to create an appropriate defense for 
the military and the civilians, the responsibility of various parties should be determined.
Defense methods
116. 	Defense measures against biological attacks may be divided into the following:
	a. 	Positive defense measures
		The purpose of these measures is to prevent a biological attack. This proceeds as 
		One.	Prevent using attack methods
			Destroying the means used by the enemy to attack reduces the effect of 
the attack operation. Not only is it important to hit and destroy aircrafts 
and missiles but also boats, submarines, and balloons. This method is used 
in the positive defense. All required activities are accomplished at a 
minimum. However, by experience, it was found that some of the enemy�s 
means can infiltrate despite the precautions taken to fire at its cargo 
successfully and effectively.
		Two. 	Destroy all the enemy�s biological capabilities and installations
			This is another measure that should be strictly applied. Nevertheless, it 
will not be fully successful since it is supposed to destroy the enemy�s 
installations that are used for scientific research and production such as 
destroying labs, plants, and depots. However, microbes can be produced at 
small installations, easily hidden, and difficult to discover.
	b. 	Negative defense measures
		These measures are carried out to minimize the losses caused by a successful 

		attack and to control the spread of the disease. We should not expect these 
measures to get rid of the losses caused by the disease but to minimize the losses 
and weaken the effect of the diseases. These measures are divided into four steps 
as follows:
		One. 	Measures before the attack
			These measures are taken to lower the effect of the biological agent on 
people. However, they do not eliminate the risks on the infected people 
but may lengthen the incubation period or alleviate the disease.  They are 
as follows:
			(1) 	Hygiene of individuals and area
				These measures are important even for normal medical protection. 
They are carried out in all units at all times even during a non 
biological attack in order to reduce the infection accidents and 
increase the general health level of individuals and units.
				The dose of (microbes) that is received by the person determines 
the infection. This depends on the condition of the infected person. 
The hygiene of the area also has a big effect at all times and during 
the biological attack, some animals are a means of carrying the 
biological agents and spreading the disease.
			(2) 	Vaccination (Acquired immune system)
				The process of acquiring immunization is very useful since it 
alleviates the symptoms of the disease and protect the vaccinated 
person from infection. The enemy may refrains from using a certain 
chemical agent against the immunized troops because of the 
uncertainty of the results.
				We must suppose that immunization is the only protective 
measure that can be taken against a biological agent. We must 
understand that the immunization process is not useful for all the 
biological agents that may be used. Acquired immunization may be 
dominated by the biological agent if the dose were high. Improving, 
testing, producing, and distributing vaccinations require a big effort. 
It is suspected that no country that has any sufficient capabilities 
during the war to make 

				such effort. Therefore, long term and appropriate vaccinations need 
to be produced.
		Two. 	Measures during the attack
			The measures taken by the troops in a biological attack are similar to those 
taken during a chemical attack. The extremely important protective 
equipment is the protective mask. The appropriate protective mask 
provides a full protective possibility against biological agents� aerosols in 
field concentrations. Normal clothing with tightened buttons provide the 
body with a good protection. All open wounds should be bandaged. 
Conditioned shelters also offer a good protection from biological agents.
		Three. Measures after the attack
			These preventive measures were prepared to avoid the casualties that are 
incurred by secondary contaminations. They are:
			(1) 	Isolating persons and areas that were exposed to the biological 
agent to prevent the spread of the contagious disease that is spread 
through touch. Under the current combat conditions, these 
measures are possible in certain situations only. Others must 
remember that even if the troops are exposed to biological agents, 
disease symptoms will be delayed . Therefore, the troops may 
perform  their activities during the incubation period
			(2) 	People and equipment should be decontaminated when the 
situation permits. The safety of water and food should be 
confirmed before consuming.
		Four. 	Permanent protective measures
			(1) 	Safe water and food
				These substances should be protected at all times from 
contamination with contagious agents whether in normal situations 
or during a biological attack by storing water and food in very 
tightly closed containers. It is necessary to decontaminate these 
containers from the outside to prevent the disease from get inside 
when opened.

			(2) 	Intelligence
				Submitting reports about the destructive effects enables us to avoid 
destructive activities and help strengthening our defensive 
			(3) 	Psychological effects
				Trained persons must make an effort to give the individual the 
health defense measures that should be taken to help prevent the 
effects of biological agents since individuals are often exposed to 
hearing rumors and horrible stories about biological weapons and 
their effects.
Difficulties of defense against the biological war
117. 	Although humans were able to achieve many successes in biological control over insects 
and other diseases, defensive activities against biological weapons are still suffering from 
some difficulties that are:
	a. 	Lack of odor, taste, or color in biological agents. This makes them difficult to 
detect (it is difficult to predict whether they are in the field). Warning methods to 
inform about their use is also unavailable.
	b. 	It is difficult to detect biological agents in the field. These difficulties increase 
when combined with other weapons. They also need a considerable amount of 
time to be detected and diagnosed since sending sample from suspicious areas to 
the lab for identification.
	c. 	It is difficult to identify the amount of biological agents that are produced by the 
enemy. It is difficult to control and inspect what the enemy stores because it is 
easy to hide the efforts that are made for production since this is limited to small 
	d.	It is difficult to determine the appropriate methods to decontaminate the effects of 
the biological agents and the need for many types and huge amounts of 
immunizations to avoid biological war since it is unknown what agents the enemy 
is using or even predict them along with the fact that it is impossible to store 
antidotes for each infection that may spread.
	e. 	The large number of victims and refugees in combat zones renders difficult the

		treatment process since hospitals are unable to absorb the huge amounts of 
	f. 	Lack of hygiene and malnutrition in wars cause a weakness in the natural 
immunity from diseases and infections and constitute a factor that helps the 
spread of infections by the enemy.
	g. 	The enemy can launch a sudden attack with biological weapons without any 
warning. One person can contaminate a water tank or canned food and fruit plant. 
This requires giant efforts to control all installations to prevent the enemy or 
agents from reaching them.
Decontamination from biological agents
118. 	They mean all the measures that we take to eliminate contamination with biological agents 
that may be used by the enemy. These measures include washing and removing the 
contaminated areas, decontaminating by burning, covering the contaminated areas with 
soil, and finally the weather factors.
	There are some sources that are useful for the purpose of decontaminating from biological 
agents after being spread by the enemy. They are:
	a. 	Physiological sources
	b. 	Industrial sources
	c. 	Chemical sources
	d. 	Biological sources
	For more information, refer to the manual of decontamination methods from chemical, biological, and 
radiation contaminations number 126



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