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File: 950825_22tr7987_143.txt
Page: 143
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Filename:22tr7987.143
*********************************************
This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
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Annex A
Glossary of the chemical and biological warfare

1. 	Chemical warfare
	It is the war during which  toxic chemical agents in various types of weapons in order to 
inflict casualties and contaminate ground and equipment.
2. 	Massive weapons
	They are weapons that inflict massive losses in lives, equipment, and installations more 
than any other conventional weapon. They are distinguished by their destructive effects 
and results that depend on the type of the weapon.
3. 	Chemical weapons
	They are weapons that use toxic chemical agents as ammunition
4. 	Toxic chemical agent
	It is a solid, liquid, or gas toxic chemical substance. Its chemical properties inflict 
casualties (They affect the function of vital organs in the body).
5. 	Chemical contamination
	A certain amount of the toxic chemical agent that exist in people, targets, or areas.
6.	Chemical contamination level
	It is a certain amount of toxic chemical agent that exist in a certain area of the ground or 
various surfaces. It is measured in mg/cm2 or g/m2.
7. 	(Chemical) Dose
	The toxicity of toxic chemical agents is measured by the dose. It is the amount of toxic 
chemical agent that causes certain physiological effects to the body, severe diseases, or 
death.
8. 	Concentration
	It is a certain amount of toxic chemical agent that exist in a certain amount of air. It is 
measured in mg/liter or mg/m3.
9. 	Medium lethal dose (lct - 50) (Respiratory method)
	It is the dose that cause death to 50% of the individuals (or experimental animals) during a



	certain period of time through the respiratory system. It is measured in mg. minute / liter 
or mg. minute / m3.
10. 	Medium lethal dose (LD - 50)
	It is the dose that causes death to 50% of the individuals (or experimental animals) 
through the absorption of the skin, injection, or digestive system. It is measured in mg / kg 
of the body weight.
11. 	Medium incapacitating dose (Ict -50)
	It is the dose that makes 50 % of the individuals unable to perform their work. It is taken 
through the respiratory system and is measured in mg. minute / liter or mg. minute / m3.
12. 	Medium incapacitating dose (ID-50)
	It is the dose that makes 50 % of the individuals unable to perform their work. It is taken 
through the absorption of the skin, injection, or the digestive system. It is measured in 
mg/kg of the body weight
13. 	Combat concentration (field)
	It is the concentration that makes the toxic chemical agent capable of inflicting casualties 
in the human forces (incapacitating or lethal)
14.	(Relative) Vapor density
	It is the density level of any gas or vapors to the air density that is measured under the 
same pressure and temperature conditions.
15. 	Volatility
	It is the weight of the substance�s vapors that exist in a certain air unit (liter or cubic 
meter) at a certain temperature when vapors and liquid are balanced. Volatility  is 
measured in mg/liter or mg/m3.
16. 	Boiling point
	It is the temperature of a liquid when it is boiling and turning into vapors. At that 
moment, the substance�s vapors pressure is equal to the air pressure.
17. 	Freezing point
	It is the temperature of liquid substance when it is turning to a solid.



18. 	Persistency
	It is the period during which a toxic chemical agent retains its toxic effects. It depends on 
the physiological characteristics of the agent, weather conditions, nature of the ground, 
and methods of use.
19. 	Protection
	It is the protection of individuals or troops at the appropriate time from any sudden 
attack by the enemy with massive weapons. It prevents or reduces the effects of these 
weapons.
20. 	Decontamination
	It is the process of eliminating or reducing the contamination to the allowed limit. The 
preferred way is when it occurs with a minimum of efforts and materials and within the 
time that is allowed by the tactical situation.
21. 	Disinfectant
	It is any substance that is used to decontaminate people, ground, and equipment. It may 
be a chemical equation or a physical detergent.
22. 	Water solubility
	It is the process of solving toxic chemical agents (chemical components) by reacting with 
water. Its chemical formula changes then.
23. 	Biological warfare
	It is the war during which biological agents are used to inflict the maximum casualties in 
human lives, animals, or crops. 
24.	Biological agents
	The are living organisms (no matter what their toxic nature is) that cause various diseases 
to humans, animal, or crops. It includes (bacteria, rickettsiae, viruses, toxins etc.)
25. 	Incubation period
	The period that starts when the biological agent enters the body to the appearance of the 
primary symptoms of the disease. The length of this period depends on the type of the 
biological agent.
26 	Disease



	It is a deficiency or abnormality in the human body or animal that prevents from 
performing vital tasks in a normal manner. It is also the malfunction of a cell, an organ, or 
an organism)
27. 	Disease carriers
	They are those individuals who carry the biological agents in the body without exposing 
any signs of infection. Theses persons are the source of contamination to others.
28 . 	Transmission
	It is the process during which biological agents enter the body where they grow, multiply, 
and control the immune system of the body and eventually lead to disease. The 
transmission  depends on the amount and type of biological agents that enter the body 
and the condition of the agents inside the body as well as the health of individuals.
29. 	Toxicity of the biological agent
	It is the measurement of the effect of a certain microscopic organism  (biological agent) 
that causes contamination or destroys the natural immune system of the body after 
penetrating the body. It depends on the doses that cause the contamination and the ways 
the contaminating diseases enter the body.
30. 	Vaccination / Immunization
	It is the process of injecting people with a vaccine in order to provide them with an 
artificial immunization.
31. 	Vaccine
	It is a solution that consists of the biological agent itself after destroying it, weakening it 
with heat, or adding a chemical substance such as formalin. It is given to people for 
acquiring  an efficient artificial immunity such as cholera and typhoid vaccines.
32. 	Immune system
	It provides the body with a resistance to the infection that is caused by the biological 
agents.
33. 	Hereditary immune system (innate)
	It is the immune system that is inherited of certain diseases from the parents. They do 
not depend on the existence of antibodies. 
34. 	Acquired immune system (artificial)
	It is the immunity that is acquired by the individual after forming antibodies that are not



 	affected by the infection. The period of this immunity could be either long or short since 
it depends on the way it was acquired
35. 	Biological aerosols
	They are small solid or liquid particles that are in the air such as dust, fog, and smoke. 
They contain biological agents (microscopic organisms)
36. 	Toxins
	They are relatively non persistent toxic substances that resemble proteins in their 
chemical properties. They come from vegetables, animals, or organisms.
37. 	External toxins
	They are diluted toxins that are secreted by microscopic organisms. They are more toxic 
than the internal toxins. They are easily exterminated with heat. For example: toxins that 
cause diphtheria, tetanus, etc.
38. 	Internal toxins
	They are toxins that are released after the death or dissolution  of microscopic organisms. 
Such toxins cause cholera, typhoid, etc.
39. 	Disease transmitters
	They are animal carriers that transmit contagious biological agents from one host to the 
other. These carriers are usually Arthropoda 
40. 	Biological transmitters
	They are animals in which microscopic organisms develop or multiply before they can be 
contagious to the host such as anopheles that transmit malaria.
41. 	Chemical components that affect crops
	They are chemical components that affect the growth of crops by causing defect to their 
tissues and killing them. Eventually, they mainly affect the country�s economy . They are 
divided into (Herbicides and defoliants) 
42. 	Antibiotics
	They are drugs that can be obtained from some biological agents (microscopic organisms  
such as bacteria and fungi) such as penicillin antibiotics and streptomycin that  are used to 
treat diseases that are caused by many biological agents



43. 	Viruses
	They are complex organic substances that multiply or increase only in live cells of the 
host to be affected. These microscopic organisms cause serious diseases to humans and 
animals, and kill crops.
44. 	Individual protective methods
	These methods are used to protect the individual from the effects of chemical agents. 
They include methods to guarantee the protection of the respiratory system by using 
various protection masks and methods to guarantee the body protection by using various 
protective equipment (protective cloak, protective gloves, and protective foot gear).
45. 	Collective protective methods
	They are methods that are used to protect a group from the effects of chemical weapons. 
The simplest types of these methods are covered shelters.
46. 	Conditioned shelters
	They are tightly closed shelters that cannot be penetrated by contaminated air. They 
contain a number of doors. At the same time, they are equipped with air filters to 
decontaminate the air and pull it into the shelter. They provide protection to a group of 
people for long periods.
47.	Non conditioned shelters
	They are shelters that do not contain air filters but are totally closed and prevent 
contaminated air from coming in. Therefore, these shelters are limited when protecting 
from contaminated air. They provide protection to a group of people for a certain period.
48. 	Collective protector (air filters)
	It is a device that is used to filter air that is contaminated with toxic chemical and 
biological agents and atomic dust. It filters air that is coming into the protective shelter
49. 	Protective equipment number 1
	It is a term that is used to indicate  the equipment that are used to protect people from 
the contamination of chemical and biological agents, and dust. They consist of:  a 
protective mask, protective gloves, protective foot gear, and a protective cloak.
50. 	Immediate decontamination



	It is the decontamination to be done in order to remove and normalize chemical and 
biological contamination from the body for the purpose of preserving the life of a 
contaminated person. For biological agents, this decontamination should appear within 
five minutes after the beginning of the contamination or the appearance of the wound.
51. 	Partial decontamination
	It is the process of removing large amounts of the chemical contamination that exist on 
persons, weapons, combat vehicles, clothing, or personal equipment. Contaminated 
persons remove contamination through decontamination equipment that are available to 
the persons in the unit such as decontamination and first aid tools, decontamination 
equipment, or any other methods used in the field.
52. 	Full decontamination
	It is the decontamination that is performed by the specialized decontamination units to 
prevent forcing the units to wear all chemical protective equipment.
53. 	Decontamination station (decontamination point)
	It is the place where the full decontamination process is performed on people, equipment, 
vehicles, and weapons by chemical units. They are usually open in a decontaminated area, 
as close as possible to the location of units that need to be decontaminated, away from 
the effect of the enemy�s ground and air fire and surveillance, and close to water sources. 
It is divided into decontamination areas for heavy weapons and vehicles, decontamination 
areas for light weapons and technical tools, decontamination area for various equipment, 
and decontamination area for people and clothing.
54. 	Isolation point for the infected persons
	It is a point that is usually opened by the chemical reconnaissance detachment near the 
chemical decontamination station (decontamination point). It has the obligations to isolate 
contaminated persons, weapons, equipment, and vehicles from the decontaminated ones 
for the purpose of decontamination.
55. 	Meteorology
	It is the science that looks into various weather conditions and study them to identify 
their causes and effect, and predict the future weather.
56. 	Meteorology tools



	They are special tools that are used to measure the wind�s velocity, direction, 
temperature at low elevations that do not exceed 2 meters. They are also used to measure 
the temperature of the soil. Some tools measure the percentage of the humidity.
57. 	Upwind
	It is the direction where the wind blows.
58. 	Downwind
	It is the direction against which the wind blows
59. 	Air turbulence
	It is the movement that affect the general current of the air when it goes through various 
low and high altitudes and for short periods.
60. 	Vertical change in temperature
	It is the change that is detected in the air temperature due to the change in altitude.
61. 	Stable condition
	The increase in temperature when rising above the surface of the ground is called stable 
condition(s). In this case, the air moves along the surface of the ground. A stable condition 
occurs during clear or partially clear nights and early mornings, until an hour after dusk 
and at dawn. The stable condition with a wind velocity of 2-4 meters/second is the best 
for using the toxic chemical agents.
62. 	Unstable condition
	The decrease in temperature when rising above the surface of the ground is called unstable 
condition. In this case, the air goes up. An unstable condition occurs during the clear days 
(day) and peaks during midday from 12.00 to 14.00. This condition is considered 
inappropriate to use toxic chemical agents since it disperses toxic clouds.
63. 	Equilibrium
	It is the condition between unstable and stable. It usually occurs when the temperature of 
 air layers are almost equal. This normal condition appears during cloudy days and after 
one or 



	two hours of sunrise or sunset. In this case, air turbulence is absent (unstable condition) 
and the air movement is along the surface of the ground (stable condition).
64. 	Chemical reconnaissance
	It is all the measures that are taken to obtain information about the enemy�s massive 
weapons, methods of dispersion, and chemical protection by using reconnaissance 
methods and elements of all ranks as well as other intelligence sources before starting the 
chemical attack and searching for the contamination that is caused by the enemy�s use of 
chemical weapons. The chemical units identify the contaminated areas, the number of 
contaminated troops, losses, and submit this information to leaders and commanders who 
in turn make decisions on the measures to be taken under the tactical and operations 
requirements.
65. 	Chemical warning
	It is a certain term or signal that may be visual, audio, or oral and that are determined in 
the unit�s action fixed procedures. It is used for the immediate notification when there are 
contaminations with weapons of mass destruction for the purpose of taking the required 
protective measures.
 



 

 

LN143-95






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