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File: 950825_22tr8891_143.txt
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Filename:22tr8891.143
*********************************************
This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.
*********************************************
Types, properties, (protective / decontamination / detection / contamination) measures, 
and symptoms of the main toxic chemical agents



(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)








(6)

Ref
Type
Toxic
chemical 
agent
Mili.
Sym.
Properties








How 
they penetrate  
the body





State
Color
Odor
Density / 
air
Boiling 
Point  C0
Freezing 
Point C0
Volatility 
(mg/l)
Solubility
Durability


1


2


3


4


5

N
E
R
V
E


A
G
E
N
T
S
Sarin
GB
All 
nerve 
agents 
are 
liquid
s 
except 
some 
VX 
agents 
that 
are 
solids
All 
pure 
nerve 
agents
are
clear
except 
Tabun 
that 
is 
brownis
h
All pure 
nerve agents 
are odorless. 
Impure agents 
have a fruity 
odor  except 
Soman that 
smells like  
camphor and 
VX agents 
that have the 
odor of  
organic 
sulfuric 
components
4.86
147
- 56
16.8 
at 25 C0
All nerve agents 
are slightly 
soluble in water 
(except for 
Sarin that is 
very soluble). 
They  are very 
soluble in 
organic 
solvents and oil 
derivatives and 
can penetrate 
porous surfaces, 
dyes, and 
rubber
Most nerve 
agents last in 
the field for 
some hours  
and depend on 
the weather 
conditions, the 
nature of the 
area, and the 
use except for 
VX agents and 
Tabun that 
may last some 
days
They attack 
humans 
through the 
respiratory 
system, skin 
pores, and eyes 
as well as 
through the 
digestive 
system



Soman
GD



6.33
167
-70 to 
-80
3.07
 at 25 C0






Tabun
GA



5.63
246
-39 to
 -50
0.61
 at 25 C0






DFB
DFP



6.4
183
-82
5.6 
at 20 C0






VX 
series
VX



High. 
Depend on 
the agent�s 
molecular 
weigh 
More than 
300
Less 
than 
-30
The maximum 
density is 
between 0.001 
and 0.0001 at 
0 C0 &  20 C0




6






7



8






9





10






11






B
L
I
S
T
E
R




A
G
E
N
T
S
Sulfuric 
Mustard
Pure:  
HD
Impure 
H
All 
blister 
agents 
are 
liquid
s 
except 
phos-
gene 
oxime 
that 
may 
be in 
crystal 
or 
liquid
pure: 
clear. 
Impure: 
dark 
mocha
Pure: odor like 
castor oil. 
Impure: odor 
like garlic and 
organic 
sulfuric 
components
5.4
217.8 
German 
227.8 
American
pure: 
14.5
0.61 at 20 C0
All bubbling  
agents are 
slightly soluble 
in water (except 
for Phosgene 
Oxime) and 
very soluble in 
organic 
solvents and oil 
derivatives. 
Most of them 
can penetrate 
porous surfaces 
and rubber.
All bubbling 
agents last for 
many hours to 
many days 
except 
Phosgene 
Oxime that 
lasts for only a 
few hours
Most attack 
humans 
through the 
respiratory 
system, skin,   
digestive 
system, and 
eyes except for 
Phosgene 
Oxime that 
attacks 
through the 
respiratory 
system and the 
skin






Nitrogen 
Mustard
s
HN-1

pure: 
clear. 
Impure: 
yellow-
ish 
brown
light fishy 
odor
5.9
85 under 15 
mm pressure
-34
1.09 at 20 C0







HN-2


odor like soap 
in low 
concentrations
. Odor like 
fruit in high 
concentrations
.
5.4
75 under 15 
mm pressure
-65 to 
-60
2.48 at 25 C0







HN-3


Pure: odorless
6.9
138-137 
under 15 mm 
pressure
-4
0.12 at 25 C0






Lewisite
L

pure: 
clear 
changes 
graduall
y to 
purply 
black
odor like 
geraniums
7.2
190
-18
2.3 in 20 C0






Phosgene
Oxime 
CX

clear
releases an 
unpleasant 
odor

129 or 53-54 
under 28 mm 
pressure






12


13
CHOK
ING

AG
EN
TS
Phosgene
CG
Gas
Clear
odor like 
newly cut 
grass or green 
corn or rotten 
hay
3.4
8.2 German
7 American
-128
6370 at 20 C0 
slightly soluble 
in water and 
very soluble in 
organic 
solvents and oil 
derivatives
last for a few 
minutes to a 
few hours




Di-
phosgene
DP
Liquid


6.9
128
-57
54.3 at 20 C0






(3)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)

Agents
Preventive 
measures
Decontamination
Symptoms
First aid
Field inspection
Means


Sarin
Soman
Tabun
DFB
VX series
Protective tools (a) 
are used for 
individual 
protection. They 
consist of a 
protective mask, a 
protective suit, 
light protective 
gloves, and light 
foot protectors. 
Conditioned and 
non conditioned 
shelters are used for 
group protection
The following disinfectants are 
used through equipment and 
various factors (decontamination 
quantity, supplies, and vehicles) 
1. [illegible] Detergent
2. Ammonium [illegible]
3. Decontamination solution 2 
which consists of:
a. 2% Sodium Hydroxide
b. 5% Monoethanolmine
c. 20% Ammonia
d. 73% water

4. [illegible] basic solutions
5. Ammonia solution
6-Phenyl ammonium
1. Pinpoint eye pupils
2. Difficult breathing
3. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
4. Muscle cramps
5. Cold sweat
6. High pressure and low heart 
beats
7. Uncontrollable bowel and urine 
movements
8. Paralysis, and death in 
overexposure.
1. Wear a protective mask 
immediately then the rest of the 
protective equipment. Leave 
the contaminated area if 
permitted.
2. Use the atropine shot if you 
feel any symptoms
3. Provide artificial respiration
4. Inject another atropine shot 
(after 10 minutes) if the 
infected person symptoms did 
not improve.
5. Disinfect the contaminated 
part of the skin with the 
solution of the small and large 
containers (depending on the 
agent type).
6. Induce vomiting in case the 
contamination reached the 
stomach.
7. Contact the closest medical 
facility if needed.
The following methods are 
used to inspect the field:
1. Agent�s properties
2. Infection symptoms
3. Effects on the area as well 
as distinctive signs and 
symbols on chemical 
ammunition
4. Number of chemical 
reconnaissance (Russian 
and German)
5. Chemical detection 
equipment in the chemical 
reconnaissance vehicles 
(GSB, MGSB etc.)
6. German detection sheets
7. Field laboratory
1- Artillery


2- Mortars


3- Missiles


4- Aircraft 
sprinklers


5- Aircraft 
bombs


6- Hand 
grenades


7- Mines


8- Rocket 
Artillery
(launchers)



Sulfuric 
Mustard

Nitrogen 
Mustards

Lewisite

Phosgene
Oxime

The following disinfectants are 
used through equipment and 
various factors (decontamination 
quantity, equipment, and 
vehicles) 
1. [] Detergent
2. Ammonium []
3. Decontamination solution 1 
which consists of:
10% dichloramine diluted in 
dichloroethane or 5% 
hexachloro[illegible] in 
dichloroethane
4. Monochloramine solution in 
10% of alcohol
5. Sodium sulfate
6. Sodium carbonate
7. Thionyl chloride
8. Sulfurate chloride 
9. Sodium bicarbonate
 
Skin:
1. Red with a slight burn
2. Small bubbles after some time 
(they depend on the agent)
3. Large bubbles (they depend on 
the contamination level)
Respiratory system:
1. Dry mouth
2. Difficult breathing
3. Intense coughing and  hoarse 
voice
4. Headaches and nausea
5. Gradual loss of voice
6. Respiratory tract inflammation
7. Death in overexposure
Eyes:
1. Red eyes and a feeling of a sand 
in eyes
2. Itching and allergy to the light
3. Inflammation of the tear tissues 
that is accompanied by [ ]
4. When drops hit the eyes, they 
cause permanent blindness
Digestive system:
1. Inflammation of the internal 
tissues of the digestive system 
(pharynx, [illegible] etc. 
2. Decrease in strength and 
headaches
1. Wear a  protective mask 
immediately then the rest of the 
protective equipment. Leave 
the contaminated area if 
permitted.
2. Remove the drops on the 
skin with the gauze  cloth in 
the decontamination and first 
aid tools
3. Disinfect the contaminated 
area with the large container 
solution after preparing it.
4. Wash eyes with a solution of 
2% Sodium Bicarbonate,  0.2 % 
of Monochloramine or use a 
large quantity of water.
5. Gargle with a solution of 2% 
of  Sodium Bicarbonate
6. Evacuate the infected 
persons to the closest medical 
facility if needed.
The following methods are 
used to inspect the field:
1. Agent�s properties
2. Infection symptoms
3. Effects on the area as well 
as distinctive signs and 
symbols on chemical 
ammunition
4. Number of chemical 
reconnaissance (Russian 
and German)
5. Chemical detection 
equipment in the chemical 
reconnaissance vehicles 
6. German detection sheets
7. Field laboratory


Phosgene 
 

Di-
Phosgene

Protective masks
 and 
conditioned 
and
 non conditioned 
shelters 
are used.


There 
is 
no
 need 
to 
decontaminate 
in 
the 
field
Infection symptoms appear after 4 
to 5 hours (incubation period)
1. Accelerate breathing
2. Intense coughing that is 
accompanied by nose discharges 
that may sometimes contain blood.
3. Headache and dizziness that are 
accompanied by chest and throat 
pains.
4. Excessive heart beats, a general 
weakness, and difficult breathing
5. Cyanosis on the skin of the face, 
ears, and hands.
6. In extreme cases, death during 
the first two days due to the break 
in air vessels and the status of the 
lungs that are full of liquids and 
blood. 
1. Wear the protective mask 
immediately and leave the 
contaminated area if permitted.
2. Provide the necessary rest to 
the infected person
3. Make breathing easier by 
releasing the equipment, belts, 
clothing buttons
4. Give the infected a hot drink 
and oxygen through breathing.
5. Move the patient to the first 
aid unit location or any 
medical center if necessary.
Remark
Do not provide artificial 
respiration
The following methods are 
used to inspect the field:
1. Agent�s properties
2. Infection symptoms
3. Effects on the area as well 
as distinctive signs and 
symbols on chemical 
ammunition
4. Number of chemical 
reconnaissance (Russian 
and German)
5. German detection sheets
6. Field laboratory
1. Artillery

2. Mortars

3. Missiles

4. Aircraft 
sprinklers

5. Aircraft 
bombs

6. Hand 
grenades


































Annex (b)









(2)
(13)









Agents
Effective Average Dosage


 Lethal Average Dosage


Lethal Dosage




through 
breathing
ICt-50
mg.mn/liter
absorption
through skin
ID-50
mg/mg of wt. 
through 
digestive sys. 
ID-50
mg/mg of  wt.

through 
breathing 
LCt-50
mg.mn/liter
absorption
through skin
LD-50
mg/mg of  wt.
through 
digestive sys. 
LD-50
mg/mg of  wt.
through 
breathing 
LCt-100
mg.mn/liter
absorption
through skin
LD-100
mg/mg of wt.
through digestive 
sys.  LD-100
mg/mg of  wt.

Sarin
Soman
Tabun
DFB
VX series
0.75 for the 
average person


0.1 for the 
average person
0.0195 for rabbits 
during internal 
injection
0.28
0.1 - 0.14
5.6 for porpoises



0.75 for the 
average person


0.1 for the 
average person
0.13 for mice

0.04
10 - 20
0.02 - 0.04


0.3 for the 
average person


0.4 for the 
average person
0.48 for mice
5
1.5 - 2
50 - 20
5





0.013
5 for mice
7.5 for rabbits
4
50 - 70






0.04
0.05 for mice

0.005
2


Sulfuric 
Mustard

Nitrogen 
Mustards

Lewisite

Phosgene
Oxime











Phosgene

Di
phosgene

(2) 0.2 through 
the eyes

1.5
10

1.5 - 2
60 - 70
estimated 2 -3



(9)  0.2 through 
the eyes

1.5
20







0.1 through 
the eyes

3








(2.5) 0.2 
through the 
eyes

1.5
Estimated 10

1.5





more than 1.5 
and less than 
0.3 through 
eyes

1.2 -1.5
100

3















1.6


3.2


6




1.6


3.2


6







Types, properties, (protective / decontamination / detection / contamination) measures, 
and symptoms of the main toxic chemical agents
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)








(6)

Ref
Type
Toxic 
Chemical 
Agent
Mil. 
Sym.
Properties








How they 
penetrate 
the body





State
Color
Odor
Density / 
air
Boiling 
point C0
Freezing 
point C0
Volatility 
(mg/liter)
Solubility
Durability


14
General 
effect 
agents
(Blood 
agents)
Hydrogen 
Cyanate
AC
Liquid
Clear
Odor like  
bitter 
almond
0.93
25.6 -  26.6
-14
1075 at 
25C0
soluble in 
water and 
organic 
solvents
They last 
for a short 
period
Through 
the 
respiratory 
system in 
the field

15

Cyanogen 
Chloride
CK
Gas in 
normal 
conditions

has a 
stimulant 
odor
2.1
13.1
-65
6132 at 
25C0
slightly 
soluble in 
water and 
very 
soluble in 
organic 
solvents



16
Sneezing 
agents
(vomiting)
Adamsite
DM
bright 
crystals
bright 
yellow 
crystals 
when pure 
and dark 
green when 
impure
has an 
unpleasant 
odor
they do 
not 
evaporate 
at normal 
temperatures 
and may 
spread as 
aerosols in 
the air
410
195
0.00002 at 
20C0
slightly 
soluble in 
water and 
very 
soluble in 
organic 
solvents 
especially 
acetone
they last 
for a few 
minutes
Through 
the 
respiratory 
and 
digestive 
systems

17

Diphenyl
chloroarsine
DA
solid
clear 
crystals 
when pure 
and gray 
when 
impure
has no 
distinctive 
smell

333
(German)
3.7
(American)
44
0.072 
American
0.0068 
German at 
20C0




18

Diphenyl
cyanoarsine
DC




290 
(American)
346 
(German)
30 
(American)
31.5 
(German)
0.0279 at 
20C0




19
Tear agents
Chloro 
acetophenone
CN
Solid 
crystals
clear
stimulant 
odor like 
apple 
blossoms
5.3
244 - 345
54-55
0.03 
at 20 C0
slightly 
soluble in 
water and 
very 
soluble in 
organic 
solvents 
and oil
derivatives
effective 
for a few 
minutes
Through 
the 
respiratory 
system 
only




20

Bromobenzyl
cyanate
CA
pure: solid 
crystals, 
impure: 
solid or 
liquid 
reddish 
brown
pure: clear 
impure: 
brown or 
dark tan
odor of 
citrus 
fruits
6.7
137 under 
15 mm 
pressure 
25
0.13 
at 20 C0




21

Chloropicrin
PS
liquid
clear for 
pure and 
greenish 
yellow 
when 
exposed to 
air
has an 
unpleasant 
odor of the 
plants  
5.7
113
-69.2
184 
at 20 C0







22

Orthochloro
 benzyl malono 
nitrate
CS
solid 
crystals
white
has the 
smell of 
peppers

315-310
93-95
0.1 
at 20 C0




23
Psycho-
Chemicals
biamide ethyl
lysergic acid
LSD-
25
solid 
crystals
clear
odorless

198-200

slight
velocity
not 
soluble in 
water 
unless like 
salt.
 very 
soluble in 
organic 
solvents
effective 
for a few 
minutes
Through 
the 
respiratory 
system

24

B Z
BZ
solid 
crystals
white
odorless

322


soluble in 
water,organi
c and non 
organicacids



25










Mescaline
-
oily liquid



180
35-36

the 
crystals it 
develops 
with the 
acids are 
soluble in 
water



(2)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)

Type
Preventiv
e 
measures
Decontamination
Infection symptoms
first aid
Field Detection
Means

General 
Effect 
Agents
Protective 
mask and  
conditioned 
and non 
conditioned 
shelters
No need for a 
decontamination operation 
in the field
1. Burn and metal taste in mouth
2. A strange feel in  mouth
3. Nausea, vomit, and tremors.
4. Headaches and general weakness
5. Difficult breathing
6. Eyes irritation, watery eyes upon 
infection with Cyanogen Chloride
1. Wear a protective mask immediately and 
leave the contaminated area if permitted by 
the mobilization.
2. Inhale one phial of amyl nitrate for 3 
minutes
3. Inhale another phial every five minutes 
if the pressure did not go below 80 ml 
(with the supervision of a doctor).
4. Remove all clothing, wash the 
contaminated area , start artificial 
respiration, and provide oxygen
5. Gastric lavage and removal of the 
stomach contents  in case the digestive 
system was infected. 
1. Properties of the agent
2. Infection symptoms
3. Distinctive signs and 
symbols on the chemical 
ammunition
4. Number of chemical 
reconnaissance (Russian and 
German)
5. Chemical detection 
equipment that exist in the 
chemical reconnaissance 
vehicles.
6. German detection sheets
7. Field lab
1. Artillery

2. Mortars

3. Missiles

4. Aircraft 
sprinklers

5. Aircraft 
bombs
6. Hand 
grenades

Sneezing 
agents

No need for a 
decontamination operation 
in the field. If there is, large 
amounts of water are used 
in decontamination
The following symptoms appear 
after a incubation period of many 
seconds to many minutes:
1. Intense coughing and sneezing 
with continuous salivation and 
nose discharges.
2. Pains in the chest and the 
forehead, watery eyes, difficult 
breathing,  feeling of exhaustion, 
and fears.
3. Vomiting
4. Cause general poisoning to the 
body upon entering through the 
digestive system or cuts - since 
they contains sarin 
1. Wear a protective mask immediately and 
leave the contaminated area if permitted by 
the mobilization.
2. Wash the contaminated area of the skin 
with water and soap.
3. Wash the eyes with large amounts of 
water and do not scratch or stretch
4. Remove the crystals that fall on the skin 
by shaking or using large amounts of water
5. Always expose the face to fresh air.
1. Properties of the agent

2. Infection symptoms

3. Distinctive symbols on the 
chemical ammunition


4. Field Lab
Containers

Tear
agents

No need for a 
decontamination operation 
in the field
1. Infected, red, and watery eyes.
2. Irritation and inflammation of 
the respiratory system. Salivation 
and nasal discharges.
3. Breathing difficulty and chest 
pains
4. Pinpoint eye pupils
5. Dizziness of the head
6. Burn in the humid parts of the 
body
7. A high dose can cause vomiting.
1. Wear a protective mask immediately and 
leave the contaminated area if permitted by 
the mobilization.
2. Wash eyes with a solution of 2% 
bicarbonate or wash them with large 
amounts of water Do not close or scratch.
3. Be exposed to fresh air

1. Artillery

2. Mortars

3. Missiles

4. Aircraft 
sprinklers

5. Aircraft 
bombs

6. 
Containers

Psycho-
chemicals

1- Wash body with water and  
soap
2- Wash eyes with water
3- Decontaminate clothing by 
washing with water or dusting.
4. Decontaminate weapons and 
equipment with alkaline 
solutions or detergents. Then, 
wash in water. Vacuum and 
pressured air may also be used
1- pinpoint eye pupils
2. Increase in heart beats
3. Loss of control, balance, 
memory, and capacity to think.
4.  Laughing with no reason
5.  Hallucinations
6. Change in the shape of the eyes
7. Skin color changes into 
greenish
8.  Schizophrenia
1. Wear a protective mask immediately and 
leave the contaminated area if permitted by 
the mobilization.
2.  Quickly put the infected persons under 
control so that they do not perform acts 
that may lead to more losses or chaos 
within the military units




















(2)
(13)









Type
Effective Average Dosage


Lethal Average Dosage


Lethal Dosage




through 
breathing
ICt-50
mg.mn/liter
absorption
through skin
ID-50
mg/mg of the wt
through 
the digestive sys. 
ID-50
mg/mg of the wt.

through 
breathing 
LCt-50
mg.mn/liter
absorption
through the skin
LD-50
mg/mg of the wt.
Through the 
digestive system 
LD-50
mg/mg of the wt.
through 
breathing 
LCt-100
mg.mn/liter
absorption
through the 
skin
LD-100
mg/mg of the wt
Through the 
digestive 
sys. LD-100
mg/mg of wt

General 
effect
Agents
about 4.5


4.5


1.5 - 2
7 - 14 mg/l for a 
period of 5 - 10 
minutes
60 - 90


7


11


4



Sneezing 
Agents
0.022 for a one minute 
exposure and 0.08 for a one 
hour exposure


15


3 mg/ l when 
exposed for 10 
minutes 




0.012 for more than 10 
minutes of exposure


15


1.5 mg/1 when 
exposed for 10 
minutes
50 - 70



0.03 for 30 seconds of 
exposure, 0.02 for a five 
minute exposure


10


1 mg / l when 
exposed for 10 
minutes



Tear 
Agents
0.08


estimated 11


0.85 mg/l when 
exposed for 10 
minutes




0.03


very little 
diffusion in 
the field


0.35 mg/l leads to 
death due to the 
destruction of the 
lung  vessels










20




0.0 - 0.02


25 for the 
average person






Psycho-
Chemicals
2-3










15


200





















 



 

 






















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