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File: 950825_22tr9203_143.txt
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This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

Annex C
Methods of delivery of toxic chemical agents and their characteristics
Air methods

Aircraft spray
1. 	Spray tanks in aircrafts (whether regular, guided, or combat) provide an efficient method 
to use a certain amount of the agent far better than any other weapon.
2. 	Persistent agents such as Mustard or VX can be launched from tanks in the slip-stream of 
the aircraft where the liquid shattered due to the extreme air into small droplets that fall 
towards the ground depending on its final speed. The large drops fall in the upwind 
sprayed area while small droplets fall slower and therefore are exposed to the effect of the 
wind for a longer period and move to a farther distance. As to the small droplets, they 
evaporate or spread before reaching the ground. However, it is possible to minimize this 
loss by adding a thickener to increases the agent�s density and make large drops.
3. 	Spraying thick (viscous) or light (not viscous)  liquids will show remarkable differences in 
the contamination level of the hit area. The surface of the spray area that is usually 
downwind, depend on the altitude and speed of the aircraft, wind velocity, the amount of 
agents to be sprayed, and the aircraft�s position in the wind. Naturally, the upwind part 
of the sprayed area is the most contaminated area.
4. 	To get a result when spraying toxic chemical agents (non viscous), the process should 
occur at low altitudes and not exceed 150 meters. At higher altitudes, drops of a toxic 
chemical agent will evaporate, shatter, and become useless.
5. 	When spraying viscous liquids (toxic chemical agents) at low altitudes, the ground toxicity 
will be limited due to the very quick fall of all the viscous drops. This method is used 
only when severe contamination levels are required. Aircrafts that flight at low altitudes 
are vulnerable to anti aircraft weapons especially when flying over altitudes that are above 

	meters. Spray is unlikely from aircrafts at altitudes that are more than 150 meters. 
However, at very high altitudes (3000 meters or more), it cannot be controlled.
6. 	Low altitude spray that is vertically directed for the wind, may cover 1000 meters deep 
downwind for each aircraft. The contamination of the ground will certainly be sufficient to 
force the troops to take the necessary protective procedures. The length of the 
contaminated area depends on the cargo. It may range between one to many kilometers if 
the spray attacks were at low altitudes and the process occurred along the direction of the 
wind. Then, the contaminated area will be small but the contamination level will be more 
than the vertical spray towards the wind. The contamination level that is usually expected 
from the low altitude spray ranges from a fraction of a gram to many grams for each 
square meter.
7. 	The spray falls at a speed average of 300 meters / minute. This is not affected by the 
clouds. Spay can be easily identified if the aircraft is seen during the spray process. 
Otherwise, it would be very difficult to identify because the drops are very small. The 
fallout period is short and cannot be felt by any person even if the drops fell on 
uncovered skin.
8. 	Spray attack people mainly through the skin. However, drops may develop and be so 
small that they evaporate immediately and cause remarkable risks even of low volatility 
toxic chemical agents such as mustard. Spray drops may also be so large that they cannot 
penetrate shelters. Any head cover also gives a good protection. The spray attack may be 
less effective in cold weather where troops (that are not wearing protective equipment) 
are wearing thick clothing for protection from cold. This will automatically delay the 
penetration of the toxic chemical agents into the skin. It may even prevent them fully.
Aircraft Bombs
9. 	The advantages of aircraft bombs are that they contain a large amount of the toxic 
chemical agent and they are so accurate that can be dropped in areas that are beyond the 
range of the ground weapons. It is also possible to direct a load on the target that is  far 
lager than thee one that can be directed by normal artillery. The process of equipping 
aircrafts with toxic chemical agents (chemical ammunition) is usually easier than loading it 
to ground weapons.
Massive bombs

10. 	Non persistent agents
	A massive bomb that weighs 1000 pounds and is filled with a non persistent agent may 
be made to explode in confrontation or at a very low altitude. Such bombs contain a very 
explosive substance (their force equals a medium explosive) with a chemical charge of 
60%. Severe risks will develop in the explosion area due to contamination through the skin 
(in addition to the risks of shrapnel from the very explosive substance) due to drops and 
high concentrations of the vapors that occur in that area. The sudden reaches its peak due 
to the low explosion. The area above which there is a non persistent toxic chemical cloud  
will be relatively small and this is not the ideal way to use the agent..
11. 	Persistent agents
	Massive bombs that are filled with persistent agents may be exploded at an altitude of 
some hundreds of meters. Contrary to artillery shells, shells cover a large area with liquid 
	A simple explosion to open the light cover of the bomb container is all that is needed 
since air velocity shatters the liquid that become falling sprays. An explosion may be 
reached in the air after calculating the fallout period from the high aircrafts and having 
recourse to valves that work with the change of the air pressure or the effect of the size of 
the liquid drop. The contaminate area on the ground resembles the one that occurs when 
spraying toxic chemical agents from the air or the shape of area will be almost oblong. 
This due to the fact that drops are launched from one source. Thus, a small and very 
effective  area will form followed by larger areas but they are less contaminated towards 
the wind and both sides as well. Also,  when spraying from aircrafts, the affected area will 
shrink and its contamination level will increase every time the launching area altitude 
decreases or the effective wind velocity decreases. If a large amount of bombs were 
dropped at the same time on a wide area, the result will be a reason to multiply the effect 
of each bomb.
Cluster bombs
12. 	Cluster bombs include a container in which there are small bombs. They can be dropped

	from an aircraft in the same way massive bombs are dropped.
	A cluster bomb container is designed to open at an altitude that is appropriate to spread 
bomblets with wind velocity. It may reach 1500 meters. The container may consist of a 
reinforced box that is shattered by the aircraft�s air current. Then, the bomblets disperse.
	The dispersion of the bomblets that weigh about one kilogram each cause the spread of 
the toxic chemical agent that is more regular and less costly than one single massive bomb.
	Bomblets may be filled with any type of toxic chemical agent. They may also be spread 
by using a propelled or explosive charge of TNT. The may resemble sometimes fireworks 
and contain spraying tools that release air that help the aerosols to fly.
13. 	The average between the weight of that agent (substance) and the weight of the bomb in 
castor bombs is slightly less than the average in the regular massive type. However, due to 
the agent�s consistency when thrown by cluster bombs, the contamination area increases. 
As to the sudden impact that is caused by the cluster bombs, it is less than the one caused 
by the ground explosion regular bombs. This is due to the elevation of the explosion.
14. 	Bomblets that are directly fired by aircrafts during a low altitude flight, hit a small area 
that has severe local risks. Filling these bombs with non persistent chemical agents is most 
	Large amounts of the toxic chemical agent are expected to be lost in the holes if the bombs 
were designed to cause contamination with the liquid or spray after a collision. The 
warning that is available for defense will be shorter than any other warning of an air attack 
at a low altitude.
Other air weapons
15. 	Air missiles
	30 mm missiles could spread an appropriate amount of the agent to the target due to its 
high fire range. They may be used to handle small but difficult targets by using non 
persistent chemical agents where a cloud injects its drops into the area that is reinforced 
against attacks with conventional weapons.

  16. 	Air to ground rockets 
	They are various types that range from a 2 Knot with a warhead that is half a kilogram 
wide and reaches large methods. They are in effect massive bombs with propellants. 
These rockets have a high speed when they hit the target. They tend to cause large holes. 
Thus, a large amount of toxic chemical agents is wasted because of mixing with the holes. 
This type of weapon is usually filled with persistent chemical agents. Since they are very 
accurate, they are used in handling the appropriate small targets
Long range missiles
17. 	Missile heads that are usually larger than an air bomb are carried on a guided or ballistic 
missile. They are filled with any type of chemical agents.
18. 	Non persistent chemical agents
	They are formed due to ground explosions that hit and explosions that occur in the air at a 
low altitude. They resemble highly concentrated but local clouds. Therefore, they give us 
the best use of non persistent chemical agents. As to long range missiles, they carry a large 
load and there is big chance that they may not hit the target. Therefore, they may most 
probably be loaded with various types of small canisters clusters. The blast is timed to be 
in the air to be spread on a large area that can cover a circle with a half diameter of 1000 
meters. The missile explodes at an altitude that may reach 1500 meters. Keep in mind that 
canisters reach the ground 10 seconds after the missile�s explosion.
19. 	Persistent chemical agents
	They may be used in the same manner massive shelling is used. They explode in the air 
and have the same properties. However, due to the missile�s high speed, the charge will 
disperse and spread to a large area if the anti-dispersers were not added to the missile.
(Conventional) ground weapons
Artillery shells
20. 	These shells are distinctive because they fire the available artillery and do not need special 
training other than identifying the amount of bombs that are required for each duty. They

	can be fired at any target within the missile�s range with the same accuracy. Concentrated 
shelling may be relatively and quickly planned and carried out. When the target is far from 
our troops, the direction of the wind is not important. On the other hand, the amount of 
agents in the bomblets is considered small (about 5% of the weight and this percentage  
increases with the increased amount. Therefore, there is a need for large amounts of 
ammunition in some cases.
Explosive bombs with a non persistent toxic chemical agents� charge 
21. 	Highly explosive bombs that are designed to cause an effect from vapors. Therefore, air 
explosions are considered useless. The closer they are to the ground, the more effective. 
The charge may consist of 4 parts of the agent and a part of the explosives. Although the 
effect comes from the vapors, the secondary effect may be among the liquids that do not 
evaporate during the explosion in or around the bomb�s hole. The effect of their vapors 
remains for a number of hours. In addition, they are shrapnel of the bomb that may 
consist of half the effect of bombs with the same caliber.
22. 	The troops may cross or attack the targets that were hit by such ammunition (chemical) 
after taking all the appropriate protective measures (even if partial). However, occupying 
and remaining in these areas is not risk free. Usually, the constant danger is concentrated 
in the holes of the bombs. Using a large amount of explosives in such bombs affects the 
function of the toxic chemical agent since this cause their dissolution after explosion 
because of heat except for Mustard and Sarin that are sufficiently persistent. 
	Using less than 105 mm bombs is not possible due to their small size. More than 155 mm 
bombs are considered very effective when used as separate shots. In order to get the most 
out of the sudden impact, they are fired in a concentrated way, a short time, and against 
limited targets.
23. 	Usually, these bombs resemble their similar others. The same valve is used for their 
Explosive bombs with a persistent toxic chemical agents� charge
24. 	Ground explosion
	A chemical bomb can be used with small charges to reduce the dispersion of a persistent 
liquid chemical charge. Thus, substantial dangers lie contaminated spots, drops, and soil.

	The sound and shrapnel effects may be far less than the bombs or chemical bombs with a 
non persistent toxic chemical agent and that are of the same caliber.
25. 	Air explosion
	The charge must be very small and the explosion at a very low altitude to prevent it from 
becoming volatile drops.
Base ejection shells
26. 	This type of shells is considered one of the best methods to spread toxic chemical agents 
to targets in the shape of drops or air sprays. The shell may be launched over the target or 
when hitting the ground. The explosion�s altitude resembles that of smoke bombs or 
similar bombs . Air explosions are distinctive because they are very weak and may be 
clearly distinctive from very explosive bombs. The launched liquids may be seen a few 
seconds after the explosion. One bomb may affect the area in the shape of  a feather (leaf) 
that is tens of meters wide (towards the wind) and hundreds of meters long. The toxic 
chemical agent will spread or shatter in them to the highest level of contamination where 
they reach about one to two grams for each square meter (1 or 2 gm / m2). The 
morphology of the ammunition will be high due to the inaccuracy in firing that is caused 
by the wind effects.
27. 	Carrier shells
	A carrier shell may be used to launch fireworks or aerosols generators that fall on the 
ground after launching the charge. A large part of it is not lost after being buried. It is 
unnecessary to make the generators charges limited to volatile toxic chemical agents since 
almost any type of toxic chemical agents may be used. 
28. 	Mortars would have been considered very effective weapons for firing  chemical weapons 
if it were not for their limited range. A bomb carries more that the artillery shell (10% of 
the charge). Their low speed when they hit a target reduces the risk of losing the toxic 
chemical agent in and around the bomb�s hole.

29. 	The main characteristics of mortars are the continuous and quick speed, high mobility that 
allows  launching local and severe chemical attacks. These attacks may be mainly against 
people. However, they can be used to contaminate the ground especially vital paths . 
Mortar ammunition may be loaded with any type of toxic chemical agents.
30. 	Explosion by clashing with mortar bombs (chemical) is not unlikely. However, due to the 
slow primary speed of the mortar bomb and its high generator (almost vertical), an air 
explosion is more practical. Therefore, mortars may be more responsive than artillery to 
spread the drops or the detergents and give way to various chemical attacks.
Multiple missile launcher
31. 	Free fall missiles are distinctive from other ammunition of the same caliber. When using 
multiple missiles, a wide area can be contaminated immediately. Due to the wide area hit 
by missiles, they are considered the weapons for targeting an area that may reach 1000 m2 
for the large amounts. When using this weapon also, the shape and size of the area are 
different since they depend on the range. It is usually a circle in the main ranges. Missiles 
may be loaded with any type of toxic chemical agents.
32. 	The percentage of the agent is more than that in the bombs. It is more than 15 % of the 
charge. The missile�s ranges may reach 15 kilometers. However, the fire and bustle may 
lead to losing the sudden impact that is provided by the other weapons even in the shorts 
Various weapons
Contamination vehicles
33. 	A contamination vehicle mainly contains a tank that is mounted on the body and is filled 
with persistent toxic chemical agents that are sprayed by compressed  air. The average 
load of a vehicle is enough to cause severe contamination to a lot of land 300 meters long 
and 15 meters wide. This method is distinctive since the agent is launched whenever or 
wherever needed provided that it is possible to secure these delicate vehicles in the 
appropriate time and place. Helicopters such hovercrafts may also be used for this task 

Chemical mines
34. 	Chemical mines may come in many shapes and types. A launched mine may throw a 
considerable amount of liquid (toxic chemical agent liquid) in the air. This may hinder the 
usual decontamination process of a mine field to a large extent because it contaminates the 
ground. Mines can also be used like containers of toxic chemical agents� liquids. They are 
equipped with small charges that are controlled by electricity or safety fuse. Such mines 
are usually used in sabotage operations, bridges, and the evacuation process. Such mines 
may range between specially designed mines that contain 20 to 25 liters and simple 
containers such as cans.
35. 	One of the most important characteristics of a chemical mine is the local and severe 
contamination effect that leads to extreme danger when continuously persistent. 
Appendix (2) lays out a description of the chemical mines
Direct fire weapons
36. 	Shots that shatter on the target (destructive bombs)
	When attacking solid targets such as tanks, charges that are loaded with a liquid agent are 
fired. When they hit the target, they shatter and cause severe contamination from the 
vapors and drops of the toxic chemical agents. Such charges (they may be light weapon 
charges) are very effective against targets that do not have protective methods (Air filters) 
or when sudden impact can be achieved.
37. 	(Piercing) Explosive bombs 
	The blast that is necessary to explode any bomb of a chemical type may carry fumes of a 
toxic chemical agent and liquids spots through the cracks of the solid target that is 
resistant to ordinary ammunition. The most important advantage of these weapons is 
they may have considerable effects of the bombs that slightly misses the target. It is also 
possible for some penetration of the toxic chemical agent to occur against sites that are 
equipped with air pressure methods. Any type of artillery, rifles, or missile launchers 
may be used that can carry out this type of attack.

38. 	Piercing shells
	15 to 25 mm piercing charges may be used to penetrate light armors that contain a small 
amount (up to 5cm3) of the toxic chemical agent. This amount can give the lethal dose in a 
closed area such as the tank.
39. 	Hand grenades and short range bombs
	Lethal toxic chemical agents do not have charges that are appropriate for small and short 
range shells. However, incapacitating toxic chemical weapons have appropriate charges 
such as Chloracetophenone and CS. These methods are usually used for training purposes 
and to control riots.

Appendix (1): Weapons that are available in the United Kingdom to spread toxic chemical agents.
Appendix (2): Description of chemical mines.

Weapons that are available in the United Kingdom to spread toxic chemical agents
										Appendix  (1) 
										of Annex C

Type of toxic chemical agents

Longest range
with chemical ammunition
in Kilometers
Number of launches
that may be fired
with precision during 
15 seconds

Blister Agents
Nerve agents

Non persistent

  105 mm mortar
150 mm artillery
155 mm artillery
175 mm artillery
8 Knot artillery
� [] John� missile
Sergeant missile
120 mm tank
81 mm mortar
One gallon chemical mine
250 pound aircraft  bomb
750 pound aircraft  bomb
Aircraft spray  (from two canisters) 


											Appendix (2)
											of Annex C
Chemical mines
General view of their use
1. 	The purpose of using chemical mines that are filled with persistent  nerve agents or blister 
agents is to prevent the enemy from using certain territories, delay the process of opening 
holes (paths) in minefields, and inflict casualties on the forces that cross the mine areas. 
Chemical mines may consist of chemical fields only or mix with mine fields against tanks, 
people, or both. Minefields become then chemically mixed.
Chemical minefields
2. 	They may be used to contaminate vital locations where bridges and sabotage operations 
are underway. The explosion of chemical minefield must be fully or partially organized 
once the enemy is or about to enter the field area. In order to keep the contamination 
effect, it must be reinforced sometimes such as using the chemical ammunition through the 
3. 	The responsibility of blowing up the minefield should be assigned to the commander who 
is responsible for protecting the field. When the wind direction is from the field towards 
our troops, precautions must be taken to warn our troops to take protective measures 
from toxic chemical agents vapors that blow with the wind.
Minefields that are injected with chemical mines
4. 	In such fields, chemical mines are mixed with other types. The (chemical/regular) 
percentage of the mines depends on the movement of the enemy. Using regular mines 
reduces the speed of the troops that cross the area. This leads to increasing the time the 
troops were exposed to contamination with toxic chemical agents and to increase the 
possibility of contamination. Adding chemical mines to regular fields leads to complicating 
the process of opening holes (paths) where troops who open holes are forced to wear 
individual protective clothing.
Description of a chemical mine (theory)
5. 	The description of a chemical mine is a theory only for the purpose of study and 

 	However, it is the description of a real chemical mine.
6. 	The concept of operating a chemical mine (about 5 liters) is when it is affected by either 
pushing or pulling a field wire, the container jumps about (3) three meters high due to the  
effect of a bullet from the exterior (it resembles the English antipersonnel mine, grade -2). 
It leads to contaminating individuals, equipment, and vehicles that exist in the explosion 
area. The mine that explodes with pressure for a small distance should be under ground to 
decrease the possibility of exploding due to other explosions (mines, artillery bombs)
7. 	The description of the mine may be as follows:
	a. 	Weight
		Empty:					4 kilograms
		Filled with 5 liters of persistent nerve agents:	8.5
		Filled with 5 liters of blister agents:		10 kilograms
	b. 	Range
		Maximum half a diameter:		 	200 mm
		Maximum altitude:				200 mm
8. 	Density
	a. 	Minefields infected with chemical mines
		Mines are planted at a distance of 35 meters for all directions so that they lead to 
contaminating each field. Such a contamination is considered sufficient to  
guarantee the objectives that were mentioned for such a field.
	b. 	Chemical minefield
		Mines are planted 25 meters apart for all directions



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