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File: 950825_53000176_91r.txt
Page: 91r
Total Pages: 1


Filename:53000176.91r
Subject: HYDROGEN SULFIDE


[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]




TEXT: 1.  HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S), KNOWN AS "SOUR GAS" DUE TO
ITS ROTTEN EGGS SMELL, IS A HIGHLY TOXIC NATURAL COMPONENT OF 
CRUDE
OIL WHICH MUST BE REMOVED IN THE REFINING PROCESS. THE
CONCENTRATION OF H2S DETERMINES THE RELATIVE SWEETNESS OF CRUDE
OIL. THE KUWAITI FIELDS YIELD CRUDE OIL RICH IN THIS FLAMMABLE,
HEAVIER-THAN-AIR GAS. H2S IS EXPLOSIVE IN AIR AT CONCENTRATIONS
BETWEEN 4 AND 45 PERCENT. TOXIC AT CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE 10 PARTS
PER MILLION, H2S GIVES LITTLE WARNING SINCE OLFACTORY SENSORS ARE
IMMEDIATELY DESENSITIZED AT LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS. PERSONNEL NOT
PROTECTED BY POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING DEVICES ARE RAPIDLY
OVERCOME. H2S IS INTENTIONALLY BURNED OFF DURING PROCESSING OF THE
CRUDE OIL. THIS GAS POSES A SIGNIFICANT THREAT TO AMPHIBIOUS AND
OTHER FORCES OPERATING IN THE VICINITY OF OIL FIELDS AND
PETROCHEMICAL FACILITIES IN THE KUWAITI THEATER OF OPERATIONS 
(KTO).
2.  H2S THREAT IN THE KTO. THE CONCENTRATION OF H2S IN
KUWAITI OIL AT THE WELL AND CRUDE OIL STORAGE AND TRANSFER SYSTEMS
IS AS HIGH AS 25 PERCENT BY VOLUME. THE STANDARD WELLHEAD USES
5-INCH CASINGS AND WELL TUBING 9.75 INCHES IN DIAMETER WITH THE
ESCAPE PRESSURE AT THE HEAD OF 2500 PSIA WHICH, WHEN UNCAPPED,
PRODUCES A GEYSER UP TO 45 METERS (M), ALLOWING TIME FOR 
SIGNIFICANT
OFF-GASSING OF THE OIL TO THE ATMOSPHERE. AN UNCAPPED WELL HAS THE
POTENTIAL TO PRODUCE LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF H2S AT SURFACE 
RANGES
OF OVER 1000 M DOWNWIND AND 100 M UPWIND. [      (b)(1) sec 
1.3(a)(4)    ]--THIS
FACT IS VERY LIKELY WELL KNOWN TO THE IRAQI MILITARY AND CAN
THEREFORE BE A VERY POTENT WEAPON.) CRUDE OIL TRANSFER, REFINING,
AND STORAGE FACILITIES COULD ALSO PRESENT HAZARDS IF THE IRAQI
MILITARY SABOTAGES THESE FACILITIES FOR H2S RELEASE. APPROX
FIFTY-KM LONG PIPELINES RUN FROM THE FIELDS TO THE STORAGE AND
REFINING AREAS USING 10-INCH AND 12-INCH PIPE. TWO OTHER PIPELINES
(20 INCH AND 12 INCH) CARRY CRUDE OIL OFFSHORE TO LOADING
FACILITIES. THE CHEMICAL WARFARE PROTECTION NORMALLY ISSUED TO [  
    (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]
MILITARY PERSONNEL IS NOT DESIGNED TO COUNTER H2S AND PROVIDES NO
PROTECTION AGAINST LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF H2S OR ANHYDROUS
AMMONIA.
3.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES. PETROLEUM INDUSTRY EXPERTS
RECOMMEND THE FOLLOWING ACTIONS IN ORDER TO COUNTER THE THREAT OF
H2S GAS [      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] IN THE VICINITY OF 
PETROLEUM
PRODUCTION AND STORAGE FACILITIES IN THE KTO:
- PERSONNEL OPERATING NEAR SUCH FACILITIES SHOULD BE MADE AWARE OF
THE SIGNIFICANT THREAT POSED BY H2S GAS AND THAT THEIR CW
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT PROVIDES NO PROTECTION AGAINST LETHAL
CONCENTRATIONS OF H2S OR ANHYDROUS AMMONIA GASES.
- PERSONNEL SHOULD NOT APPROACH UNCAPPED WELLS CLOSER THAN ONE KM
DOWNWIND AND 100 M UPWIND. UNCAPPED WELLS AND RUPTURED PRESSURE
VESSELS SHOULD BE IGNITED IMMEDIATELY WHEN DISCOVERED, USING ANY
DEVICE HOTTER THAN 500 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT, PROVIDED ALL PERSONNEL
ARE WELL OUTSIDE OF THE VAPOR CLOUD. WITHIN SUCH A CLOUD, ALL
PERSONNEL SHOULD EXIT AT ONCE THROUGH THE UPWIND QUARTER.
- PERSONNEL SHOULD BLOW UP ANY PRESSURE VESSEL (SPHERICAL TANKS 
AND
"HOT DOG" SHAPED TANKS) PRIOR TO ENTERING AN AREA.
- COALITION FORCES SHOULD OBTAIN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE EQUIPMENT
WHICH HAS THE CAPABILITY TO DETECT TOXIC GASES AND COUNTER THEIR
EFFECTS.
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] THAT THE QUANTITIES OF H2S AND
ANHYDROUS AMMONIA GASES ARE SO GREAT THAT THEY ARE FAR MORE OF A
THREAT THAN MILITARY CW. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THEY COULD BE USED AS
TIME BOMBS TO GO OFF DAYS AFTER THE IRAQI TROOPS LEAVE THE AREA. 
IT
IS ALSO POSSIBLE THAT UNINFORMED COALITION PERSONNEL COULD 
INCREASE
THEIR OWN DANGER BY PUTTING OUT A FRIENDLY FIRE MEANT TO BURN OFF
TOXIC GASES.)
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]







#4501


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