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File: 950825_53270053_91r.txt
Page: 91r
Total Pages: 1


Filename:53270053.91r
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]

Subject: Chemical Weapons in Iraq
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]



TEXT: 1.  BACKGROUND. DURING THE LATE 1970R, IRAQ
CONTRACTED WITH FOREIGN FIRMS FOR A SERIES OF COORDINATED PROJECTS
TO DEVELOP ITS NORTHWESTERN AREA, APPROX 200 STATUTE MILES FROM
BAGHDAD. THIS DEVELOPMENT WAS TO INCLUDE A CHEMICAL COMPLEX TO BE
BUILT AT AL-QA'IM//GEOCOORD: 3421N/04107E//. [      (b)(1) sec 
1.3(a)(4)    ]




2.  CONTRACTORS TO BUILD THE AL-QA'IM CHEMICAL COMPLEX.
THE AL-QA'IM CHEMICAL COMPLEX WAS BUILT BETWEEN 1980 AND 1983. THE
PRIME CONTRACTOR WAS "SYBETRA," A BELGIAN CONSORTIUM WHICH WAS
CREATED BY "SOCIETE GENERALE" SPECIFICALLY FOR THIS CHEMICAL
COMPLEX PROJECT. SYBETRA HEADQUARTERS WAS LOCATED AT 187-189
CHAUSSEE DE LA HULPE, B-1000, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM. [      (b)(1) sec 
1.3(a)(4)    ]
SOCIETE GENERALE IS A LARGE BELGIAN CONGLOMERATE WHICH CONTROLS A
LARGE PERCENTAGE OF BELGIAN INSURANCE, BANKING, AND INDUSTRY.)
THE SYBETRA CONSORTIUM INCLUDED A BRITISH ENGINEERING COMPANY 
NAMED
"DAVY MCKEE." DAVY MCKEE HAD OFFICES IN LONDON, PARIS, PITTSBURG,
AND CALIFORNIA. THE LONDON OFFICE WORKED ON THIS IRAQI PROJECT.
THE MAJOR SUBCONTRACTORS FOR THIS CONSORTIUM INCLUDED, BUT WERE 
NOT
LIMITED TO, "F. L. SCHMIDTH" OF COPENHAGEN, "COPPEE COMPANY" OF
BELGIUM, "PEABODY COMPANY" OF THE U.K., AND AN U/I YUGOSLAV
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. F. L. SCHMIDTH PROVIDED ROTARY LIME KILNS,
EACH 12-14 INCHES IN DIAMETER, TO BURN OFF IMPURITIES DURING THE
CHEMICAL PROCESS AT THE COMPLEX. COPPEE CO. DESIGNED THE SULPHURIC
ACID UNIT FOR THE COMPLEX. PEABODY CO. PROVIDED AIR POLLUTION
CONTROL SCRUBBERS FOR THE STACKS. A U.S. COMPANY DESIGNED THE
AMMONIA PLANT FOR THE COMPLEX. THE U/I YUGOSLAV CONSTRUCTION
COMPANY BUILT THE BUILDINGS AT THE COMPLEX. [      (b)(1) sec 
1.3(a)(4)    ]

 SYBETRA LOST A GREAT DEAL OF
MONEY ON THIS PROJECT, DUE TO LONG CONSTRUCTION DELAYS. SYBETRA
PERSONNEL WORKED AT THE SITE OF THE COMPLEX UNTIL 1988. [      
(b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] THE JOURNAL "MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC
DIGEST" WHICH HAD PUBLISHED MANY ARTICLES ABOUT THE COMPLEX AND
THE CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH IT. A SEPARATE FACILITY, APPROX
40-50 MILES SOUTHEAST OF THE COMPLEX, WAS BUILT SEPARATELY BY
EITHER A FRENCH OR GERMAN FIRM. [      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]


3.  PRIME CONTRACTOR FOR DUPLICATE CHEMICAL COMPLEX.
IN 1989 IRAQ DECIDED TO BUILD A DUPLICATE CHEMICAL COMPLEX AT THE
SAME SITE AS THE ORIGINAL COMPLEX. THIS CONSTITUTED AN EXPANSION
PROJECT. SYBETRA WAS REPLACED BY "KLOECKNER I.N.A.," A GERMAN 
FIRM,
TO PERFORM AS THE PRIME CONTRACTOR. THIS CHANGE OF PRIME 
CONTRACTOR
WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY IRAQ'S PURCHASE OF ALL DRAWINGS DURING THE
CONSTRUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL COMPLEX. WITH ALL THE DRAWINGS, IRAQ
WAS ABLE TO SOLICIT A DIFFERENT PRIME CONTRACTOR AND PROVIDE IT 
WITH
DRAWINGS, THUS OBVIATING ANY LENGTHY AND EXPENSIVE REDESIGN 
EFFORT.
KLOECKNER I.N.A. LEARNED FROM SYBETRA'S FINANCIAL LOSSES AND,
THEREFORE, EXTRACTED A LARGE CASH DOWN-PAYMENT FROM IRAQ, RATHER
THAN EMPLOY LETTERS OF CREDIT, AS WELL AS CONTRACTUAL TERMS FOR
PROGRESS PAYMENTS OVER THE COURSE OF THE PROJECT. WORK STOPPED ON
THIS DUPLICATE COMPLEX IN 1990 BECAUSE OF A LACK OF PROGRESS
PAYMENTS AND THE RECENT U.N. EMBARGOES AGAINST IRAQ.
4.  CONTRACT FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY. IRAQ HAD
A DIRECT CONTRACT WITH A BELGIAN FIRM, "BARON AND LEVEQUE," TO
BUILD A URANIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY AT THE COMPLEX. THIS CONTRACT
WAS SEPARATE FROM THE CONSORTIUM CONTRACT. THIS FACILITY WAS
BUILT AT THE ORIGINAL COMPLEX, BUT WAS NOT INTENDED TO BE 
DUPLICATED
AT THE DUPLICATE COMPLEX.
5.  CHEMICAL PROCESSES.
5.A. URANIUM EXTRACTION. THE SEPARATELY-CONTRACTED URANIUM
EXTRACTION FACILITY AT THE CHEMICAL COMPLEX SEGREGATED "YELLOW
CAKE" FROM PHOSPHATE ROCK, THE FIRST STEP IN URANIUM EXTRACTION.
RUMOR HAD IT THAT THE YELLOW CAKE WOULD BE FURTHER PROCESSED FOR
PURIFICATION BY PAKISTAN. [    b.2.    ] THE PRESENCE OF THIS 
FACILITY
CAUSED CONCERN FOR THE SAFETY OF WORKERS, BOTH BECAUSE OF INTERNAL
RADIATION AND BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL THREAT OF ISRAELI AIR 
RAIDS.
5.B. FERTILIZER PRODUCTION. THE CHEMICAL COMPLEX RECOVERED 
PHOSPHATE
FROM MINERAL LIME WHICH WAS FOUND IN A LIMESTONE LAYER AT
AQASHAT//CNA//, IRAQ, SOUTH OF AL-QA'IM. SOVIET GEOLOGISTS HAD
DISCOVERED THE LIMESTONE LAYER AT THIS AQASHAT SITE. THIS 
LIMESTONE
LAYER HAD A 20 PERCENT PHOSPHATE CONTENT, WHICH IS CONSIDERED GOOD
BY CHEMISTS. THE COMPLEX WORKED ON IMPROVING THIS PERCENTAGE UP TO
30 PERCENT VIA ITS PHOSPHATE BENEFICIATION UNIT. [      (b)(1) sec 
1.3(a)(4)    ]

THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF THE CHEMICAL PROCESSES:
- THE FIRST STEP IN THE PROCESS WAS THE BURNING OFF OF IMPURITIES 
IN
THE LIME VIA THE ROTARY KILNS;
- SECOND, A BATTERY OF HYDROCYCLONES SPLIT PARTICLES INTO GROUPS 
TO
ISOLATE P205;
- THIRD, SULPHURIC ACID, H2S04, WAS MIXED WITH THE P205 TO PRODUCE
H3P04;
- FOURTH, POTASH AND AMMONIA WERE ADDED TO MAKE STANDARD
NITROGEN/POTASIUM FERTILIZERS, KNOWN AS NPK AND NK.
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] SURMISED THAT THE SEPARATE 
FACILITY 4
0-50 MILES SOUTHEAST OF THE COMPLEX PRODUCED CHEMICAL WEAPONS.
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]THE COMPLEX PRODUCED SOME OF THE 
INGREDIENTS
OF MUSTARD GAS SUCH AS PHOSGENE, A POISONOUS, COLORLESS, VOLATILE
CHEMICAL WARFARE COMPOUND WHICH COULD HAVE BEEN SENT TO THE 
SEPARATE
FACILITY FOR CHEMICAL WEAPONS PRODUCTION.
6.  NATIONALITIES. MANAGEMENT AT THE COMPLEX WAS IN THE
HANDS OF IRAQIS. ASIDE FROM FOREIGN NATIONALS EMPLOYED BY THE
CONSORTIUM, THE COMPLEX EMPLOYED MANY CHINESE FROM THE P.R.C.,
ESPECIALLY IN THE LABS. THEIR LABOR WAS COMPENSATED IN
CONTRACTUALLY-ARRANGED QUANTITIES OF FERTILIZER WHICH WAS TO BE
SHIPPED TO THE P.R.C. ALSO, MANY BANGLADESHI WORKERS WERE
EMPLOYED AT THE COMPLEX, GENERALLY IN LESS-SKILLED POSITIONS.
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]






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