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File: 950825_53310021_91r.txt
Page: 91r
Total Pages: 1


Filename:53310021.91r
SUBJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]











 1. (U) BACKGROUND. SCORPION STINGS ARE MORE FREQUENTLY
SEEN THAN SNAKE BITES IN SAUDI ARABIA. THE SPECIES DANGEROUS TO
HUMANS ARE FROM THE BUTHIDAE GROUP.
2. (U) A SAUDI ARABIAN STUDY WAS CONDUCTED ON TWO HUNDRED NINE
PATIENTS IN ONE CALENDAR YEAR. THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS WERE 
RECORDED
AMONG THE FIFTY-SIX CASES SEVERE ENOUGH TO REQUIRE INTENSIVE CARE:
HYPERTENSION, NINETY-TWO PERCENT; TACHYCARDIA (ELEVATED PULSE),
NINETY-TWO PERCENT; IRRITABILITY, EIGHTY-NINE PERCENT; PUPIL
CONTRACTION, SEVENTY-FIVE PERCENT; PENILE ERECTION, SIXTY-SEVEN
PERCENT; VASODILATION, FORTY-EIGHT PERCENT; VOMITING, FORTY-EIGHT
PERCENT; DIARRHEA, THIRTY-SEVEN PERCENT; CONVULSIONS, TWENTY-SIX
PERCENT; SWEATING, TWENTY-ONE PERCENT; AND INCOHERENT SPEECH,
TWENTY-THREE PERCENT. IN THIS SAME STUDY, MORTALITY RATES FOR THE
AGE GROUP OF ONE TO FIVE YEARS WAS TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT; SIX TO TEN
YEARS, EIGHTEEN PERCENT, AND NO MORTALITY WAS RECORDED FOR THE 
GROUP
OVER ELEVEN YEARS.
3. (U) ONE VENOM ANTISERUM USED IN SAUDI ARABIA IS PREPARED BY
((LISTER INSTITUTE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE)) IN ELSTREE,
HERTSFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND. THIS ANTISERUM IS EFFECTIVE AGAINST
LEIURUS QUINQUESTRITUS AND ANDROCTONUS CRASSICAUDA. BARBITURATES
(PHENOBARBITAL) IN LARGE DOSES ARE OFTEN USED ON IRRITABLE OR
RESTLESS INDIVIDUALS. OTHER SUPPORTIVE MEASURES INCLUDE
DEXOMETHASONE AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE.
4. (U) CHARACTERISTICS OF SCORPION SPECIES INCLUDE:
ADULT VENOM
SPECIES COLOR LENGTH PINCERS TAIL GLAND
LEIURUS
QUINQUESTRITUS YELLOW 8CM THIN/LONG THIN/LONG LARGE
ANDROCTONUS
CRASSICAUDER BLACK 12CM THIN/LONG THICK/LONG SMALL
BUTHOTUS JUDAICUS BLACK 10CM THIN/LONG THIN/LONG LARGE
SCORPIO MAURUS LT BRN 6CM THICK/SHORT THIN/SHORT SMALL
[      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ]







#2094


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