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IIR 6 824 0002 94/DETECTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS BY 

Filename:68240002.94
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                        SECTION 01 OF 04 


 
SERIAL:  (U) IIR 6 824 0002 94. 
 
 
/*********** THIS IS A COMBINED MESSAGE ************/ 
COUNTRY:  (U) CZECH REPUBLIC (EZ). 
SUBJ:  IIR 6 824 0002 94/DETECTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS BY 
CZECHOSLOVAK UNIT DURING DESERT STORM, PART II (U) 
 
WARNING:  (U) THIS IS AN INFORMATION REPORT, NOT FINALLY 
EVALUATED INTELLIGENCE.  [   (b)(2)   ]

 
/-------------------------------------------------------- 
                  DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
/-------------------------------------------------------- 
 
DOI:  (U) 931001. 
 
REQS:  (U) [   (b)(2)   ]
 
SOURCE:  (U)  OFFICIAL MINISTRY OF DEFENSE REPORT, IN 
CZECH, CONSIDERED RELIABLE. 
 
SUMMARY:  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]



TEXT:  1.  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]





 
2.  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]
 
THE CZECHOSLOVAK CHEMICAL DEFENSE UNIT IN THE PERSIAN 
GULF AND FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION CONCERNING 
POSSIBLE USE OF COMBAT TOXIC AGENTS 
 
     A 169-MAN UNIT OF CZECHOSLOVAK MILITARY SPECIALISTS 
WAS SENT TO THE GULF AS A RESULT OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CZECH AND SLOVAK FEDERAL REPUBLIC 
AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA ON THE 
ACTIVITY AND TERMS OF DEPLOYMENT OF CZECHOSLOVAK MILITARY 
SPECIALISTS WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA.  THIS 
AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED IN PRAGUE ON 19 NOVEMBER 1990 AND 
FINALIZED IN RIYADH ON 22 NOVEMBER 1990.  THE FEDERAL 
ASSEMBLY OF THE CSFR RATIFIED THE TREATY.  THE 
RATIFICATION RESOLUTION, NUMBER 97, INCLUDED A CLAUSE 
WHEREBY THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY EMPOWERED THE GOVERNMENT OF 
THE CSFR TO APPROVE, PER ARTICLE V OF THE AGREEMENT, THE 
DECISION TO CROSS THE INTERNATIONAL BORDER BETWEEN THE 
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA AND KUWAIT.  THE GOVERNMENT GAVE 
THIS APPROVAL WITH ITS PROCLAMATION NUMBER 71 OF 31 
JANUARY 1991. 
 
     ON 22 DECEMBER, BY OPERATIONAL ORDER OF THE KINGDOM 
OF SAUDI ARABIA MINISTRY OF DEFENSE'S NORTHERN ZONE 
COMMANDER, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE IV OF THE 
AGREEMENT, THE UNIT WAS ASSIGNED TO THE NORTHERN ZONE. 
ON 1 JANUARY 1991, TWO CHEMICAL DEFENSE DETACHMENTS WERE 
ATTACHED TO THE 4TH AND 20TH BRIGADES OF THE SAUDI 
ARABIAN ARMED FORCES.  THE REMAINDER OF THE UNIT WAS 
POSITIONED AT A BASE CAMP AND ASSIGNED TO THE STAFF. 
 
     SAUDI ARABIA EXERCISED COMPLETE AUTHORITY OVER THE 
DEPLOYMENT AND STRATEGIC CONTROL OF THE UNIT.  DECISIONS 
CONCERNING SPECIFIC MEANS OF MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT WERE 
MADE BY THE UNIT COMMANDER, LTC JAN ((VALO)), WHO WAS 
RESPONSIBLE FOR ENSURING THAT EXECUTION OF THE UNIT'S 
MISSIONS DID NOT VIOLATE  CZECHOSLOVAK LEGAL REGULATIONS 
OR THE BASIC TENETS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. 
 
     ON 27 JANUARY 1991, THE TWO CHEMICAL DEFENSE 
DETACHMENTS ASSIGNED TO THE SAUDI BRIGADES CROSSED THE 
BORDER INTO KUWAIT.  THEY PARTICIPATED ACTIVELY IN 
PROVIDING CHEMICAL DEFENSE SUPPORT TO ALLIED ELEMENTS 
DURING EXECUTION OF THE OPERATIONAL PLAN.  ON 5 FEBRUARY 
1991, THE UNIT WAS AUGMENTED TO A STRENGTH OF 198 
PERSONNEL. . 
 
     THE CZECHOSLOVAK CHEMICAL DEFENSE UNIT PRIMARILY 
CONDUCTED THE FOLLOWING MISSIONS: 
 
     1.  CHEMICAL DEFENSE SUPPORT FOR THE HEADQUARTERS OF 
THE NORTHERN ZONE AND FOR TROOPS STATIONED WITHIN THE 
PERIMETER OF KING KHALID MILITARY CITY; 
 
     2.  CHEMICAL DEFENSE SUPPORT FOR THE S 
AUDI ARABIAN 
4TH AND 20TH BRIGADES; 
     3.  IN CASE OF CHEMICAL ATTACK, ESTABLISHMENT OF A 
DECONTAMINATION SITE FOR AFFECTED PERSONNEL. 
 
     PART OF THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE SUPPORT WAS ALSO THE 
CONTINUOUS CONDUCT OF CHEMICAL MONITORING FOR TIMELY 
DETECTION OF THE USE OF TOXIC AGENTS, THUS PROVIDING A 
BASIS FOR TROOP ALERTS AND COMMANDERS' DECISIONS. 
 
     DURING THE PERIOD FOLLOWING COMMENCEMENT OF COMBAT 
OPERATIONS BY ALLIED FORCES (FROM 0400 HOURS ON 17 
JANUARY 1991), AIRBORNE DUST CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC 
AGENTS WERE DETECTED BY OUR CHEMICAL MONITORING.  THE 
CHEMICAL DEFENSE BATTALION COMMANDER'S ACTIVITY REPORT 
COVERING THE PERIOD FROM 1 JANUARY 1991 TO 28 FEBRUARY 
1991 CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: 
 
     "DURING THE PERIOD IN QUESTION, TOXIC DUST 
CONCENTRATIONS OF YPERITE AND SARIN CHEMICAL AGENTS WERE 
DETECTED SEVERAL TIMES AROUND THE BRIGADES, AS WELL AS IN 
KING KHALID MILITARY CITY (I.E., WITHIN THE MILITARY 
ENCAMPMENT IN WHICH THE UNIT IS BILLETED), PROBABLY AS A 
RESULT OF ALLIED AIR STRIKES AGAINST CHEMICAL MUNITIONS 
DEPOTS IN IRAQ."  THIS INFORMATION WAS PUBLICIZED IN THE 
CZECHOSLOVAK MEDIA AT THE TIME. 
 
     THE AFOREMENTIONED FACT IS CONFIRMED BY MEMBERS OF 
THE BATTALION -- CHEMICAL DEFENSE SPECIALISTS WHO 
EVALUATED THE SITUATION AND CARRIED OUT DEFENSIVE 
MEASURES.  A CHEMICAL ALARM WAS IMMEDIATELY ISSUED (SEE 
ENCLOSURE NUMBER 1, A PAGE FROM THE LOG OF THE 
CZECHOSLOVAK ARMED FORCES GENERAL STAFF OPERATIONS GROUP 
IN PRAGUE, ENTRY 56), AND INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE GEAR WAS 
DONNED.  THE ALL-CLEAR SIGNAL WAS GIVEN APPROXIMATELY TWO 
HOURS LATER, AFTER REPEATED TEST SAMPLINGS YIELDED A 
NEGATIVE RESULT. 
 
     THE DETECTED CONCENTRATIONS (PLACED AT 0.002 GRAMS 
OF YPERITE PER CUBIC METER AND 0.003 MILLIGRAMS PER LITER 
OF AN UNSPECIFIED TOXIC AGENT) ARE AT THE LIMIT OF THE 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE (THRESHOLD) CONCENTRATIONS FOR HUMAN 
LIFE.  HOWEVER, THESE WERE ABSOLUTELY ISOLATED POSITIVE 
RESULTS OF CHEMICAL MONITORING, WHICH WERE NOT CONFIRMED 
BY ANY OF THE OTHER COALITION NATIONS (AS INDICATED BY 
THE STATEMENT FROM 30 JANUARY 1991 THAT, "THE 
CZECHOSLOVAK UNIT HAS NOT DETECTED ANY CHEMICAL AGENTS 
SINCE 19 JANUARY."  SEE ENCLOSURE NUMBER 2, A PAGE FROM 
THE LOG OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK ARMED FORCES GENERAL STAFF 
OPERATIONS GROUP IN PRAGUE, ENTRY 91). 
 
     THE CZECHOSLOVAK CHEMICAL DEFENSE UNIT HAD AVAILABLE 
TO IT ALL OBTAINABLE MODERN MEANS OF CHEMICAL MONITORING. 
THIS CHEMICAL DEFENSE EQUIPMENT IS CAPABLE OF DETECTING 
THRESHOLD SENSITIVITIES (LEVELS NOT INTERFERING WITH 
NORMAL HUMAN ACTIVITY) OF THE ANTICIPATED TOXIC AGENTS, 
AND IT ENABLES DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SARIN NERVE AGENT 
AND V-TYPE AGENTS (NOTE: POTENTIALLY DELAYED-EFFECT 
PERSISTENT NERVE AGENTS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN SARIN). 
 
     THE ASSERTION THAT THIS CONCERNS A TRULY LOW 
CONCENTRATION NOT CAUSING ANY -- EVEN MINOR TEMPORARY -- 
CHANGES IN THE HUMAN BODY CAN BE SUPPORTED BY THE 
FOLLOWING ARGUMENTS: 
 
     1.  THE RESULTS OF OUR OWN CHEMICAL MONITORING; 
 
     2.  NO SIGNS OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC AGENTS WERE 
DETECTED AMONG PERSONNEL AT THE SCENE (TOXIC NERVE 
AGENTS, OF WHICH THE AFOREMENTIONED SARIN IS ONE, CAUSE 
AN IMMEDIATE REACTION, SUCH AS MIOSIS.  THE FIRST 
CLINICAL SIGNS OF YPERITE TOXICATION EXHIBIT THEMSELVES 4 
TO 6 HOURS AFTER CONTAMINATION.); 
 
     3.  NONE OF THE PARTICIPANTS SUFFERED FROM 
SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS. 
     IN ADDITION, THERE IS THE UNDISMISSIBLE FACT THAT 
ALL OF THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE SPECIALISTS WERE CAREER 
SOLDIERS (A TOTAL OF 56 OF THEM DURING THE CONFLICT). 
ALL ARE GRADUATES OF MILITARY POST-SECONDARY AND 
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE BRANCH, AND IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION, THEY WORKED 
WITH HIGHLY TOXIC AGENTS IN THE LABORATORY, AS WELL AS AT 
CHEMICAL DEFENSE TRAINING FACILITIES.  THE TRAINING OF 
CHEMICAL DEFENSE SPECIALISTS USING SELECTED TYPES OF 
TOXIC AGENTS (OL-4 SET) (NOTE:  "OL" STANDS FOR "TOXIC 
AGENTS")) TOOK PLACE FROM THE TIME OF THE CREATION OF 
THE 
CHEMICAL DEFENSE CORPS IN 1950 UNTIL FEBRUARY OF 1990, 
WHEN IT WAS HALTED AS A RESULT OF THE COMPLAINTS OF 
ECOLOGICAL GROUPS AND TOWN MAYORS CONCERNING ALLEGED 
DAMAGE TO THE ENVIRONMENT. 
     THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE SPECIALISTS WHO UNDERWENT THIS 
TRAINING ARE PROFESSIONALS AND ARE CAPABLE OF DETECTING 
THE PRESENCE OF KNOWN TOXIC AGENTS ON THE GROUND, ON 
VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT, AND IN THE AIR, WITHIN THE 
SENSITIVITY LIMITS OF THE DEVICES USED.  IT IS THEREFORE 
HIGHLY LIKELY THAT THE DETECTION OF THE PRESENCE OF TOXIC 
AGENTS IS OBJECTIVE.  THE CONCENTRATIONS WHICH WERE 
TRAINED WITH AT CHEMICAL TRAINING FACILITIES AND IN 
LABORATORIES WERE ALSO SEVERAL TIMES HIGHER THAN THE 
CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED IN THE PERSIAN GULF. 
 
     IT IS FUNDAMENTALLY AND WIDELY DEMONSTRATED THAT NO 
COMBAT USAGE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS BY IRAQ OCCURRED, AND 
ANY SUCH OCCURRENCE WOULD ALREADY HAVE BECOME THE SUBJECT 
OF AN EXTENSIVE INVESTIGATION BY INTERNATIONAL PEACE 
ORGANIZATIONS.  THE MEASURED DATA CAN BE JUDGED TO HAVE 
RESULTED FROM AN INDUSTRIAL FACILITY OR A CHEMICAL 
MUNITIONS DEPOT BEING STRUCK DURING ALLIED BOMBING.  THIS 
IS CONFIRMED BY THE REPORT OF THE UNIT COMMANDER AND THE 
STATEMENTS OF DIRECT PARTICIPANTS.  ALL MEMBERS OF THE 
UNIT WERE EQUIPPED WITH THE MOST MODERN INDIVIDUAL 
CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE GEAR, WHICH FULLY MEETS THE CURRENT 
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD.  ANY CONTAMINATION BY THESE TYPES 
OF TOXIC AGENTS WOULD MANIFEST ITSELF IMMEDIATELY, OR IN 
A VERY SHORT TIME, AND THIS WAS NOT REPORTED.  LATENT 
DAMAGE, IF IT CAN BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT AT ALL WITH THIS 
GROUP OF AGENTS, WOULD ALMOST CERTAINLY HAVE BEEN 
DISCOVERED DURING FINAL MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS. 
 
      ON THE BASIS OF THE FOREGOING FACTS, IT CAN BE 
CONCLUDED THAT THE EVENT IN QUESTION CAN IN NO WAY BE 
CONNECTED WITH THE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS -- MEANING 
THEIR EMPLOYMENT IN COMBAT OPERATIONS -- AND THAT NO HARM 
TO PERSONNEL OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK CHEMICAL DEFENSE UNIT 
COULD HAVE OCCURRED AS A RESULT OF THE EFFECTS OF COMBAT 
TOXIC AGENTS.  (NOTE:  THIS PARAGRAPH UNDERSCORED) 
 
     THESE CONCLUSIONS ARE CONFIRMED BY MEDICAL SERVICE 
SPECIALISTS AS WELL.  NEITHER AT THE TIME OF THE 
DETECTION OF TOXIC AGENTS, NOR SUBSEQUENTLY, DID ANY 
MEMBER OF THE UNIT SEEK MEDICAL TREATMENT IN CONNECTION 
WITH THIS INCIDENT.  AFTER RETURNING FROM THE PERSIAN 
GULF, ALL MEMBERS OF THE UNIT UNDERWENT COMPLETE PHYSICAL 
EXAMINATIONS AT MILITARY HOSPITALS, PRIMARILY AT THE 
CENTRAL MILITARY HOSPITAL IN PRAGUE.  HERE AS WELL, NO 
SERIOUS CHANGES CAUSED BY DIFFICULT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 
OR TOXIC AGENT CONTAMINATION WERE DETECTED. 
 
     A NUMBER OF THOSE PARTICIPATING IN OPERATIONS IN THE 
PERSIAN GULF LATER TOOK PART, OR ARE STILL TAKING PART, 
IN THE OPERATIONS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARMED FORCES' 
UNIT IN YUGOSLAVIA.  EVEN AT THE TIME OF THEIR 
DEPLOYMENT, NO ONE CAME FORWARD WITH ANY HEALTH PROBLEMS. 
 
     DESPITE THIS, AS OF 31 AUGUST 1993, MILITARY 
PHYSICIANS HAVE EXAMINED 18 PERSIAN GULF VETERANS WHO 
HAVE EXPERIENCED SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS, AND THREE OF 
THEM ARE STILL UNDER MEDICAL OBSERVATION.  THUS FAR, 
NOTHING HAS BEEN DISCOVERED AMONG THEM WHICH DEVIATES 
FROM "NORMAL" PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH SIMILAR LONG-TERM 
OVERSEAS TOURS. 
 
LOG ENTRIES CITED IN TEXT, AS WELL AS ONE NOT CITED, 
FOLLOW: 
 
1.  ENCLOSURE 1, ENTRY 56: 
 
TIME:  19 JANUARY, 1810 TO 1850 HOURS 
 
FROM:  K-800 
 
TO:  OPERATIONS GROUP 
 
RECEIVED BY:  COL (ILLEGIBLE) 
MESSAGE:  1045 HOURS (0845 HOURS CENTRAL EUROPEAN TIME), 
CHEMICAL ALARM ISSUED FOR KING KHALID MILITARY CITY. 
DETECTED CONCENTRATION 0.003 MILLIGRAMS PER LITER. 
NEGATIVE DETECTION 1350 HOURS (1150 HOURS CENTRAL 
EUROPEAN TIME).  (2-3 ILLEGIBLE WORDS). 
 
PASSED TO, ACTION TAKEN (SIGNATURE):  GEN (ILLEGIBLE) 
(182 ILLEGIBLE DIGIT HOURS) AND COL (ILLEGIBLE) GEN 
(ILLEGIBLE) (1910 HOURS) (INITIAL) 
 
2.  ENCLOSURE 2, ENTRY 91: 
 
TIME:  30 JANUARY, 1900 HOURS 
 
FROM:  COL ((KRATOCHVIL)) 
 
TO:  COL ((DIVIS)) 
 
RECEIVED BY:  COL DIVIS 
 
MESS 
AGE:  1)  THE CZECHOSLOVAK UNIT HAS NOT DETECTED ANY 
CHEMICAL AGENTS SINCE 19 JANUARY. 
          2)  (REQUEST FOR PARTS) 
          3)  (ILLEGIBLE) 
 
PASSED TO, ACTION TAKEN (SIGNATURE):  (PARTS REQUEST) 
PASSED TO ((SPICAK)) ON 31 JANUARY 
 
3.  ENCLOSURE 1, ENTRY 50: 
 
TIME:  19 JANUARY, 1230 HOURS 
 
FROM:  COL VALO 
 
TO:  NSZV (EXPANSION UNKNOWN) 
 
RECEIVED BY:  COL (ILLEGIBLE) FROM THE NSZV AT 1430 HOURS 
 
MESSAGE:  TWO FIRST-ECHELON CHEMICAL DEFENSE DETACHMENTS 
ARE ASSEMBLED IN THE REAR AREA OF THE 20TH BRIGADE OF THE 
SAUDI ARMED FORCES.  A CHEMICAL ATTACK FROM THE IRAQI 
SIDE OCCURRED ON THE FORWARD LINE OF TROOPS AT 0800 
HOURS, CENTRAL EUROPEAN TIME. 0.002 GRAMS PER CUBIC METER 
OF YPERITE MEASURED IN THE AREA OF OUR UNITS.  THE UNIT 
IS O.K. AND PREPARED TO CARRY OUT ITS MISSION.  DURING 
THE MOVEMENT OF THE SAUDI ARMED FORCES' BRIGADES, THE 
(SAUDI) UNITS WERE ACCOMPANIED ONLY BY CHEMICAL 
RECONNAISSANCE SQUADS, WITHOUT CROSSING THE SAUDI ARABIAN 
BORDER. 
 
PASSED TO, ACTION TAKEN (SIGNATURE):  (ILLEGIBLE) 1500 
HOURS 
GEN (ILLEGIBLE) GEN ((HEVERA)) (CHIEF OF THE GENERAL 
STAFF INFORMED BY NSZV) COL (INITIAL) 
 
[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]




 
2.  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]








 
//IPSP:  (U) PG 2520//. 
//COMSOBJ:  (U) 323//. 
PROJ:  (U). 
COLL:  (U). 
INSTR:  (U) US NO. 
PREP:  (U) [   (b)(2)   ]
ACQ:  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]
DISSEM:  [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]
WARNING:  (U) [   (b)(2)   ]
 



 

 



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