APPENDIX C — Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

Acronyms and Abbreviations

µg/kg micrograms per kilogram
µg/kg/day micrograms per kilogram per day
µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter
ACh acetylcholine
AChE acetylcholinesterase enzyme
ADM Atmospheric Dispersion Model
ADP Automatic Data Processing System (of NCEP)
ADPIC Atmospheric Dispersion by Particle-in-Cell
AdjGPL Adjusted General Population Limit
AEGL acute exposure guideline level
AEGLo occupational AEGL
AIREPS aircraft reports
ASP Ammunition Supply Point
AVN aviation
BuChE Butyrylcholinesterase
C4 Compound 4 (an explosive)
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CFL Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy
ChE cholinesterase
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
cm centimeters
cm/s centimeters per second
CNS central nervous system
COAMPS Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System
Ct concentration (C), multiplied by the exposure time (t)
D dosage
DA Department of the Army
DAMS Department of the Army Medical Services
DDA Dynamic Data Assimilation
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
DHS Directorate for Deployment Health Support of the Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments
DMDC Defense Manpower Data Center
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DPG Dugway Proving Ground
DSWA Defense Special Weapons Agency
DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency
DoD Department of Defense
ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting
ECt50 50 percent effective Ct
ED50 50 percent effective dose
EEG electroencephalograph
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ERDEC Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center
FDDA four-dimensional data assimilation
FNE first noticeable effect(s)
FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center
ft feet
g/kg grams per kilogram


GDAS Global Data Assimilation System
GF cyclosarin
GOI Global Optical Interpolation
GPL general population limit
GPS Global Positioning System
ICt50 50 percent incapacitation Ct
IDA Institute for Defense Analyses
HPAC/SCIPUFF Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability/Second Order Closure, Integrated Puff
K Kelvin
kg kilogram
km kilometers
l/min liters per minute
LCt50 50 percent lethal Ct
LD50 50 percent lethal dose
LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
LOAEL lowest observed adverse effects level
m meters
m/s meters per second
MAE mean absolute error
MATHEW Mass-Adjusted Three-Dimensional Wind Field
mb millibars
MCSST Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperatures
ME mean error
mg/cm2 milligrams per square centimeter
mg/kg milligrams per kilogram
mg/kg/day milligrams per kilogram per day
mg/m3 milligrams (of material) per cubic meter (of air)
mg-min/m3 milligrams per cubic meter times time (in minutes)
ml/l milliliters per liter
MM5 Mesoscale Model, Version 5
MRF Medium-Range Forecast
MSC maximum safe concentration
MVOI multivariate optimum interpolation
NAC/AEGLHS National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCEP National Center for Environmental Prediction
ng/kg nanograms per kilogram
NNW north-northwest
NO3 nitrate radical
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOAEL no observed adverse effects level
NOGAPS Naval Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System
NRC National Research Council
NRL Naval Research Laboratory
NSC National Security Council
NSWC Naval Surface Warfare Center
NTE Neurotoxic esterase
NUSSE4 Non-Uniform Simple Surface Evaporation, Version 4
NWP numerical weather prediction
OASD(PA) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs)
OATSDNCB Office of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs
OH hydroxyl radical
OMEGA Operational Multi-scale Environmental Model with Grid Adaptivity
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
OP organophosphate
OPIDN organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy
PAC Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses
PBL planetary boundary layer
PDF probability distribution function
PEP primate equilibrium platform
PG Pasquill-Gifford (stability class)
PIBAL pilot balloon observation
QC quality control
Ra aerodynamic resistance
Rb resistance to the molecular diffussion through the laminar sublayer
Rc bulk surface resistance
RAGE Radiative Adaptive Grid Experiment
RBC red blood cell
RBC-ChE red blood cell cholinesterase
RfC reference concentration
RfD reference dose
RfDi inhalation reference dose
RMSE root mean square error
s/m seconds per meter
SSE south-southeast
SST sea surface temperatures
SPOT Satellite Pour l’Observation de Terre
STEL short-term exposure limit
t0 initial time
TEP triethyl phosphate
TKE turbulence kinetic energy
TLV threshold limit values
TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere
TWA time-weighted average
UIC Unit Identification Code
UNSCOM United Nations Special Commission on Iraq
USACHPPM US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine
USAF US Air Force
USASCURR US Armed Services Center for Unit Records Research
US Army ERDEC US Army Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center
USGS US Geodetic Survey
UTC universal time (coordinated)
Vd deposition velocity
VLSTRACK Chemical/Biological Agent Vapor, Liquid, and Solid Tracking
WMO World Meteorological Organization

worker (occupational) population limit

WSW west-southwest



Acetylcholine (ACh)

A neurotransmitter serving as a cholinergic agonist at myoneural junctions of striated muscles, at autonomic effector cells innervated by parasympathetic nerves, at the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems’ preganglionic synapses,and at various central nervous system sites.


An enzyme required for proper nerve and muscle function; it hydrolyzes ACh and thereby allows further transmission of impulses at the neurohumoral junctions.

Acute (exposure)

Exposures that are usually single incidents of relatively short duration - one minute to one day. (Romano et al., 2001)

Agent Plume

The pathway a toxic material (e.g., an agent such as sarin) follows as it moves from its origin.


Marked deviation from the normal standard, especially as a result of congenital defects.


A total lack of oxygen; also, a reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues.


An agent that prevents or relieves convulsions.


Failure of muscular coordination; irregularity of muscular action.


An anticholinergic used as a smooth muscle relaxant to relieve tremors and rigidity due to Parkinsonism, to increase heart rate, and as an antidote; an ACh antagonist.


Any group of minor tranquilizers having a common effect such as anti-anxiety, muscle relaxing, sedative, and hypnotic effects; used as an anticonvulsant in opintoxication.


Slowness of heartbeat, evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate to fewer than 60 beats per minute.


Abnormal slowness of breathing.


Any cancer-producing substance.


A general diagnostic term designating primary myocardial disease.


An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of acylcholine and water and acts on a variety of choline esters.

Corpus lutea

A yellow glandular mass in the ovary formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum; secretes progesterone.

Chronic (exposure)

Exposures that involve frequent doses at relatively low levels over time ranging from months to years. (Romano et al., 2001)

Cyclosarin (GF)

An acutely toxic, relatively nonpersistent nerve agent similar to sarin (GB); considered a potential threat agent.

Chemical name: cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate
(DA, 1990)

Data Assimilation

The combining of diverse data, possibly sampled at different times and intervals and different locations, into a unified and consistent description of a physical system, such as the state of the atmosphere. (AMS, 2000)


Processes by which traces, gases, or particles are transferred from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth.

Atmospheric deposition is usually divided into two categories, wet deposition and dry deposition, depending on the phase of the material during the deposition process. Thus, in wet deposition, the gas or particle is first incorporated into a droplet and is then transferred to the surface via precipitation. In dry deposition, the gas or particle is transported to ground level, where it is adsorbed onto a surface. The surface can be the ocean, soil, vegetation, buildings, etc. Note that the surface involved in the dry deposition may be wet or dry; the "dry" in dry deposition refers only to the phase of the material being deposited. (AMS, 2000)

Deposition velocity

In dry deposition, the quotient of the flux of a particular species to the surface (in units of concentration per unit area per unit time) and the concentration of the species at a specified reference height, typically 1 meter.

Typical deposition velocities for common gas phase pollutants (e.g., ozone, nitric acid) are on the order of 0.01-5 cm/s. (AMS, 2000)


A benzodiazepene administered as a sedative or muscle relaxant to produce anesthesia, as an anticonvulsant, and in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms and delirium tremens.


One of the elements found in peripheral blood; also called the red blood cell.


A small contraction of muscles, visible through the skin.

First Noticeable Effects

This is the dose expected to cause watery eyes, runny nose, tightness of chest, muscle twitching, sweating, and headache. Increasingly higher dosages would produce vision impairment, incapacitation, and death. (Dosage is a cumulative exposure. It is the concentration of a chemical warfare agent to which an individual is exposed over a specific period of time.)
(CIA and DoD, 1997)


In the field of atmospheric turbulence and boundary layers, often used as a contraction for flux density; namely, the flow of a quantity per unit area per unit time. These fluxes can be defined in two forms: dynamic and kinematic. The dynamic flux of a quantity is the flow of that quantity per unit area per unit time, where often the word dynamic is assumed if it is not explicitly stated. The advantage of a kinematic flux is that it has units that are more easily measured by a conventional meteorological instrument. (AMS, 2000)

G-series nerve agents

G-series nerve agents are lethal chemical warfare agents that work by inhibiting the proper functioning of the cholinesterase enzymes needed for the transmission of nerve impulses throughout the body. These agents affect the functioning of all bodily systems, including the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, and muscles. The G-series nerve agents include tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF). The normal sequence of symptoms is a running nose, tightness of the chest, dimness of vision and pinpointing of the eye pupils, difficulty breathing, drooling and excessive sweating, nausea, vomiting, cramps, involuntary defecation and urination, twitching, jerking and staggering, headache, confusion, drowsiness, and coma. Cessation of breathing and death follow. (DA, 1990)

General Circulation

In its broadest sense, the complete statistical description of large scale atmospheric motions. (Also called planetary circulation.)

These statistics are generated from the ensemble of daily data and include not only the temporal and spatial mean flows (e.g. zonal westerlies and easterlies) but also all other mean properties of the atmosphere that are linked to these flows (e.g., semipermanent waves and meridional cells) that together form the general circulation. The general circulation also includes higher-order statistics that measure the spatial and temporal variability of the atmosphere necessary to understand the large-scale temporal and spatial mean state of the atmosphere (e.g., seasonal changes and the effects of transient cyclones). (AMS, 2000)

General Circulation Model (GCM)

A time-dependent numerical model of the atmosphere.

The governing equations are the conservation laws of physics expressed in finite-difference form, spectral form, or finite-element form. Evolution of the model circulation is computed by time integration of those equations starting from an initial condition. The GCM can be used for weather prediction or for climate studies. (AMS, 2000)

General Population Limit (GPL)

The GPL represents the limit at or below which any member of the general population could be exposed (e.g., inhale) seven days a week, every week, for a lifetime, without experiencing any adverse health effects. Since the potential nerve agent exposure releases at Khamisiyah would result in exposures for a brief period, in modeling our potential hazard area we used a short-term exposure limit, recommended by the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, (USACHPPM, 1999) and based on the lifetime GPL.


Damaging to DNA; pertaining to agents known to damage DNA, thereby causing mutations or cancer.


A cell of the liver.

Hydrofluoric acid

A term applied to aqueous solutions of hydrogen fluoride, HF, an extremely poisonous, corrosive acid, a by-product of the hydrolysis of sarin.


Reduction of oxygen supply to tissue below physiological level.

Isopropyl methylphosphonic acid

A by-product of the hydrolysis of sarin.


The secretion and discharge of tears.


The lowest concentration of a substance in air, other than LCt50, which has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals. The reported concentrations may be experienced for exposures which are less than 24 hours (acute) or greater than 24 hours (subacute and chronic). (DHHS, 1979)


A calculated concentration of a substance in air, exposure [through inhalation] to which for a specified length of time is expected to cause the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental animal population. (DHHS, 1979)


A calculated dose of a substance which is expected to cause the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental animal population. It is determined from the exposure to the substance by any route, other than inhalation, of a significant number from that population. (DHHS, 1979)


The lowest dose (other than LD50) of a substance introduced by any route, other than inhalation, over any given period of time in one or more divided portions and reported to have caused death in humans or animals. (DHHS, 1979)

M8A1 chemical alarm

The M8A1 is an automatic chemical agent detection and warning system designed to detect the presence of nerve agent vapors or inhalable aerosols. The M8A1 will automatically signal the presence of the nerve agent in the air with both an audible and visual warning. The US military fielded the M8A1 to replace the wet chemical M8 detector, which eliminated the M229 refill kit, the logistic burden, and associated costs. The M8A1 operates in a fixed, portable, or vehicle mounted configuration. (Brletich et al., 1995)


An organophosphorous compound used as an insecticide.


Pertaining to atmospheric phenomena having horizontal scales ranging from a few to several hundred kilometers, including thunderstorms, squall lines, fronts, precipitation bands in tropical and extratropical cyclones, and topographically generated weather systems such as mountain waves and sea and land breezes. (AMS, 2000)

Mesoscale Model

A model designed to simulate mesoscale atmospheric phenomena.

Such models can include analytic solutions of a set of simplified equations governing atmospheric motion, scale models of particular geographic regions, and numerical integrations, including numerical weather prediction models that can resolve mesoscale circulations. (AMS, 2000)


The passage of urine; urination.


Contraction of the pupil, also known as pinpoint pupils.


Denoting the effects of muscarine or acetylcholine at muscarinic cholinergic receptors; effect on cholinergic receptors stimulated by the alkaloid muscarine and blocked by atropine; the stimulation occurs on automatic effector cells and central neurons in the thalamus and cerebral cortex; symptoms include effects on eyes, exocrine glands, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, cardiovascular system, and bladder.


Inducing genetic mutation.


The sum of the morphological changes indicating cell death; caused by enzymes’ progressive degrading action.

Neurotoxic esterase (NTE)

A subclass of enzymes poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue by catalyzing the hydrolysis of an ester into its alcohol and acid.


The quality of exerting a destructive or poisonous effect on nerve tissue.


Denoting the effects of nicotine, including pallor, tachycardia, hypotension, muscle fasciculation, twitching, cramps, generalized weakness in peripheral and respiratory muscles, ataxia, generalized motor activity, flaccid or rigid tone, and paralysis.


Painful sensation from neuron stimulation or injury.

Organophosphate (OP)

Phosphate esterified to organic compounds, such as ethanol or cyclohexanol; can be a powerful acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; adjective is "organophosphorus."

Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN)

A specific syndrome caused by exposure to organophosphates with potential subtle, delayed effects on behavior, psychological state, memory and cognition, and electroencephalographs (EEGs).


A compound capable of reactivating cholinesterase from its complex with organophosphates.


Paleness; absence of skin coloration.


The representation, in a dynamic model, of physical effects in terms of admittedly oversimplified parameters, rather than realistically requiring such effects to be consequences of the dynamics of the system. (AMS, 2000)


An organophosphorus insecticide metabolic product of parathion in humans.


An organophosphorus agricultural insecticide highly toxic to humans and animals.


The action of drugs in the body over a period of time.

Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL)

The bottom layer of the troposphere that is in contact with the surface of the earth.

It is often turbulent and is capped by a statically stable layer of air or temperature inversion. The PBL depth (i.e., the inversion height) is variable in time and space, ranging from tens of meters in strongly statically stable situations, to several kilometers in convective conditions over deserts. During fair weather over land, the PBL has a marked diurnal cycle. During daytime, a mixed layer of vigorous turbulence grows in depth, capped by a statically stable entrainment zone of intermittent turbulence. Near sunset, turbulence decays, leaving a residual layer in place of the mixed layer. During nighttime, the bottom of the residual layer is transformed into a statically stable boundary layer by contact with the radiatively cooled surface. Cumulus and stratocumulus clouds can form within the top portion of a humid PBL, while fog can form at the bottom of a stable boundary layer. The bottom 10% of the PBL is called the surface layer. (AMS, 2000)


A cholinergic compound used to treat myasthenia gravis and as an antidote for muscle relaxants.


The free discharge of thin nasal mucous.


The secretion of saliva.

Sarin (GB)

An acutely toxic, relatively nonpersistent, volatile nerve agent; GB Type I contains diisopropylcarboniimide as a stabilizer, GB Type II contains tributylamine.

Chemical name: isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate
(DA, 1990)

Single-fiber electromyography

The recording and study of the skeletal muscle’s intrinsic electrical properties; useful for studying several aspects of neuromuscular function and conduction, extent of nerve lesion, reflex responses, etc.

Soman (GD)

One of several acutely toxic nerve agents.

Chemical name: Pinacolyl methyl phosphonofluoridate
(DA, 1990)

Source Term

The composite of the characteristics of a chemical warfare agent release required by dispersion and transport models as input parameters such as number of rockets, their locations at time of detonation, the duration of the demolition process, quantity of agent released from the munitions, vertical distribution of agent release (height of agent cloud), purity of the agent, and processes for agent removal. (IDA, 1997)

Subacute (exposure)

Exposures that are less than one month. (Romano et al., 2001)


Having either no clinical manifestations or very mild symptoms.

Subchronic (exposure)

Exposures that usually last from one to three months. (Romano et al., 2001)


A military nerve gas prepared from dimethylamidophosphoryl chloride and sodium cyanide.

Chemical name: Ethyl N, N-dimethylphosphoroamidocyanidate
(DA, 1990)


Excessive rapidity in heart action; applies to a heart rate faster than 100 beats per minute.


The lowest concentration of a substance in air to which humans or animals have been exposed [through inhalation] for any given period of time produced any toxic effect in humans or carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, or teratogenic effect in animals or humans. (DHHS, 1979)


The lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route, other than inhalation, over any given period of time, and reported to produce any toxic effect in humans or carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, or teratogenic effects in animals or humans. (DHHS, 1979)


The production of physical defects in offspring in utero, i.e., causing birth defects.


(Adversely) affecting the trachea.

Uncertainty factor (UF)

A parameter not entirely defined or known, usually involved in development of risk.

Universal Time (UT) (Coordinated) (UTC)

The basis for civil timekeeping.

It is formally defined by a mathematical formula which relates UT to Greenwich mean sidereal time. Depending on the context, universal time and UT are commonly used to mean 1) UT0, which is dependent on the observer's location; 2) UT1, which removes the effect of the motion of the geographic pole; or 3) coordinated universal time (UTC). Since 1 January 1972, weather services have used UTC as the standard of time. (AMS, 2000)


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