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File: 950825_80211112.txt
Page: 80211112
Total Pages: 6


Filename:80211112
PATHFINDER RECORD NUMBER: 11112
GENDATE:         950622
NNNN
TEXT:            
ENVELOPE CDSN = LGX103 MCN = 90342/07448 TOR = 903420335
PTTSZYUW RUEKJCS0147 3420337-    --RUEALGX.
ZNY 
HEADER P 080337Z DEC 90
FM JOINT STAFF WASHINGTON DC
INFO RUEALGX/SAFE
P 071600Z DEC 90 ZEX
FM DIRAFMIC FT DETRICK MD //AFMIC IS//
TO RULYSCC/RULYSCC/BLT THREE SLANT EIGHT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/33TFW DEPLOYED //IN//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/354TACHOSP DEPLOYED //SG//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/435TAW DEPLOYED //SG//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MAG THIRTEEN FWD //S2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MAG SIXTEEN (REAR) //S2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MAG TWO FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MAG TWO SIX //S2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MAG THREE ONE //S2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CG SIXTH MEB //G4/MED//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CG EIGHTH MEB
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/FIRST MEDBN FIRST FSSG
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CG I MEF (RCAR) //G2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CG I MEF (FWD) //SURG//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/TWO EIGHT MEU
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MSSG TWO FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/3D SRI GRP III MEF
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMCARAIRWING THIRTEEN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMCRUDESGRU TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMCRUDESGRU FIVE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMCRUDESGRU TWELVE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON SIX
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON TEN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON FOURTEEN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON TWO TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON TWO FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON TWO SIX
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON THREE TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMDESRON THREE SIX
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMEODGRU TWO //N8//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMIDEASTFOR //N4//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMINERON TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMNAVSPECWARGRU TWO //MED//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMNAVSURFGRU MED
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBRON TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBRON FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBRON SIX
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBRON EIGHT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBRON TEN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBRON TWELVE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHIBGRU TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMPHVRON TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMSECONDFLT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMSERVGRU TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMSERVRON TWO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMSERVRON FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMSERVRON EIIHT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMSOCLANT //J2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMUSMARCENT //SURG//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMUSNAVCENT //N4//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/COMUSNAVLOGSUPFOR //N4/N9//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CJTF FOUR //J2//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CTF ONE SIX ZERO //AFZBKM B//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CTG ONE SIX EIGHT //NIC.03//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CTG ONE SIX EIGHT PT ONE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/FLEET HOSPITAL FIVE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/FLTSURGTEAM ONE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CG FMFLANT //MED//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/NAVSPECWARUNIT EIGHT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/NAVSUPPFAC ANTIGUA
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/PATRON NINETEEN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/PATRON FIVE ZERO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/SECOND FORECONCO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/SECOND MAFC
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/SEAL TEAM FOUR
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/SEAL TEAM SIX
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/SOCCENT (FWD) //SURG//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/XVIIIABNCORPS (FWD) //SURG//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MEDTREFAC COMFORT //N4//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/MEDTREFAC MERCY //N4//
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USNS COMFORT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS ABRAHAM LINCOLN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS AMERICA
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS CAPODANNO
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS CARL VINSON
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS CORAL SEA
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS DWIGHT D EISENHOWER
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS ENTERPRISE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS FORRESTAL
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS INDEPENDENCE
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS JOHN HANCOCK
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS JOHN F KENNEDY
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS KITTY HAWK
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS NIMITZ
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS RANGER
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS SAIPAN
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS SARATOGA
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS SYLVANIA
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT
RULYSCC/RULYSCC/USS VINCENNES
RULYSCC/HQ USCENTCOM DEPLOYED RIYADH SA //J2/SG//
RULYSCC/HQ CENTAF DEPLOYED RIYADH SA //SG//
RULYSCC/USARCENT DEPLOYED RIYADH SA //MD//
RULYSCC/CDR7THTRANSGP DHAHRAN SA //AFFG C-S2//
RUCLEUA/CDRUSASC FT RUCKER AL //CSSC-ZM//
RUEBMDA/CDR6THINFDIV(L) FT WAINWRIGHT AK //APVR SG//
RUCIWMA/CDRTACOM WARREN MI //AMSTA-SF//
RUEOHNA/CTOCSE XVIIIABNCORPS FT BRAGG NC
RUCLBFA/CDRIII CORPS FT HOOD TX //AFZF GS-CMD//
RUWTATA/CDR807THMEDBDE SEAGOVILLE TX //AFKB-GC CT-HS//
RUKGNPA/EODTEU TWO FT STORY VA //03//
RUKGNPA/CDR11THTRANSBN FT STORY VA //AFFG-I S2//
RUEHEY/USDAO CAIRO EG
RUFLBJA/CDRJLD VICENZA IT
RUCLBFA/CDR1STCAVDIV FT HOOD TX //G2/CM&D//
RHIBHAQ/CMO XVIIIABNCORPS (FWD)
RHIBHAE/CDR24THINFDIV (FWD) //CM&D/G2//
RUFLENX/CMO 82DABNDIV (FWD)
RHIBHAR/CDR101STABNDIV AASLT (FWD) //CM&D/G2//
RHIIMAA/VMA THREE ONE ONE //S2//
AIG 6623
AIG 12630
INFO RULYSCC/RULYSCC/CTF SIX THREE
[    b.2.    ]

DET 2 322ALD DHAHRN SA
PM SANG RIYADH SA //AMCPM-NGH//
OL H DET 2 322ALD JEDDAH SA
TCC FT DETRICK MD
BT
CONTROLS
SECTION 001 OF 002

/*********** THIS IS A COMBINED MESSAGE ************/
BODY SUBJ: SPECIAL WEEKLY WIRE 48-90B
1. (U) THIS SPECIAL WIRE IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE CLARIFICATION AND
FURTHER DISSEMINATION OF MEDICAL INTELLIGENCE ON A SUBJECT OF 
CURRENT
INTEREST. CLINICAL REVIEW HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY THE AFMIC [    b.6. 
   ]

2. (U) TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. DESERT SHIELD HYDROGEN SULFIDE INTOXICATION MIMICS CHEMICAL
WARFARE (CW) AGENT SYMPTOMS (U)
B WORLDWIDE: TERRORIST AND CLANDESTINE BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BU)
THREAT (U)
3.        INTELLIGENCE FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS (U)
A.     DESERT SHIELD: HYDROGEN SULFIDE INTOXICATION MIMICS
CHEMICAL WARFARE (CW) AGENT SYMPTOMS (U)
    LARGE AMOUNTS OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) GAS ARE PRODUCED BY 
WEST KUWAITI OIL ("SOUR CRUDE") AND NATURAL GAS WITH HIGH 
SULFUR/OIL RATIOS. THE H2S BUBBLES OFF OIL ESCAPING FROM THE DEEP, 
HIGH.PRESSURE WELLS IN THIS AREA. IN ADDITION, AS A DEFENSIVE 
OPERATION IN KUWAIT, IRAQ REPORTEDLY MAY FLOOD THE GROUND OR FILL 
TRENCHES WITH THIS HIGH SULFUR PETROLEUM.
COMMENT (U) H2S GAS, WHICH IS HEAVIER THAN AMBIENT AIR, IS A
RECOGNIZED HAZARD IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY. IT IS A HIGHLY TOXIC'
COLORLESS GAS THAT PRODUCES SYMPTOMS WHICH AT RELATIVELY HIGH
CONCENTRATIONS MIMIC CW AGENTS SUCH AS THE CYANIDE BLOOD AGENTS.
BEGINNING AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 20 TO 30 PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) 
H2S
GAS IS EASILY IDENTIFIED BY ITS DISTINCTIVE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS.
HOWCVER. AT CONCENTRATIONS AROUND 100 TO 150 PPM, IT PRODUCES A 
RAPID PARALYSIS OF THE OLFACTORY NERVE ENDINGS THAT INHIBITS 
DETECTION.
(U) THE DEGREE AND SEVERITY OF H2S INTOXICATION ARE DETERMINED BY 
THE CONCENTRATION AND DURATION OF EXPOSURE. H2S IS RAPIDLY 
DETOXIFIED IN THE BODY, AND THE SYMPTOMS MOST COMMONLY SEEN AT LOW 
TO MODERATE CONCENTRATIONS (UP TO 300 PPM) FROM LOCAL TISSUE 
IRRITATION DEVELOP SLOWLY AND PROGRESS TO SYSTEMIC INTOXICATION 
OVER A PERIOD OF HOURS. THE LOCAL TISSUE SYMPTOMS OF 
KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS. TEARING, PHOTOPHOBIA, VISUAL "COLORED 
HALOS," TRACHEOBRONCHITIS, AND PROFUSE SALIVATION MAY NOT BE SEEN 
AT HIGH CONCENTRATIONS. SYSTEMIC TOXICITY (VOMITING, TACHYPNEA, 
TACHYCARDIA, AND MUSCLE CRAMPS) IS MANIFESTED WITHIN 30 MINUTES AT 
CONCENTRATIONS BETWEEN 500 PPM AND 700 PPM. AT H2S CONCENTRATIONS 
ABOVE 700 PPM, ABRUPT CARDIORESPIRITORY ARREST OCCURS. A FEW 
BREATHS OF H2S AT 1'000 PPM CAN LEAD TO SUDDEN COLLAPSE, 
UNCONSCIOUSNESS, AND DEATH FROM RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS
WITHOUT EVEN A WARNING CRY.
(U) BECAUSE THE DISTINCTIVE ODOR IS APPARENT ONLY AT LOW TO 
MODERATE VAPOR CONCENTRATIONS DONNING OF A READILY AVAILABLE 
PROTECTIVE CHEMICAL MASK WILL REDUCE THE DEGREE OF INTOXICATION. 
TROOPS SUDDENLY EXPOSED TO CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE 400 PPM MAY NOT 
DETECT THE ODOR OF H2S, WHICH COULD RESULT IN LETHAL INTOXICATIONS 
THAT MIMIC CW AGENT INTOXICATIONS. A LIKELY SCENARIO WOULD BE 
REMOVAL OF THE PROTECTIVE CHEMICAL MASK IN AN H2S AREA AND LEAVING 
IT OFF WHEN NO ODOR IS DETECTED. THE RAPID ONSET OF DIZZINESS, 
CONFUSION, HEADACHE, NAUSEA, AND WEAKNESS MAY PREVENT AN 
INDIVIDUAL FROM DONNING THE PROTECTIVE MASK BEFORE LAPSING INTO 
COMA. AT INTENSE AND SUSTAINED EXPOSURES, CASUALTIES RAPIDLY 
BECOME APNEIC AND EXHIBIT ANOXIC CONVULSIONS. DEATH RESULTS FROM 
CENTRAL RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS. FOR MILD EXPOSURES IN WHICH 
INDIVIDUALS ARE STILL BREATHING, PROMPT AID IN APPLYING THE 
CHEMICAL MASK AND REMOVING THC VICTIM FROM THE AREA INTO FRESH AIR 
OR
APPLYING OXYGEN (FIELD MANUAL 8-285) SHOULD RESULT IN COMPLETE
RECOVERY IN THE LONG TERM. SIGNIFICANT EXPOSURES INVOLVING
RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS ARE BEST TREATED WITH ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
AND ADMINISTRATION OF SODIUM NITRITE VIA THE INTRAVENOUS ROUTE TO
INDUCE METHEMOGLOBINEMIA. METHEMOGLOBIN WILL BIND THE SULFIDE IONS
AND LIMIT THEIR INFLUENCE UPON CELLULAR ENZYMES. SUBSEQUENT
ADMINISTRATION OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE IS OF LITTLE ADDITIONAL 
VALUE.
SULFHEMOGLOBIN IS NOT OF SIGNIFICANCE IN H2S INTOXICATION. 
MORBIDITY FROM BOTH BRAIN STEM AND CORTICAL PATHOLOGIC SEQUELAE 
SUCH AS AMNESIA, NEURASTHENIA TREMOR, AND PROBLEMS WITH 
EQUILIBRIUM USUALLY PERSISTS FOR SOME TIME.
(U) RULING OUT THE POSSIBILITY OF ACTUAL CW AGENT ATTACK, IN THE
ABSENCE OF ANY OBVIOUS MILITARY ACTION, CAN BE FACILITATED BY 
NOTING THE PRESENCE OF OIL WELLS OR SOUR CRUDE ON THE GROUND OR IN 
TRENCHES, AND RAPID REVIVAL OF THE CASUALTY AFTER RECEIVING FRESH 
AIR OR HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF STORED OXYGEN.
(U) THIS MESSAGE HAS BEEN COORDINATED WITH THE OFFICE OF THE ARMY
SURGEON GENERAL. SPECIAL CLINICAL REVIEW AND CONTRIBUTIONS WERE
PROVIDED BY THE AFMIC SURGEON [   (b)(6)   ],  FOR U.S. MEDICAL 
TREATMENT ISSUES, POC IS [   (b)(6)   ]. FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE 
ON CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT, POC IS[   
(b)(6)   ], AFMIC S&TI, (ANALYST -[   (b)(6)   ]

B.        WORLDWIDE: TERRORIST AND CLANDESTINE BIOLOGICAL WARFARE
(BW) THREAT (U)
       THE PRESENCE OF A HEAVY U.S. TROOP CONCENTRATION IN THE 
MIDDLE EAST HAS RESULTED IN A THREAT OF WIDESPREAD TERRORIST OR 
COVERT ATTACK AGAINST U.S. AND ALLIED TARGETS. SUCH ACTION MIGHT 
BE
UNDERTAKEN BY CLANDESTINE IRAQI MILITARY UNITS, BY STATE-SPONSORED
TERRORIST GROUPS, OR BY SMALL GROUPS OF INDEPENDENT OR INDIVIDUAL
TERRORISTS SINCE SEVERAL MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES, INCLUDING IRAQ,
HAVE BW PROGRAMS, A HEIGHTENED PROBABILITY EXISTS FOR BW AGENT USE 
IN COVERT ATTACKS AGAINST CIVILIAN OR MILITARY TARGETS IN THE NEAR
FUTURE.
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[   (b)(6)   ]










 



 

 



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