Case Narrative

Chemical Warfare Agent Release at Muhammadiyat Ammunition Storage Site

Final Report

April 4, 2002

Many veterans of the Gulf War have expressed concern that their unexplained illnesses may have resulted from their experiences in that war. In response to veterans’ concerns, the Department of Defense established a task force in June 1995 to investigate incidents and circumstances relating to possible causes. The Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses took over responsibility for these investigations on November 12, 1996. Effective April 5, 2001, the Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments assumed continued responsibility for Gulf War issues.

Case narratives are reports of what the Department of Defense knows today about specific events that took place during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm of 1990 and 1991. This case narrative focuses on events that occurred during the war at Muhammadiyat Ammunition Storage Site in Iraq. The Department published the original case narrative on March 22, 2001. After publication, the Office of the Special Assistant sent letters and made follow-up phone calls to a small number of soldiers and airmen who possibly were exposed to nerve agent from the bombing of Muhammadiyat Ammunition Storage Site. This is a final report because no new information has been received to change the findings and assessments of the narrative. As always, if you believe you have information that may change this case narrative, please call:


William Winkenwerder, Jr., MD
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) and
Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness)
for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments
US Department of Defense

2002004-0000007 Ver 2.0






A. Background
1. Pre-Campaign Considerations
2. Description of the Muhammadiyat Site
B. Air Campaign Against Muhammadiyat
C. Bomb Damage Assessment
D. Chemical Weapons Found at Muhammadiyat After the War
E. Iraq’s Chemical Weapon Declarations
F. Current Estimate of Weapons Damaged or Destroyed at Muhammadiyat
1. DB-2 Bombs
2. Mustard-filled 250-gauge Bombs
3. Mustard-filled 500-gauge Bombs
4. Mustard-filled 155mm Artillery Rounds
5. Other Munitions
G. Bombing Dates
H. Agent Purity
I. Percent Agent Released from Damaged or Destroyed Munitions
J. Total Agent Release
K. Source Characterization
L. Modeling the Muhammadiyat Agent Release
1. Research
2. Modeling
M. Exposure Levels
N. Modeling Results


A. Attack Planning and Assessment
B. Preserving Selected Data Supporting Combat Operations
C. Identifying Chemical Warfare Storage Sites
D. Toxicity Data
E. New Data Needed for Catastrophic Agent Releases
F. Air Strike Record-Keeping
G. Detecting Low Concentration Levels of Chemical Warfare Agents
H. Militarily Significant Dosages of Chemical Warfare Agents

TAB A – Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

TAB B – Units Involved

TAB C – Bibliography

TAB D – Methodology for Chemical Warfare Incident Investigation

TAB E – Coalition Air Attacks Against Muhammadiyat

TAB F – Methodology for Modeling a Possible Chemical Warfare Agent Release

TAB G – Determining and Modeling Nerve and Mustard Agents’ General Population Limit and First Noticeable Effects Levels

TAB H – Muhammadiyat Nerve Agent Modeling Results

TAB I – Muhammadiyat Mustard Agent Modeling Results

TAB J – Changes in this Report


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